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London, Saco-Indonesia – Akhir-akhir ini, pengguna kendaraan bermotor dihadapkan dengan bayang-bayang kenaikan harga BBM. Tidak perlu khawatir, karena irit tidaknya konsumsi bahan bakar bukan semata-mata karena faktor minyak murah, tetapi juga perlakuan terhadap kendaraan itu sendiri.

KompasOtomotif merangkum delapan nasihat yang dilansir about.com untuk pengguna sepeda motor agar konsumsi bahan bakar irit, berangkat dari sudut pandang perilaku. Berikut tipsnya:

1. Memanaskan mesin sudah jadi ritual. Tapi kebanyakan sepeda motor berteknologi injeksi sudah bisa dinaiki instan setelah dinyalakan. Jika Anda yakin performa sepeda motor tidak turun, langsung tancap lebih baik dan lebih cepat memanaskan mesin ketimbang membuang bahan bakar saat dipanaskan dalam kondisi diam.

2. Salah satu yang paling efektif, memelihara tekanan angin. Cari tekanan yang direkomendasikan yang biasa tertempel pada sepeda motor atau buku petunjuk kendaraan. Tekanan ban yang pas tak hanya menghemat bahan bakar, tetapi juga meningkatkan pengendalian.

3. Performa sepeda motor akan baik jika mesin terawat. Pahami bahwa saringan udara bersih, busi fresh, saringan bensin bebas kotoran, dan setelan bagus, sangat besar peranannya mengirit bahan bakar. Lakukan ini.

4. Fokus memelihara kecepatan konstan. Tarik tuas gas perlahan dan jangan menghentak, apalagi menggeber- geber gas. Sok-sokan ngebut padahal di depan bakal macet, hanya akan membuang bahan bakar sia- sia.

5. Berpikirlah begini: Batas kecepatan di jalan diciptakan Polisi bukan hanya untuk menertibkan, melainkan juga menghemat bahan bakar. Tarik gas memang enak, dan menimbulkan perasaan meledak-ledak karena adrenalin meningkat deras, tapi bahan bakar dijamin jauh lebih boros.

6. Bobot pasti mempengaruhi konsumsi bahan bakar. Kurangi komponen tambahan yang tidak perlu. Misalnya, boks di kanan-kiri-belakang, jika tidak ada isinya, kenapa harus dipasang untuk dipakai berangkat kerja? Pasanglah hanya kalau butuh, misalnya touring.

7. Aerodinamis itu penting. Sebisa mungkin buang peralatan yang membuat angin "menabrak" keras sepeda motor, misalnya tameng angin (windshield) yang tegak lurus. Usahakan memasang tameng angin yang aerodinamis, bila perlu posisinya tak terlalu tinggi.

8. Berkendaralah di jalan yang benar (aspal). Banyak sepeda motor kurang sabar dengan mengambil jalan tanah di sebelahnya, atau bahkan naik trotoar rusak hanya untuk menyalip dua atau tiga kendaraan lain dan mengorbankan pejalan kaki. Sia-sia, dan percayalah bahwa jalan yang tak mulus menambah konsumsi bahan bakar.

Selamat berkendara hemat, nyaman, dan aman.

Sumber: about.com/Kompas Otomotif
Editor : Maulana Lee
New Jelajahi Kompas.com Bersama Teman-Teman Facebook Anda Learn more Home | Tips N Trik Sepeda Motor ingin irit? Lakukan Ini!

saco-indonesia.com,

Apa Saja Penyebab Kanker Kulit?

Kanker kulit juga merupakan pertumbuhan sel-sel pada kulit manusia yang sudah pada taraf abnormal. Apa saja faktor penyebab kanker kulit? Sampai sekarang para peneliti juga belum dapat memastikan apa yang sebenarnya penyebab kanker kulit secara akurat. Tetapi ada beberapa hal yang sangat disarankan untuk dapat dihindari agar bisa terlepas dari yang namanya penyakit kanker kulit ini. Kanker kulit sendiri telah dibedakan berdasarkan tingkat keganasan kankernya. Oleh sebab itu selagi masih bisa sebaiknya kita harus menghindari kanker kulit dengan mempelajari faktor-faktor yang bisa dapat menimbulkan penyakit ini.

    Faktor Usia Sebagai Penyebab Kanker Kulit

Jika yang satu ini memang telah tidak bisa dihindari lagi, karena juga sudah kodrat manusia akan memasuki masa tua. Pada umur 60 tahun keatas kita akan rentan untuk diserang penyakit kanker kulit.

