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saco-indonesia.com, Tiga orang yang telah diduga terlibat dalam kasus pembongkaran makam di kampung Cigaten, Pagedangan, Kabupaten Tangerang, Banten, yakni Sobri (54), Irshad (45) dan Durat alias Bewok (49), kini telah diperiksa polisi sebagai saksi kasus tersebut.

Kapolsek Pedegangan AKP Murodih, juga mengatakan 3 orang tersebut belum memiliki bukti kuat atas dugaan pembongkaran 93 makam. Oleh sebab itu ketiganya kini dibebaskan.

"Hasil penyelidikan kami, 3 pekerja pembongkaran tersebut saat ini telah sebagai saksi dan dibebaskan. Itu karena kita belum kuat bukti untuk dapat ditetapkan sebagai tersangka," ujar Murodih, Kamis (6/1) kemarin .

Dia juga menuturkan, dari hasil laporan ahli waris yang merasa telah dirugikan hanya satu yang keberatan, yakni Saepudi. "Baru itu yang melapor. Itu juga salah satunya belum kuat bukti," ujarnya.

Selain itu, Murodih juga menjelaskan, dari keterangan ketiga saksi, pembongkaran makam telah dilakukan dengan cara mengangkat kain kafan. Sebab, dari keterangan dari masyarakat beredar kabar bahwa jenazah tersebut dibuang ke sungai Cisadane.

"Dari 93 jenazah itu tidak ada yang dibuang. Itu isu yang tidak benar," terang Murodih menegaskan.

Seperti yang telah diketahui, pembongkaran 93 makam Pagedangan telah disetujui oleh 14 ahli waris yakni Ramli, Saripudin, Suprata, Taing, Juned, Roiyah, Mansur, Tahsir, Ajhari, Hasan, Masun, Juriah dan Suhendi. Lalu hanya 1 yang dirugikan dan tidak diberi tahu.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

3 ORANG DIDUGA BONGKAR MAKAM DI TANGERANG BEBAS

saco-indonesia.com, Polisi juga masih akan terus memburu pelaku yang telah membunuh wanita pengusaha katering di rumah Jalan Tanah Tinggi 1 Gang V No.185 RT 11/6 Kelurahan Tanah Tinggi, Johar Baru, Jakarta Pusat, Senin (3/2) sore.

Ny Adika Adi Putri yang berusia 31 tahun , janda beranak dua tewas seketika dengan luka tikam di bagian kepala belakang dan depan dengan luka 16 tusukan. Jenazah wanita beranak dua itu dikirim ke RSCM. Sedang pelaku diduga karyawan kabur.

“Pelaku karyawannya, yang mau merampok tapi karena kepergok akhirnya barang-barang tak ada yang hilang,” Kasat Reskrim Polres Jakarta Pusat AKBP Tatan Dirsan Atmaja, dengan didampingi Kapolsek Johar Baru Kompol Dasril.

AKBP Tatan Dirsan Atmaja, telah menuturkan, pelaku diduga karyawannya, karena wanita beranak dua itu punya usaha katering dan disaat kejadian dua karyawannya sedang keluar dan seorang lagi yang berinsial DS, ada bersama majikannya. “Mereka ketika itu hanya berdua di rumah, majikannya ketika itu sedang tidur,”tegas Kasat Tatan.

Namun betapa kagetnya, warga telah mendengar wanita yang dikenal ramah ditemukan tewas mengenaskan dengan luka di kepala.

Dalam hasil olah pemeriksaan, ternyata barang yang hilang tidak ada, diduga ini pelaku mau merampok dan melihat wanita pemilik katering ada di kamar akhirnya dibunuh.Petugas menemukan kain panjang yang mengikat leher korban serta celana panjang jeans berbercak darah diduga kepunyaan karyawannya yang berinsial DS.

“Bisa jadi kalau pelakunya karyawan sendiri berinsial DS, karena saat kejadian dia ada di rumah dan tiba-tiba menghilang kemudian di dalam saku celana bercak darah ada buku notes miliknya,”tegas Kasat Reakrim Tatan.

Warga juga telah memperkirakan kalau pelaku karyawannya . Pasalnya saat kejadian tersebut , warga juga sempat melihat ada orang yang buru-buru keluar dari rumah namun tidak menyangka ada korban pembunuhan.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

POLISI BURU PEMBUNUH WANITA PENGUSAHA KATERING

Oleh IRWAN JULIANTO

Saco-Indonesia.com,- Satu demi satu misteri penyebab diabetes melitus tipe 2 mulai terungkap. Para peneliti Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) baru saja memublikasikan temuan mereka bahwa ada satu jenis protein atau hormon khusus yang ditemukan dalam sel-sel lemak yang terbukti membantu mengatur bagaimana gula darah dikendalikan dan dimetabolisasi untuk energi di dalam hati. Ini dikatakan akan membuka salah satu jalan bagi pengobatan diabetes tipe 2 yang menjangkiti ratusan juta penduduk dunia.