    Rokok dan Tembakau Penyebab Kanker Kulit

Asap yang keluar dari rokok dan dihirup oleh tubuh kita berpeluang besar sebagai dampak timbulnya kanker kulit. Bukan hanya pecandu rokok itu saja yang dapat berpeluang terjangkit penyakit ini, tetapi orang sekitar yang ikut menghirup asap rokok juga dapat berpeluang besar terkena kanker kulit.

    Sinar Matahari Penyebab Kanker Kulit

Sinar matahari memang telah mengandung vitamin yang berguna bagi kulit kita. Hal ini juga akan berbeda jika kita berbicara mengenai sinar matahari pada siang hari. Kandungan ultraviolet pada siang hari diyakini akan bisa mengakibatkan kanker kulit.

    Bahan Kimia Penyebab Kanker Kulit

Penyalahgunaan bahan kimia yang telah dimasukkan didalam makanan bisa dapat menyebabkan kanker kulit. Contohnya saja yang sering kita temukan adalah penggunaan bahan kimia sebagai pengawet makanan.

    Bakteri dan Virus Penyebab Kanker Kulit

Bakteri ataupun virus juga merupakan salah satu penyumbang terbesar timbulnya kanker kulit. Jadi disarankan untuk selalu menjaga kebersihan lingkungan dan juga kebersihan badan kita. Sering gonta ganti pasangan berpeluang besar untuk mendatangkan virus masuk kedalam tubuh kita.

    Faktor Keturunan Penyebab Kanker Kulit

Hal ini juga masih dalam perkiraan saja, dimana kanker kulit bisa dapat terjadi karena faktor keturunan. Karena menurut penelitian dari penderita kanker kulit diketahui bahwa ternyata mereka mempunyai orang tua dengan riwayat yang sama juga.

Apa saja faktor penyebab kanker kulit? Tentunya uraian diatas sudah bisa dapat memberikan gambaran yang cukup jelas mengenai faktor yang bisa mendatangkan kanker kulit. Paling tidak kita sudah bisa memproteksi diri sedini mungkin agar dapat terhindar dari penyakit mematikan ini.
    

Editor : Dian Sukmawati

PENYEBAB KANKER KULIT

Saco-Indonesia.com - Vitamin D tak hanya baik untuk jantung dan tulang , tetapi juga penting untuk kesehatan organ dan jaringan dalam tubuh, terutama untuk kesehatan otak. Sebuah penelitian terbaru mengungkap bahwa kekurangan vitamin D bisa menyebabkan kerusakan pada otak.

Penelitian yang dilakukan oleh University of Kentucky menunjukkan bahwa tikus yang diberikan makanan rendah vitamin D secara berkala akan mengalami kerusakan pada oraknya. Tikus-tikus eksperimen itu juga mengalami penurunan kemampuan kognitif, ingatan, serta kemampuan untuk belajar.

"Biasanya kekurangan vitamin D terjadi pada manula atau pada orang berusia pertengahan. Vitamin D penting untuk mencegah kerusakan akibat radikal bebas pada otak," ungkap ketua peneliti Allan Butterfield, seperti dilansir oleh Science Daily (02/12).

Sebelumnya, penelitian lain juga menemukan bahwa kurang vitamin D bisa menyebabkan penyakit Alzheimer serta berkaitan dengan penyakit jantung dan beberapa jenis kanker. Butterfield merekomendasikan agar manula atau orang dewasa mengetahui tingkat vitamin D pada tubuh mereka.

Jika tingkat vitamin D tergolong rendah, mereka harus mulai mengonsumsi makanan yang kaya vitamin D atau mengonsumsi suplemen vitamin D. Tak hanya itu, berjemur selama 10 - 15 menit di bawah matahari juga bisa membantu menambah asupan vitamin D dan menjaga kesehatan otak.

Editor : Liwon Maulana

Hati-hati, kurang vitamin D sebabkan kerusakan pada otak!

Msaco-indonesia.com, Meski intensitas hujan dalam beberapa hari sudah menurun namun nyatanya genangan air juga masih terlihat di beberapa titik ruas jalan Ibu Kota Jakarta. Seperti yang telah terlihat di Jl Gunung Sahari menuju arah Senen, Jakarta Pusat. Genangan air sekitar 30 cm telah terjadi di jalan tersebut.

Tuti, salah seorang pedagang yang biasa mangkal di jalan itu, juga mengatakan genangan air di jalan tersebut juga biasa terjadi usai turun hujan. Hal itu juga kerap menjadi penyebab kemacetan.

"Biasanya juga begitu. Mungkin gorong-gorongnya juga sudah penuh," ujarnya, di lokasi, Selasa (11/2).

Meski Jakarta adalah ibu kota negara, nyatanya jalan-jalan utama juga masih belum bebas dari banjir jika hujan turun. Walau arus lalu lintas di jalan itu macet, pengendara tetap saja melewati jalan itu.

pengendara sepeda motor mengangkat kakinya agar tak terkena air.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

JALAN GUNUNG SAHARI BANJIR 30 CM

saco-indonesia.com, Tak dapat dipungkiri kalau kebanyakan dari kita tak dapat menikmati alat fitness atau alat olahraga. Juga sebuah kebenaran kalau setiap orang di dunia ini dapat keuntungan dari alat fitnes dan program nutrisi yang tepat. Sebelumnya pastikan anda menghubungi distributor alat fitnes atau distributor alat olahraga untuk kelengkapan alat fitnes anda. Berikut 10 tips untuk mendapatkan latihan rutin Anda mulai hari ini.

1. Rancang Tujuan Ralistis Dan Nyata

Merancang tujuan sederhana seperti ingin mengurangi berat badan tidaklah efektif. Buat yang lebih spesifik. Sebagai contoh, 'Aku ingin mengurangi 10 kg hingga 5 September.

2. Ukur Peningkatan Anda

Ukur setiap peningkatan dan lakukan secara rutin. Anda tak dapat mengukur seberapa besar berat badan Anda berkurang saat Anda tak mengukurnya pada permulaan.

3. Buat Data Untuk Tiap Latihan

Masing-masing dan tiap sesi latihan alat fitnes harusnya di data. Pertahankan ukuran latihan Anda dan ciptakan jurnal sukses Anda sendiri.

4. Padukan Kardio Anda

Buat sesi kardio alat fitness beragam secara intensitas dan panjangnya. Coba kardio baru dan pertahankan tetap segar.

5. Latihan Keras Bukan Hanya Untuk Pria

Setiap orang boleh berlatih alat olahraga dengan keras. Latihan keras membangun otot dan meningkatkan kepadatan tulang. Latih semua grup otot utama setiap 1-3 kali per minggu.

6. Istirahat

Cukup tidur selama 7 hingga 9 jam tiap malam. Begitu pula istirahatkan otot Anda dengan tidak melakukan latihan selama 1 hingga 2 hari setiap minggu.

7. Pemanasan

Lakukan pemanasan selama 5 hingga 10 menit sebelum Anda melakukan latihan inti. Anda harus mengawali dengan menaikan suhu tubuh terlebih dahulu.

8. Pendinginan

Lakukan pendinginan dengan perenggangan pada keseluruhan tubuh. Ini akan membantu meningkatkan flesibelitas dan mengurangi sakit pada otot di hari berikutnya.

9. Nutrisi Merupakan Setengah Dari Pertempuran

Konsumsi makanan dengan layak sebagai imbangan dari latihan rutin Anda. Makan makanan sehat dan tinggalkan diet ketat selamanya dalam kehidupan Anda.

10. Terus Beri Motivasi

Ajak teman untuk ikut berlatih atau lakukan latihan dengan pelatih pribadi. Lakukan apapun untuk membuat Anda berkomitmen. Jika Anda mulai kendor, usir rasa bersalah dan lakukan kembali latihan rutin Anda secepat mungkin.

Demikian 10 tips untuk membangun fondasi dari program toko olahraga yang aman dan efektif. Siapapun dapat mengurangi lemak-lemak di tbuh dengan melakukan latihan yang realistis dan paduan nutrisi cukup. Jika Anda memiliki masalah kesehatan, lebih baik hubungi dokter dan toko olahraga Anda sebelum memulai melakukan fitness dan menghubungi distributor alat olahraga atau distributor alat fitnes untuk rekomendasi alat yang bagus. Lakukan latihan secara rutin dan Anda akan lebih sehat serta bahagia dari hari ke hari.

10 Tips Fitnes Terbaik

The 6-foot-10 Phillips played alongside the 6-11 Rick Robey on the Wildcats team that won the 1978 N.C.A.A. men’s basketball title.