Diabetes tipe ini tidak bergantung pada insulin dan terjadi pada orang-orang dewasa (adult onset), berbeda dengan diabetes tipe 1 yang bergantung pada insulin dan terjadi sejak bayi. Diabetes tipe 2 dapat didefinisikan sebagai suatu kelainan metabolik yang ditandai dengan tingginya kadar glukosa darah akibat terjadinya kekurangan dan resistansi insulin. Kemampuan sel-sel beta pankreas berkurang bahkan rusak sehingga pasien mulai mengalami diabetes, dengan gejala-gejala seperti banyak makan (polifagia), banyak minum (polidipsia), dan banyak kencing (poliuria).

Jumlah kasus diabetes tipe 2 hampir sepuluh kali lipat kasus diabetes tipe 1 yang terjadi karena kerusakan pankreas sejak bayi. Hingga sekarang diyakini bahwa kegemukan menjadi penyebab utama terjadinya diabetes tipe 2 pada orang-orang yang memang secara genetis sudah membawa gen pembawa penyakit ini.

Dua-tiga dekade lalu sudah diketahui adanya hubungan antara kegemukan dan diabetes tipe 2, tetapi belum jelas apakah kegemukan memicu diabetes jenis ini ataukah hanya mempercepat terjadinya. Riset di Amerika Serikat menunjukkan, orang-orang dengan obesitas tiga kali lebih mudah terjangkit diabetes dibandingkan dengan mereka yang tidak kegemukan. Makin tua seseorang, risiko terkena diabetes tipe 2 juga kian besar. Orang-orang berusia 65 tahun, misalnya, lebih mungkin terserang dibandingkan dengan mereka yang berusia di bawah 20 tahun.

Diabetes tipe 2 juga diketahui erat hubungannya dengan faktor keturunan. Jika dalam keluarga Anda ada yang mengidap diabetes, kemungkinan Anda terjangkit diabetes cukup besar.

Jika ayah atau ibu Anda dan kakek atau nenek serta bibi atau paman Anda menderita penyakit ini, peluang Anda mengalami diabetes tipe 2 mendekati 85 persen. Jika ayah dan nenek mengidap diabetes, risiko Anda cuma 60 persen. Jika hanya ibu yang menderita, maka 22 persen risikonya bagi Anda akan menderita pula.

Diabetes tipe 2 umumnya terjadi pada orang dewasa akibat perubahan gaya hidup, berkurangnya kegiatan jasmani, dan jenis makanan/minuman yang serba fast food dan soft drink. Namun, saat ini diabetes tipe 2 ditemukan juga pada anak- anak dan remaja di Asia.

Penyakit kronis ini diyakini menyebabkan usia harapan hidup bagi penderitanya sepuluh tahun lebih pendek dibandingkan dengan orang-orang non-diabetik akibat komplikasi penyakit jantung koroner, stroke, dan gagal ginjal. Diabetes tipe 2 juga menyebabkan kecacatan, seperti kebutaan akibat komplikasi retinopati dan meningkatnya risiko sebesar 20 kali amputasi tungkai bawah. Pengidap diabetes ini mudah lupa dan mengalami impotensi.

Multipatologi

Selama berpuluh tahun para peneliti dan dokter dihadapkan pada misteri: tidak semua orang yang kegemukan atau resistan terhadap insulin mengidap diabetes tipe 2. Bahkan, cukup banyak orang yang amat gemuk tak terserang penyakit ini. Para ilmuwan lalu berteori bahwa ada suatu faktor yang tak dikenal yang terlibat dalam metabolisme glukosa dalam hati, dan mungkin kehadiran atau absennya elemen ini, dapat menentukan siapa yang terkena diabetes tipe 2.

Dalam jurnal Cell Metabolism edisi 7 Mei 2013, para peneliti HSPH mengungkapkan, dunia ilmiah sudah lama mengetahui bahwa salah satu peristiwa kunci bagi berkembangnya diabetes tipe 2 adalah produksi glukosa yang tak terkontrol dari hati.

”Namun, mekanisme yang mendasarinya tetap masih sukar dipahami,” kata Gökhan S Hotamisligil, Kepala Departemen Genetika dan Penyakit-penyakit Kompleks, dan JS Simmons, profesor genetika dan metabolisme di HSPH. ”Kami sekarang berhasil mengidentifikasi aP2 sebagai suatu hormon baru yang dikeluarkan dari sel-sel lemak yang mengontrol fungsi kritis ini.”

Lewat percobaan dengan mencit di laboratorium memakai teknologi mutakhir ditemukan bahwa jika jumlah aP2 berlebih, timbullah diabetes. Sebaliknya, jika hormon ini diblok atau di- switch-off, produksi glukosa dari hati dapat dikontrol lebih baik sehingga manifestasinya berupa diabetes tipe 2 dan penyakit-penyakit metabolik lainnya pun dapat dicegah.