Mike Phillips, Half of Kentucky’s ‘Twin Towers’ of Basketball, Dies at 59

The bottle Mr. Sokolin famously broke was a 1787 Château Margaux, which was said to have belonged to Thomas Jefferson. Mr. Sokolin had been hoping to sell it for $519,750.

William Sokolin, Wine Seller Who Broke Famed Bottle, Dies at 85

WASHINGTON — During a training course on defending against knife attacks, a young Salt Lake City police officer asked a question: “How close can somebody get to me before I’m justified in using deadly force?”

Dennis Tueller, the instructor in that class more than three decades ago, decided to find out. In the fall of 1982, he performed a rudimentary series of tests and concluded that an armed attacker who bolted toward an officer could clear 21 feet in the time it took most officers to draw, aim and fire their weapon.

The next spring, Mr. Tueller published his findings in SWAT magazine and transformed police training in the United States. The “21-foot rule” became dogma. It has been taught in police academies around the country, accepted by courts and cited by officers to justify countless shootings, including recent episodes involving a homeless woodcarver in Seattle and a schizophrenic woman in San Francisco.

Now, amid the largest national debate over policing since the 1991 beating of Rodney King in Los Angeles, a small but vocal set of law enforcement officials are calling for a rethinking of the 21-foot rule and other axioms that have emphasized how to use force, not how to avoid it. Several big-city police departments are already re-examining when officers should chase people or draw their guns and when they should back away, wait or try to defuse the situation

Police Rethink Long Tradition on Using Force

Since a white police officer, Darren Wilson fatally shot unarmed black teenager, Michael Brown, in a confrontation last August in Ferguson, Mo., there have been many other cases in which the police have shot and killed suspects, some of them unarmed. Mr. Brown's death set off protests throughout the country, pushing law enforcement into the spotlight and sparking a public debate on police tactics. Here is a selection of police shootings that have been reported by news organizations since Mr. Brown's death. In some cases, investigations are continuing.

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The apartment complex northeast of Atlanta where Anthony Hill, 27, was fatally shot by a DeKalb County police officer. Credit Ben Gray/Atlanta Journal Constitution

Chamblee, Ga.
Fatal Police Shootings: Accounts Since Ferguson

WASHINGTON — The former deputy director of the C.I.A. asserts in a forthcoming book that Republicans, in their eagerness to politicize the killing of the American ambassador to Libya, repeatedly distorted the agency’s analysis of events. But he also argues that the C.I.A. should get out of the business of providing “talking points” for administration officials in national security events that quickly become partisan, as happened after the Benghazi attack in 2012.

The official, Michael J. Morell, dismisses the allegation that the United States military and C.I.A. officers “were ordered to stand down and not come to the rescue of their comrades,” and he says there is “no evidence” to support the charge that “there was a conspiracy between C.I.A. and the White House to spin the Benghazi story in a way that would protect the political interests of the president and Secretary Clinton,” referring to the secretary of state at the time, Hillary Rodham Clinton.

But he also concludes that the White House itself embellished some of the talking points provided by the Central Intelligence Agency and had blocked him from sending an internal study of agency conclusions to Congress.

Photo
 
Michael J. Morell Credit Mark Wilson/Getty Images

“I finally did so without asking,” just before leaving government, he writes, and after the White House released internal emails to a committee investigating the State Department’s handling of the issue.

A lengthy congressional investigation remains underway, one that many Republicans hope to use against Mrs. Clinton in the 2016 election cycle.

In parts of the book, “The Great War of Our Time” (Twelve), Mr. Morell praises his C.I.A. colleagues for many successes in stopping terrorist attacks, but he is surprisingly critical of other C.I.A. failings — and those of the National Security Agency.

Soon after Mr. Morell retired in 2013 after 33 years in the agency, President Obama appointed him to a commission reviewing the actions of the National Security Agency after the disclosures of Edward J. Snowden, a former intelligence contractor who released classified documents about the government’s eavesdropping abilities. Mr. Morell writes that he was surprised by what he found.

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“You would have thought that of all the government entities on the planet, the one least vulnerable to such grand theft would have been the N.S.A.,” he writes. “But it turned out that the N.S.A. had left itself vulnerable.”

He concludes that most Wall Street firms had better cybersecurity than the N.S.A. had when Mr. Snowden swept information from its systems in 2013. While he said he found himself “chagrined by how well the N.S.A. was doing” compared with the C.I.A. in stepping up its collection of data on intelligence targets, he also sensed that the N.S.A., which specializes in electronic spying, was operating without considering the implications of its methods.