Kemampuan sebuah organ—dalam hal ini jaringan lemak—begitu langsung dan menentukan dalam mengendalikan tindakan organ lain, yaitu hati, amat menarik, kata Hotamisligil. ”Kami menduga sistem komunikasi antara jaringan lemak dan hati telah berevolusi untuk membantu sel-sel lemak memberi komando kepada hati untuk menyuplai tubuh dengan glukosa pada saat-saat terjadinya kekurangan nutrien. Betapa pun, ketika sel-sel lemak yang membesar kehilangan kendali terhadap sinyal ini karena kondisi obesitas, tingkat aP2 dalam darah naik, glukosa diguyurkan ke dalam aliran darah dan tidak dapat dibersihkan oleh jaringan-jaringan lain. Hasilnya adalah tingginya kadar glukosa darah dan diabetes 2.”

Guru Besar FK UI yang mendalami diabetes, Sidartawan Soegondo, menyatakan, temuan para ilmuwan Harvard ini merupakan sumbangan berarti bagi perkembangan ilmu kedokteran. ”Akhir-akhir ini saya mengajarkan bahwa diabetes tipe 2 adalah penyakit dengan multipatologi,” ujarnya ketika dihubungi pada Selasa (21/5). Kini, selain organ pankreas, diabetes tipe 2 diketahui pula dipicu juga oleh metabolisme sembilan organ lain, antara lain hati dan ginjal.

 

Sumber :Kompas Cetak/http://health.kompas.com/read/2013/05/22/06524140/Harapan.Baru.untuk.Terapi.Diabetes.Tipe.2
Editor :Liwon Maulana
Ada Harapan Baru untuk Terapi Diabetes Tipe 2

Di dalam pasaran besi beton dikenal adanya istilah full, gemuk, dan kurus atau banci. Besi kok gemuk dan banci, ada-ada saja ya. Besi full adalah besi beton yang telah memiliki dimensi yang sama dengan yang disebutkan. Misalkan saja besi 10 full, maka diameternya jika diukur adalah 10 mm pas dengan panjang standart  12 meter. Sedangkan besi gemuk adalah besi yang diameternya lebih besar dari yang disebutkan tapi panjangnya belum tentu standart 12 meter. Misalkan saja besi 10 gemuk, akan diperoleh ukuran diameter lebih dari 10 mm, misalkan 11,2 mm dengan panjang dapat  12 meter ataupun 11,6 meter.

Kemudian besi kurus atau banci, misalakan disebut besi 10 kurus, maka ukuran diameternya akan di kisaran 8 mm saja dengan panjang dapat dibawah 12 meter ataupun tepat. Semoga ini dapat berguna buat yang menginginkannnya.

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Terdakwa mantan Deputi Bidang IV Pengelolaan Aset dan Moneter Bank Indonesia, Budi Mulya dalam eksepsinya telah menyebutkan kalau pemberian Fasilitas Pinjaman Jangka Pendek (FPJP) kepada Bank Century tidak ada kerugian keuangan negara. 
 
Dalam eksepsi yang telah dibacakan oleh kuasa hukum Budi, Luhut Pangaribuan telah menyebut kalau FPJP adalah penalangan, dimana bank wajib memberikan agunan.
 
"Sehingga secara teknis negara tidak mungkin dirugikan dari pemberian FPJP tersebut," katanya saat membacakan eksepsi di Pengadilan Tipikor, Jakarta, Kamis (13/3/2014).
 
Dimana, sambung Luhut, kebijakan itu telah diambil melalui mekanisme dan peraturan yang berlaku di BI sebagai Bank Central. Ini juga merupakan kebijakan perbankan.
 
"Pemberian FPJP telah diatur dalam PBI (Peraturan Bank Indonesia), sehingga bagian mana yang telah dianggap sebagai tindak pidana. Semua hal yang telah dilakukan adalah merupakan kebijakan kolektif instansi BI," tandasnya.
 
Dalam eksepsi disebutkan kalau dakwaan tidak cermat dan harus batal demi hukum karena dakwaan harus cermat dan lengkap menguraikannya.
 
Dalam dakwaan Jaksa Penuntut Umum (JPU) KPK, Budi didakwa atas kebijakan pemberian FPJP kepada Bank Century telah merugikan keuangan negara Rp689,894 miliar. Ia juga disebut dalam penetapan Bank Century sebagai bank gagal berdampak sistemik dan mengucurkan bailout senilai Rp6,7 triliun juga merupakan kerugian keuangan negara.

FPJP dan Bailout Century Tak Rugikan Keuangan Negara

The career criminals in genre novels don’t have money problems. If they need some, they just go out and steal it. But such financial transactions can backfire, which is what happened back in 2004 when the Texas gang in Michael

Take the Money and Run
Frontline  An installment of this PBS program looks at the effects of Ebola on Liberia and other countries, as well as the origins of the outbreak.
Frontline

Frontline An installment of this PBS program looks at the effects of Ebola on Liberia and other countries, as well as the origins of the outbreak.

The program traces the outbreak to its origin, thought to be a tree full of bats in Guinea.

Review: ‘9-Man’ Is More Than a Game for Chinese-Americans

A variation of volleyball with nine men on each side is profiled Tuesday night on the World Channel in an absorbing documentary called “9-Man.”

Television

‘Hard Earned’ Documents the Plight of the Working Poor

“Hard Earned,” an Al Jazeera America series, follows five working-class families scrambling to stay ahead on limited incomes.

Review: ‘Frontline’ Looks at Missteps During the Ebola Outbreak

Imagine an elite professional services firm with a high-performing, workaholic culture. Everyone is expected to turn on a dime to serve a client, travel at a moment’s notice, and be available pretty much every evening and weekend. It can make for a grueling work life, but at the highest levels of accounting, law, investment banking and consulting firms, it is just the way things are.

Except for one dirty little secret: Some of the people ostensibly turning in those 80- or 90-hour workweeks, particularly men, may just be faking it.

Many of them were, at least, at one elite consulting firm studied by Erin Reid, a professor at Boston University’s Questrom School of Business. It’s impossible to know if what she learned at that unidentified consulting firm applies across the world of work more broadly. But her research, published in the academic journal Organization Science, offers a way to understand how the professional world differs between men and women, and some of the ways a hard-charging culture that emphasizes long hours above all can make some companies worse off.

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Credit Peter Arkle

Ms. Reid interviewed more than 100 people in the American offices of a global consulting firm and had access to performance reviews and internal human resources documents. At the firm there was a strong culture around long hours and responding to clients promptly.

“When the client needs me to be somewhere, I just have to be there,” said one of the consultants Ms. Reid interviewed. “And if you can’t be there, it’s probably because you’ve got another client meeting at the same time. You know it’s tough to say I can’t be there because my son had a Cub Scout meeting.”

Some people fully embraced this culture and put in the long hours, and they tended to be top performers. Others openly pushed back against it, insisting upon lighter and more flexible work hours, or less travel; they were punished in their performance reviews.

The third group is most interesting. Some 31 percent of the men and 11 percent of the women whose records Ms. Reid examined managed to achieve the benefits of a more moderate work schedule without explicitly asking for it.

They made an effort to line up clients who were local, reducing the need for travel. When they skipped work to spend time with their children or spouse, they didn’t call attention to it. One team on which several members had small children agreed among themselves to cover for one another so that everyone could have more flexible hours.

A male junior manager described working to have repeat consulting engagements with a company near enough to his home that he could take care of it with day trips. “I try to head out by 5, get home at 5:30, have dinner, play with my daughter,” he said, adding that he generally kept weekend work down to two hours of catching up on email.

Despite the limited hours, he said: “I know what clients are expecting. So I deliver above that.” He received a high performance review and a promotion.

What is fascinating about the firm Ms. Reid studied is that these people, who in her terminology were “passing” as workaholics, received performance reviews that were as strong as their hyper-ambitious colleagues. For people who were good at faking it, there was no real damage done by their lighter workloads.

It calls to mind the episode of “Seinfeld” in which George Costanza leaves his car in the parking lot at Yankee Stadium, where he works, and gets a promotion because his boss sees the car and thinks he is getting to work earlier and staying later than anyone else. (The strategy goes awry for him, and is not recommended for any aspiring partners in a consulting firm.)

A second finding is that women, particularly those with young children, were much more likely to request greater flexibility through more formal means, such as returning from maternity leave with an explicitly reduced schedule. Men who requested a paternity leave seemed to be punished come review time, and so may have felt more need to take time to spend with their families through those unofficial methods.

The result of this is easy to see: Those specifically requesting a lighter workload, who were disproportionately women, suffered in their performance reviews; those who took a lighter workload more discreetly didn’t suffer. The maxim of “ask forgiveness, not permission” seemed to apply.

It would be dangerous to extrapolate too much from a study at one firm, but Ms. Reid said in an interview that since publishing a summary of her research in Harvard Business Review she has heard from people in a variety of industries describing the same dynamic.

High-octane professional service firms are that way for a reason, and no one would doubt that insane hours and lots of travel can be necessary if you’re a lawyer on the verge of a big trial, an accountant right before tax day or an investment banker advising on a huge merger.

But the fact that the consultants who quietly lightened their workload did just as well in their performance reviews as those who were truly working 80 or more hours a week suggests that in normal times, heavy workloads may be more about signaling devotion to a firm than really being more productive. The person working 80 hours isn’t necessarily serving clients any better than the person working 50.