“The N.S.A. had largely been collecting information because it could, not necessarily in all cases because it should,” he says.

The book is to be released next week.

Mr. Morell was a career analyst who rose through the ranks of the agency, and he ended up in the No. 2 post. He served as President George W. Bush’s personal intelligence briefer in the first months of his presidency — in those days, he could often be spotted at the Starbucks in Waco, Tex., catching up on his reading — and was with him in the schoolhouse in Florida on the morning of Sept. 11, 2001, when the Bush presidency changed in an instant.

Mr. Morell twice took over as acting C.I.A. director, first when Leon E. Panetta was appointed secretary of defense and then when retired Gen. David H. Petraeus resigned over an extramarital affair with his biographer, a relationship that included his handing her classified notes of his time as America’s best-known military commander.

Mr. Morell says he first learned of the affair from Mr. Petraeus only the night before he resigned, and just as the Benghazi events were turning into a political firestorm. While praising Mr. Petraeus, who had told his deputy “I am very lucky” to run the C.I.A., Mr. Morell writes that “the organization did not feel the same way about him.” The former general “created the impression through the tone of his voice and his body language that he did not want people to disagree with him (which was not true in my own interaction with him),” he says.

But it is his account of the Benghazi attacks — and how the C.I.A. was drawn into the debate over whether the Obama White House deliberately distorted its account of the death of Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens — that is bound to attract attention, at least partly because of its relevance to the coming presidential election. The initial assessments that the C.I.A. gave to the White House said demonstrations had preceded the attack. By the time analysts reversed their opinion, Susan E. Rice, now the national security adviser, had made a series of statements on Sunday talk shows describing the initial assessment. The controversy and other comments Ms. Rice made derailed Mr. Obama’s plan to appoint her as secretary of state.

The experience prompted Mr. Morell to write that the C.I.A. should stay out of the business of preparing talking points — especially on issues that are being seized upon for “political purposes.” He is critical of the State Department for not beefing up security in Libya for its diplomats, as the C.I.A., he said, did for its employees.

But he concludes that the assault in which the ambassador was killed took place “with little or no advance planning” and “was not well organized.” He says the attackers “did not appear to be looking for Americans to harm. They appeared intent on looting and conducting some vandalism,” setting fires that killed Mr. Stevens and a security official, Sean Smith.

Mr. Morell paints a picture of an agency that was struggling, largely unsuccessfully, to understand dynamics in the Middle East and North Africa when the Arab Spring broke out in late 2011 in Tunisia. The agency’s analysts failed to see the forces of revolution coming — and then failed again, he writes, when they told Mr. Obama that the uprisings would undercut Al Qaeda by showing there was a democratic pathway to change.

“There is no good explanation for our not being able to see the pressures growing to dangerous levels across the region,” he writes. The agency had again relied too heavily “on a handful of strong leaders in the countries of concern to help us understand what was going on in the Arab street,” he says, and those leaders themselves were clueless.

Moreover, an agency that has always overvalued secretly gathered intelligence and undervalued “open source” material “was not doing enough to mine the wealth of information available through social media,” he writes. “We thought and told policy makers that this outburst of popular revolt would damage Al Qaeda by undermining the group’s narrative,” he writes.

Instead, weak governments in Egypt, and the absence of governance from Libya to Yemen, were “a boon to Islamic extremists across both the Middle East and North Africa.”

Mr. Morell is gentle about most of the politicians he dealt with — he expresses admiration for both Mr. Bush and Mr. Obama, though he accuses former Vice President Dick Cheney of deliberately implying a connection between Al Qaeda and Iraq that the C.I.A. had concluded probably did not exist. But when it comes to the events leading up to the Bush administration’s decision to go to war in Iraq, he is critical of his own agency.

Mr. Morell concludes that the Bush White House did not have to twist intelligence on Saddam Hussein’s alleged effort to rekindle the country’s work on weapons of mass destruction.

“The view that hard-liners in the Bush administration forced the intelligence community into its position on W.M.D. is just flat wrong,” he writes. “No one pushed. The analysts were already there and they had been there for years, long before Bush came to office.”

Ex-C.I.A. Official Rebuts Republican Claims on Benghazi Attack in ‘The Great War of Our Time’

As he reflected on the festering wounds deepened by race and grievance that have been on painful display in America’s cities lately, President Obama on Monday found himself thinking about a young man he had just met named Malachi.