In other words, maybe the real problem isn’t men faking greater devotion to their jobs. Maybe it’s that too many companies reward the wrong things, favoring the illusion of extraordinary effort over actual productivity.

How Some Men Fake an 80-Hour Workweek, and Why It Matters

Mr. Haroche was a founder of Liberty Travel, which grew from a two-man operation to the largest leisure travel operation in the United States.

Gilbert Haroche, Builder of an Economy Travel Empire, Dies at 87

BALTIMORE — In the afternoons, the streets of Locust Point are clean and nearly silent. In front of the rowhouses, potted plants rest next to steps of brick or concrete. There is a shopping center nearby with restaurants, and a grocery store filled with fresh foods.

And the National Guard and the police are largely absent. So, too, residents say, are worries about what happened a few miles away on April 27 when, in a space of hours, parts of this city became riot zones.

“They’re not our reality,” Ashley Fowler, 30, said on Monday at the restaurant where she works. “They’re not what we’re living right now. We live in, not to be racist, white America.”

As Baltimore considers its way forward after the violent unrest brought by the death of Freddie Gray, a 25-year-old black man who died of injuries he suffered while in police custody, residents in its predominantly white neighborhoods acknowledge that they are sometimes struggling to understand what beyond Mr. Gray’s death spurred the turmoil here. For many, the poverty and troubled schools of gritty West Baltimore are distant troubles, glimpsed only when they pass through the area on their way somewhere else.

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Officers blocked traffic at Pennsylvania and West North Avenues after reports that a gun was discharged in the area. Credit Drew Angerer for The New York Times

And so neighborhoods of Baltimore are facing altogether different reckonings after Mr. Gray’s death. In mostly black communities like Sandtown-Winchester, where some of the most destructive rioting played out last week, residents are hoping businesses will reopen and that the police will change their strategies. But in mostly white areas like Canton and Locust Point, some residents wonder what role, if any, they should play in reimagining stretches of Baltimore where they do not live.

“Most of the people are kind of at a loss as to what they’re supposed to do,” said Dr. Richard Lamb, a dentist who has practiced in the same Locust Point office for nearly 39 years. “I listen to the news reports. I listen to the clergymen. I listen to the facts of the rampant unemployment and the lack of opportunities in the area. Listen, I pay my taxes. Exactly what can I do?”

And in Canton, where the restaurants have clever names like Nacho Mama’s and Holy Crepe Bakery and Café, Sara Bahr said solutions seemed out of reach for a proudly liberal city.

“I can only imagine how frustrated they must be,” said Ms. Bahr, 36, a nurse who was out with her 3-year-old daughter, Sally. “I just wish I knew how to solve poverty. I don’t know what to do to make it better.”

The day of unrest and the overwhelmingly peaceful demonstrations that followed led to hundreds of arrests, often for violations of the curfew imposed on the city for five consecutive nights while National Guard soldiers patrolled the streets. Although there were isolated instances of trouble in Canton, the neighborhood association said on its website, many parts of southeast Baltimore were physically untouched by the tumult.

Tensions in the city bubbled anew on Monday after reports that the police had wounded a black man in Northwest Baltimore. The authorities denied those reports and sent officers to talk with the crowds that gathered while other officers clutching shields blocked traffic at Pennsylvania and West North Avenues.

Lt. Col. Melvin Russell, a community police officer, said officers had stopped a man suspected of carrying a handgun and that “one of those rounds was spent.”

Colonel Russell said officers had not opened fire, “so we couldn’t have shot him.”

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Lambi Vasilakopoulos, right, who runs a casual restaurant in Canton, said he was incensed by last week's looting and predicted tensions would worsen. Credit Drew Angerer for The New York Times

The colonel said the man had not been injured but was taken to a hospital as a precaution. Nearby, many people stood in disbelief, despite the efforts by the authorities to quash reports they described as “unfounded.”

Monday’s episode was a brief moment in a larger drama that has yielded anger and confusion. Although many people said they were familiar with accounts of the police harassing or intimidating residents, many in Canton and Locust Point said they had never experienced it themselves. When they watched the unrest, which many protesters said was fueled by feelings that they lived only on Baltimore’s margins, even those like Ms. Bahr who were pained by what they saw said they could scarcely comprehend the emotions associated with it.

But others, like Lambi Vasilakopoulos, who runs a casual restaurant in Canton, said they were incensed by what unfolded last week.

“What happened wasn’t called for. Protests are one thing; looting is another thing,” he said, adding, “We’re very frustrated because we’re the ones who are going to pay for this.”

There were pockets of optimism, though, that Baltimore would enter a period of reconciliation.

“I’m just hoping for peace,” Natalie Boies, 53, said in front of the Locust Point home where she has lived for 50 years. “Learn to love each other; be patient with each other; find justice; and care.”

A skeptical Mr. Vasilakopoulos predicted tensions would worsen.

“It cannot be fixed,” he said. “It’s going to get worse. Why? Because people don’t obey the laws. They don’t want to obey them.”

But there were few fears that the violence that plagued West Baltimore last week would play out on these relaxed streets. The authorities, Ms. Fowler said, would make sure of that.

“They kept us safe here,” she said. “I didn’t feel uncomfortable when I was in my house three blocks away from here. I knew I was going to be O.K. because I knew they weren’t going to let anyone come and loot our properties or our businesses or burn our cars.”

Baltimore Residents Away From Turmoil Consider Their Role
Joseph Lechleider

Mr. Lechleider helped invent DSL technology, which enabled phone companies to offer high-speed web access over their infrastructure of copper wires.

Joseph Lechleider, a Father of the DSL Internet Technology, Dies at 82
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Many bodies prepared for cremation last week in Kathmandu were of young men from Gongabu, a common stopover for Nepali migrant workers headed overseas. Credit Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

KATHMANDU, Nepal — When the dense pillar of smoke from cremations by the Bagmati River was thinning late last week, the bodies were all coming from Gongabu, a common stopover for Nepali migrant workers headed overseas, and they were all of young men.

Hindu custom dictates that funeral pyres should be lighted by the oldest son of the deceased, but these men were too young to have sons, so they were burned by their brothers or fathers. Sukla Lal, a maize farmer, made a 14-hour journey by bus to retrieve the body of his 19-year-old son, who had been on his way to the Persian Gulf to work as a laborer.

“He wanted to live in the countryside, but he was compelled to leave by poverty,” Mr. Lal said, gazing ahead steadily as his son’s remains smoldered. “He told me, ‘You can live on your land, and I will come up with money, and we will have a happy family.’ ”

Weeks will pass before the authorities can give a complete accounting of who died in the April 25 earthquake, but it is already clear that Nepal cannot afford the losses. The countryside was largely stripped of its healthy young men even before the quake, as they migrated in great waves — 1,500 a day by some estimates — to work as laborers in India, Malaysia or one of the gulf nations, leaving many small communities populated only by elderly parents, women and children. Economists say that at some times of the year, one-quarter of Nepal’s population is working outside the country.

Nepal’s Young Men, Lost to Migration, Then a Quake

WASHINGTON — The former deputy director of the C.I.A. asserts in a forthcoming book that Republicans, in their eagerness to politicize the killing of the American ambassador to Libya, repeatedly distorted the agency’s analysis of events. But he also argues that the C.I.A. should get out of the business of providing “talking points” for administration officials in national security events that quickly become partisan, as happened after the Benghazi attack in 2012.

The official, Michael J. Morell, dismisses the allegation that the United States military and C.I.A. officers “were ordered to stand down and not come to the rescue of their comrades,” and he says there is “no evidence” to support the charge that “there was a conspiracy between C.I.A. and the White House to spin the Benghazi story in a way that would protect the political interests of the president and Secretary Clinton,” referring to the secretary of state at the time, Hillary Rodham Clinton.

But he also concludes that the White House itself embellished some of the talking points provided by the Central Intelligence Agency and had blocked him from sending an internal study of agency conclusions to Congress.

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Michael J. Morell Credit Mark Wilson/Getty Images

“I finally did so without asking,” just before leaving government, he writes, and after the White House released internal emails to a committee investigating the State Department’s handling of the issue.

A lengthy congressional investigation remains underway, one that many Republicans hope to use against Mrs. Clinton in the 2016 election cycle.

In parts of the book, “The Great War of Our Time” (Twelve), Mr. Morell praises his C.I.A. colleagues for many successes in stopping terrorist attacks, but he is surprisingly critical of other C.I.A. failings — and those of the National Security Agency.

Soon after Mr. Morell retired in 2013 after 33 years in the agency, President Obama appointed him to a commission reviewing the actions of the National Security Agency after the disclosures of Edward J. Snowden, a former intelligence contractor who released classified documents about the government’s eavesdropping abilities. Mr. Morell writes that he was surprised by what he found.

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“You would have thought that of all the government entities on the planet, the one least vulnerable to such grand theft would have been the N.S.A.,” he writes. “But it turned out that the N.S.A. had left itself vulnerable.”

He concludes that most Wall Street firms had better cybersecurity than the N.S.A. had when Mr. Snowden swept information from its systems in 2013. While he said he found himself “chagrined by how well the N.S.A. was doing” compared with the C.I.A. in stepping up its collection of data on intelligence targets, he also sensed that the N.S.A., which specializes in electronic spying, was operating without considering the implications of its methods.

“The N.S.A. had largely been collecting information because it could, not necessarily in all cases because it should,” he says.

The book is to be released next week.

Mr. Morell was a career analyst who rose through the ranks of the agency, and he ended up in the No. 2 post. He served as President George W. Bush’s personal intelligence briefer in the first months of his presidency — in those days, he could often be spotted at the Starbucks in Waco, Tex., catching up on his reading — and was with him in the schoolhouse in Florida on the morning of Sept. 11, 2001, when the Bush presidency changed in an instant.