A few minutes before, in a closed-door round-table discussion at Lehman College in the Bronx, Mr. Obama had asked a group of black and Hispanic students from disadvantaged backgrounds what could be done to help them reach their goals. Several talked about counseling and guidance programs.

“Malachi, he just talked about — we should talk about love,” Mr. Obama told a crowd afterward, drifting away from his prepared remarks. “Because Malachi and I shared the fact that our dad wasn’t around and that sometimes we wondered why he wasn’t around and what had happened. But really, that’s what this comes down to is: Do we love these kids?”

Many presidents have governed during times of racial tension, but Mr. Obama is the first to see in the mirror a face that looks like those on the other side of history’s ledger. While his first term was consumed with the economy, war and health care, his second keeps coming back to the societal divide that was not bridged by his election. A president who eschewed focusing on race now seems to have found his voice again as he thinks about how to use his remaining time in office and beyond.

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Obama Speaks of a ‘Sense of Unfairness’

Obama Speaks of a ‘Sense of Unfairness’

At an event announcing the creation of a nonprofit focusing on young minority men, President Obama talked about the underlying reasons for recent protests in Baltimore and other cities.

By Associated Press on Publish Date May 4, 2015. Photo by Stephen Crowley/The New York Times.

In the aftermath of racially charged unrest in places like Baltimore, Ferguson, Mo., and New York, Mr. Obama came to the Bronx on Monday for the announcement of a new nonprofit organization that is being spun off from his White House initiative called My Brother’s Keeper. Staked by more than $80 million in commitments from corporations and other donors, the new group, My Brother’s Keeper Alliance, will in effect provide the nucleus for Mr. Obama’s post-presidency, which will begin in January 2017.

“This will remain a mission for me and for Michelle not just for the rest of my presidency but for the rest of my life,” Mr. Obama said. “And the reason is simple,” he added. Referring to some of the youths he had just met, he said: “We see ourselves in these young men. I grew up without a dad. I grew up lost sometimes and adrift, not having a sense of a clear path. The only difference between me and a lot of other young men in this neighborhood and all across the country is that I grew up in an environment that was a little more forgiving.”

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Organizers said the new alliance already had financial pledges from companies like American Express, Deloitte, Discovery Communications and News Corporation. The money will be used to help companies address obstacles facing young black and Hispanic men, provide grants to programs for disadvantaged youths, and help communities aid their populations.

Joe Echevarria, a former chief executive of Deloitte, the accounting and consulting firm, will lead the alliance, and among those on its leadership team or advisory group are executives at PepsiCo, News Corporation, Sprint, BET and Prudential Group Insurance; former Secretary of State Colin L. Powell; Senator Cory Booker, Democrat of New Jersey; former Attorney General Eric H. Holder Jr.; the music star John Legend; the retired athletes Alonzo Mourning, Jerome Bettis and Shaquille O’Neal; and the mayors of Indianapolis, Sacramento and Philadelphia.

The alliance, while nominally independent of the White House, may face some of the same questions confronting former Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton as she begins another presidential campaign. Some of those donating to the alliance may have interests in government action, and skeptics may wonder whether they are trying to curry favor with the president by contributing.

“The Obama administration will have no role in deciding how donations are screened and what criteria they’ll set at the alliance for donor policies, because it’s an entirely separate entity,” Josh Earnest, the White House press secretary, told reporters on Air Force One en route to New York. But he added, “I’m confident that the members of the board are well aware of the president’s commitment to transparency.”

The alliance was in the works before the disturbances last week after the death of Freddie Gray, the black man who suffered fatal injuries while in police custody in Baltimore, but it reflected the evolution of Mr. Obama’s presidency. For him, in a way, it is coming back to issues that animated him as a young community organizer and politician. It was his own struggle with race and identity, captured in his youthful memoir, “Dreams From My Father,” that stood him apart from other presidential aspirants.

But that was a side of him that he kept largely to himself through the first years of his presidency while he focused on other priorities like turning the economy around, expanding government-subsidized health care and avoiding electoral land mines en route to re-election.

After securing a second term, Mr. Obama appeared more emboldened. Just a month after his 2013 inauguration, he talked passionately about opportunity and race with a group of teenage boys in Chicago, a moment aides point to as perhaps the first time he had spoken about these issues in such a personal, powerful way as president. A few months later, he publicly lamented the death of Trayvon Martin, a black Florida teenager, saying that “could have been me 35 years ago.”