Mr. Morell twice took over as acting C.I.A. director, first when Leon E. Panetta was appointed secretary of defense and then when retired Gen. David H. Petraeus resigned over an extramarital affair with his biographer, a relationship that included his handing her classified notes of his time as America’s best-known military commander.

Mr. Morell says he first learned of the affair from Mr. Petraeus only the night before he resigned, and just as the Benghazi events were turning into a political firestorm. While praising Mr. Petraeus, who had told his deputy “I am very lucky” to run the C.I.A., Mr. Morell writes that “the organization did not feel the same way about him.” The former general “created the impression through the tone of his voice and his body language that he did not want people to disagree with him (which was not true in my own interaction with him),” he says.

But it is his account of the Benghazi attacks — and how the C.I.A. was drawn into the debate over whether the Obama White House deliberately distorted its account of the death of Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens — that is bound to attract attention, at least partly because of its relevance to the coming presidential election. The initial assessments that the C.I.A. gave to the White House said demonstrations had preceded the attack. By the time analysts reversed their opinion, Susan E. Rice, now the national security adviser, had made a series of statements on Sunday talk shows describing the initial assessment. The controversy and other comments Ms. Rice made derailed Mr. Obama’s plan to appoint her as secretary of state.

The experience prompted Mr. Morell to write that the C.I.A. should stay out of the business of preparing talking points — especially on issues that are being seized upon for “political purposes.” He is critical of the State Department for not beefing up security in Libya for its diplomats, as the C.I.A., he said, did for its employees.

But he concludes that the assault in which the ambassador was killed took place “with little or no advance planning” and “was not well organized.” He says the attackers “did not appear to be looking for Americans to harm. They appeared intent on looting and conducting some vandalism,” setting fires that killed Mr. Stevens and a security official, Sean Smith.

Mr. Morell paints a picture of an agency that was struggling, largely unsuccessfully, to understand dynamics in the Middle East and North Africa when the Arab Spring broke out in late 2011 in Tunisia. The agency’s analysts failed to see the forces of revolution coming — and then failed again, he writes, when they told Mr. Obama that the uprisings would undercut Al Qaeda by showing there was a democratic pathway to change.

“There is no good explanation for our not being able to see the pressures growing to dangerous levels across the region,” he writes. The agency had again relied too heavily “on a handful of strong leaders in the countries of concern to help us understand what was going on in the Arab street,” he says, and those leaders themselves were clueless.

Moreover, an agency that has always overvalued secretly gathered intelligence and undervalued “open source” material “was not doing enough to mine the wealth of information available through social media,” he writes. “We thought and told policy makers that this outburst of popular revolt would damage Al Qaeda by undermining the group’s narrative,” he writes.

Instead, weak governments in Egypt, and the absence of governance from Libya to Yemen, were “a boon to Islamic extremists across both the Middle East and North Africa.”

Mr. Morell is gentle about most of the politicians he dealt with — he expresses admiration for both Mr. Bush and Mr. Obama, though he accuses former Vice President Dick Cheney of deliberately implying a connection between Al Qaeda and Iraq that the C.I.A. had concluded probably did not exist. But when it comes to the events leading up to the Bush administration’s decision to go to war in Iraq, he is critical of his own agency.

Mr. Morell concludes that the Bush White House did not have to twist intelligence on Saddam Hussein’s alleged effort to rekindle the country’s work on weapons of mass destruction.

“The view that hard-liners in the Bush administration forced the intelligence community into its position on W.M.D. is just flat wrong,” he writes. “No one pushed. The analysts were already there and they had been there for years, long before Bush came to office.”

Ex-C.I.A. Official Rebuts Republican Claims on Benghazi Attack in ‘The Great War of Our Time’

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Late in April, after Native American actors walked off in disgust from the set of Adam Sandler’s latest film, a western sendup that its distributor, Netflix, has defended as being equally offensive to all, a glow of pride spread through several Native American communities.

Tantoo Cardinal, a Canadian indigenous actress who played Black Shawl in “Dances With Wolves,” recalled thinking to herself, “It’s come.” Larry Sellers, who starred as Cloud Dancing in the 1990s television show “Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman,” thought, “It’s about time.” Jesse Wente, who is Ojibwe and directs film programming at the TIFF Bell Lightbox in Toronto, found himself encouraged and surprised. There are so few film roles for indigenous actors, he said, that walking off the set of a major production showed real mettle.

But what didn’t surprise Mr. Wente was the content of the script. According to the actors who walked off the set, the film, titled “The Ridiculous Six,” included a Native American woman who passes out and is revived after white men douse her with alcohol, and another woman squatting to urinate while lighting a peace pipe. “There’s enough history at this point to have set some expectations around these sort of Hollywood depictions,” Mr. Wente said.