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President Obama on Monday with Darinel Montero, a student at Bronx International High School who introduced him before remarks at Lehman College in the Bronx. Credit Stephen Crowley/The New York Times

That case, along with public ruptures of anger over police shootings in Ferguson and elsewhere, have pushed the issue of race and law enforcement onto the public agenda. Aides said they imagined that with his presidency in its final stages, Mr. Obama might be thinking more about what comes next and causes he can advance as a private citizen.

That is not to say that his public discussion of these issues has been universally welcomed. Some conservatives said he had made matters worse by seeming in their view to blame police officers in some of the disputed cases.

“President Obama, when he was elected, could have been a unifying leader,” Senator Ted Cruz of Texas, a Republican candidate for president, said at a forum last week. “He has made decisions that I think have inflamed racial tensions.”

On the other side of the ideological spectrum, some liberal African-American activists have complained that Mr. Obama has not done enough to help downtrodden communities. While he is speaking out more, these critics argue, he has hardly used the power of the presidency to make the sort of radical change they say is necessary.

The line Mr. Obama has tried to straddle has been a serrated one. He condemns police brutality as he defends most officers as honorable. He condemns “criminals and thugs” who looted in Baltimore while expressing empathy with those trapped in a cycle of poverty and hopelessness.

In the Bronx on Monday, Mr. Obama bemoaned the death of Brian Moore, a plainclothes New York police officer who had died earlier in the day after being shot in the head Saturday on a Queens street. Most police officers are “good and honest and fair and care deeply about their communities,” even as they put their lives on the line, Mr. Obama said.

“Which is why in addressing the issues in Baltimore or Ferguson or New York, the point I made was that if we’re just looking at policing, we’re looking at it too narrowly,” he added. “If we ask the police to simply contain and control problems that we ourselves have been unwilling to invest and solve, that’s not fair to the communities, it’s not fair to the police.”

Moreover, if society writes off some people, he said, “that’s not the kind of country I want to live in; that’s not what America is about.”

His message to young men like Malachi Hernandez, who attends Boston Latin Academy in Massachusetts, is not to give up.

“I want you to know you matter,” he said. “You matter to us.”

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HOBART, Tasmania — Few places seem out of reach for China’s leader, Xi Jinping, who has traveled from European capitals to obscure Pacific and Caribbean islands in pursuit of his nation’s strategic interests.

So perhaps it was not surprising when he turned up last fall in this city on the edge of the Southern Ocean to put down a long-distance marker in another faraway region, Antarctica, 2,000 miles south of this Australian port.

Standing on the deck of an icebreaker that ferries Chinese scientists from this last stop before the frozen continent, Mr. Xi pledged that China would continue to expand in one of the few places on earth that remain unexploited by humans.

He signed a five-year accord with the Australian government that allows Chinese vessels and, in the future, aircraft to resupply for fuel and food before heading south. That will help secure easier access to a region that is believed to have vast oil and mineral resources; huge quantities of high-protein sea life; and for times of possible future dire need, fresh water contained in icebergs.

It was not until 1985, about seven decades after Robert Scott and Roald Amundsen raced to the South Pole, that a team representing Beijing hoisted the Chinese flag over the nation’s first Antarctic research base, the Great Wall Station on King George Island.

But now China seems determined to catch up. As it has bolstered spending on Antarctic research, and as the early explorers, especially the United States and Australia, confront stagnant budgets, there is growing concern about its intentions.

China’s operations on the continent — it opened its fourth research station last year, chose a site for a fifth, and is investing in a second icebreaker and new ice-capable planes and helicopters — are already the fastest growing of the 52 signatories to the Antarctic Treaty. That gentlemen’s agreement reached in 1959 bans military activity on the continent and aims to preserve it as one of the world’s last wildernesses; a related pact prohibits mining.

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But Mr. Xi’s visit was another sign that China is positioning itself to take advantage of the continent’s resource potential when the treaty expires in 2048 — or in the event that it is ripped up before, Chinese and Australian experts say.

“So far, our research is natural-science based, but we know there is more and more concern about resource security,” said Yang Huigen, director general of the Polar Research Institute of China, who accompanied Mr. Xi last November on his visit to Hobart and stood with him on the icebreaker, Xue Long, or Snow Dragon.

With that in mind, the polar institute recently opened a new division devoted to the study of resources, law, geopolitics and governance in Antarctica and the Arctic, Mr. Yang said.