The walkout prompted a rhetorical “What do you expect from an Adam Sandler film?,” and a Netflix spokesman said that in the movie, blacks, Mexicans and whites were lampooned as well. But Native American actors and critics said a broader issue was at stake. While mainstream portrayals of native peoples have, Mr. Wente said, become “incrementally better” over the decades, he and others say, they remain far from accurate and reflect a lack of opportunities for Native American performers. What’s more, as Native Americans hunger for representation on screen, critics say the absence of three-dimensional portrayals has very real off-screen consequences.

“Our people are still healing from historical trauma,” said Loren Anthony, one of the actors who walked out. “Our youth are still trying to figure out who they are, where they fit in this society. Kids are killing themselves. They’re not proud of who they are.” They also don’t, he added, see themselves on prime time television or the big screen. Netflix noted while about five people walked off the “The Ridiculous Six” set, 100 or so Native American actors and extras stayed.

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But in interviews, nearly a dozen Native American actors and film industry experts said that Mr. Sandler’s humor perpetuated decades-old negative stereotypes. Mr. Anthony said such depictions helped feed the despondency many Native Americans feel, with deadly results: Native Americans have the highest suicide rate out of all the country’s ethnicities.

The on-screen problem is twofold, Mr. Anthony and others said: There’s a paucity of roles for Native Americans — according to the Screen Actors Guild in 2008 they accounted for 0.3 percent of all on-screen parts (those figures have yet to be updated), compared to about 2 percent of the general population — and Native American actors are often perceived in a narrow way.

In his Peabody Award-winning documentary “Reel Injun,” the Cree filmmaker Neil Diamond explored Hollywood depictions of Native Americans over the years, and found they fell into a few stereotypical categories: the Noble Savage, the Drunk Indian, the Mystic, the Indian Princess, the backward tribal people futilely fighting John Wayne and manifest destiny. While the 1990 film “Dances With Wolves” won praise for depicting Native Americans as fully fleshed out human beings, not all indigenous people embraced it. It was still told, critics said, from the colonialists’ point of view. In an interview, John Trudell, a Santee Sioux writer, actor (“Thunderheart”) and the former chairman of the American Indian Movement, described the film as “a story of two white people.”

“God bless ‘Dances with Wolves,’ ” Michael Horse, who played Deputy Hawk in “Twin Peaks,” said sarcastically. “Even ‘Avatar.’ Someone’s got to come save the tribal people.”

Dan Spilo, a partner at Industry Entertainment who represents Adam Beach, one of today’s most prominent Native American actors, said while typecasting dogs many minorities, it is especially intractable when it comes to Native Americans. Casting directors, he said, rarely cast them as police officers, doctors or lawyers. “There’s the belief that the Native American character should be on reservations or riding a horse,” he said.

“We don’t see ourselves,” Mr. Horse said. “We’re still an antiquated culture to them, and to the rest of the world.”

Ms. Cardinal said she was once turned down for the role of the wife of a child-abusing cop because the filmmakers felt that casting her would somehow be “too political.”

Another sore point is the long run of white actors playing American Indians, among them Burt Lancaster, Rock Hudson, Audrey Hepburn and, more recently, Johnny Depp, whose depiction of Tonto in the 2013 film “Lone Ranger,” was viewed as racist by detractors. There are, of course, exceptions. The former A&E series “Longmire,” which, as it happens, will now be on Netflix, was roundly praised for its depiction of life on a Northern Cheyenne reservation, with Lou Diamond Phillips, who is of Cherokee descent, playing a Northern Cheyenne man.

Others also point to the success of Mr. Beach, who played a Mohawk detective in “Law & Order: Special Victims Unit” and landed a starring role in the forthcoming D C Comics picture “Suicide Squad.” Mr. Beach said he had come across insulting scripts backed by people who don’t see anything wrong with them.

“I’d rather starve than do something that is offensive to my ancestral roots,” Mr. Beach said. “But I think there will always be attempts to drawn on the weakness of native people’s struggles. The savage Indian will always be the savage Indian. The white man will always be smarter and more cunning. The cavalry will always win.”

The solution, Mr. Wente, Mr. Trudell and others said, lies in getting more stories written by and starring Native Americans. But Mr. Wente noted that while independent indigenous film has blossomed in the last two decades, mainstream depictions have yet to catch up. “You have to stop expecting for Hollywood to correct it, because there seems to be no ability or desire to correct it,” Mr. Wente said.

There have been calls to boycott Netflix but, writing for Indian Country Today Media Network, which first broke news of the walk off, the filmmaker Brian Young noted that the distributor also offered a number of films by or about Native Americans.

The furor around “The Ridiculous Six” may drive more people to see it. Then one of the questions that Mr. Trudell, echoing others, had about the film will be answered: “Who the hell laughs at this stuff?”

Native American Actors Work to Overcome a Long-Documented Bias

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