Australia, a strategic ally of the United States that has strong economic relations with China, is watching China’s buildup in the Antarctic with a mix of gratitude — China’s presence offers support for Australia’s Antarctic science program, which is short of cash — and wariness.

“We should have no illusions about the deeper agenda — one that has not even been agreed to by Chinese scientists but is driven by Xi, and most likely his successors,” said Peter Jennings, executive director of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute and a former senior official in the Australian Department of Defense.

“This is part of a broader pattern of a mercantilist approach all around the world,” Mr. Jennings added. “A big driver of Chinese policy is to secure long-term energy supply and food supply.”

That approach was evident last month when a large Chinese agriculture enterprise announced an expansion of its fishing operations around Antarctica to catch more krill — small, protein-rich crustaceans that are abundant in Antarctic waters.

“The Antarctic is a treasure house for all human beings, and China should go there and share,” Liu Shenli, the chairman of the China National Agricultural Development Group, told China Daily, a state-owned newspaper. China would aim to fish up to two million tons of krill a year, he said, a substantial increase from what it currently harvests.

Because sovereignty over Antarctica is unclear, nations have sought to strengthen their claims over the ice-covered land by building research bases and naming geographic features. China’s fifth station will put it within reach of the six American facilities, and ahead of Australia’s three.

Chinese mappers have also given Chinese names to more than 300 sites, compared with the thousands of locations on the continent with English names.

In the unspoken competition for Antarctica’s future, scientific achievement can also translate into influence. Chinese scientists are driving to be the first to drill and recover an ice core containing tiny air bubbles that provide a record of climate change stretching as far back as 1.5 million years. It is an expensive and delicate effort at which others, including the European Union and Australia, have failed.

In a breakthrough a decade ago, European scientists extracted an ice core nearly two miles long that revealed 800,000 years of climate history. But finding an ice core going back further would allow scientists to examine a change in the earth’s climate cycles believed to have occurred 900,000 to 1.2 million years ago.

China is betting it has found the best location to drill, at an area called Dome A, or Dome Argus, the highest point on the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Though it is considered one of the coldest places on the planet, with temperatures of 130 degrees below zero Fahrenheit, a Chinese expedition explored the area in 2005 and established a research station in 2009.

“The international community has drilled in lots of places, but no luck so far,” said Xiao Cunde, a member of the first party to reach the site and the deputy director of the Institute for Climate Change at the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences. “We think at Dome A we will have a straight shot at the one-million-year ice core.”

Mr. Xiao said China had already begun drilling and hoped to find what scientists are looking for in four to five years.

To support its Antarctic aspirations, China is building a sophisticated $300 million icebreaker that is expected to be ready in a few years, said Xia Limin, deputy director of the Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Administration in Beijing. It has also bought a high-tech fixed-wing aircraft, outfitted in the United States, for taking sensitive scientific soundings from the ice.

China has chosen the site for its fifth research station at Inexpressible Island, named by a group of British explorers who were stranded at the desolate site in 1912 and survived the winter by excavating a small ice cave.

Mr. Xia said the inhospitable spot was ideal because China did not have a presence in that part of Antarctica, and because the rocky site did not have much snow, making it relatively cheap to build there.

Anne-Marie Brady, a professor of political science at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand and the author of a soon-to-be-released book, “China as a Polar Great Power,” said Chinese scientists also believed they had a good chance of finding mineral and energy resources near the site.

“China is playing a long game in Antarctica and keeping other states guessing about its true intentions and interests are part of its poker hand,” she said. But she noted that China’s interest in finding minerals was presented “loud and clear to domestic audiences” as the main reason it was investing in Antarctica.

Because commercial drilling is banned, estimates of energy and mineral resources in Antarctica rely on remote sensing data and comparisons with similar geological environments elsewhere, said Millard F. Coffin, executive director of the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies in Hobart.

But the difficulty of extraction in such severe conditions and uncertainty about future commodity prices make it unlikely that China or any country would defy the ban on mining anytime soon.

Tourism, however, is already booming. Travelers from China are still a relatively small contingent in the Antarctic compared with the more than 13,000 Americans who visited in 2013, and as yet there are no licensed Chinese tour operators.

But that is about to change, said Anthony Bergin, deputy director of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute. “I understand very soon there will be Chinese tourists on Chinese vessels with all-Chinese crew in the Antarctic,” he said.

 

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