PAKET UMROH BULAN FEBRUARI MARET APRIL MEI 2018




Artikel lainnya »

Komputer terbagi 2 bagian :
*. Perangkat keras komputer (computer hardware) adalah komponen-komponen fisik yang membentuk satu kesatuan sistem Personal Computer (PC).
* Perangkat Lunak (computer software) adalah sekumpulan data elektronik yang disimpan dan diatur oleh komputer, data elektronik yang disimpan oleh komputer itu dapat berupa program atau instruksi yang akan menjalankan suatu perintah. Melalui sofware atau perangkat lunak inilah suatu komputer dapat menjalankan suatu perintah
 
PERANGKAT KERAS (Computer Hardware)
Biasanya perangkat-perangkat ini dirakit dan sebagian besar dimasukkan ke dalam sebuah casing komputer dan sebagian lain berada di luar casing.
Perangkat keras yang berada di dalam casing umumnya terdiri dari:
1. Central Processing Unit (CPU)  
Biasa juga kita kenal sebagai “processor” atau “otak” dari komputer.
Fungsi dari CPU ini adalah memproses dan mengolah semua kalkulasi dan perintah-perintah yang membuat komputer dapat dioperasikan. Karena panas yang dihasilkannya, CPU selalu dilengkapi dengan kipas dan juga heat sink untuk mengurangi suhunya. Pada jenis-jenis CPU terbaru, sudah dilengkapi pula dengan Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) yang terintegrasi ke dalam CPU, sebagai pengolah data-data grafis.

2. Papan induk (motherboard)
adalah papan sirkuit tempat berbagai komponen elektronik saling terhubung seperti pada PC atau Macintosh dan biasa disingkat dengan kata mobo.Motherboard yang banyak ditemui dipasaran saat ini adalah motherboard milik PC yang pertama kali dibuat dengan dasar agar dapat sesuai dengan spesifikasi PC IBM.
3. Random Access Memory (RAM) 
RAM berfungsi sebagai tempat transit data sementara untuk operasi-operasi yang tengah dijalankan oleh CPU. RAM bersifat volatile, artinya perangkat ini tidak meyimpan data secara permanen, hanya untuk operasi yang dibutuhkan saja. Kapasitas RAM pada PC yang sering kita temukan cukup beragam , mulai dari 256 MB (MegaBytes) – 16 GB (GigaBytes)
4. Backing Storage ( unit penyimpanan)
Harddisk Drive (HDD)
Harddisk bisa juga disebut Harddisk drive (HDD) atau hard drive (HD), Harddisk adalah sebuah salah satu perangkat keras komputer yang berfungsi sebagai tempat penyimpanan data sekunder, di dalam harddisk berisi piringan magnetis. Harddisk pertama kali diciptakan oleh salah satu insinyur IBM, ia adalah Reynold Johnson pada tahun 1956. Harddisk yang juga dikenal dengan nama piringan keras ini pertama kali terdiri dari 50 piringan berukuran 2 kaki atau 0,6 meter, dengan kecepatan putaran mencapai 1.200 rpm (rotation per minute) dengan kapasitas penyimpanan 4,4 MB. Data yang disimpan dalam harddisk tidak akan hilang ketika tidak diberi tegangan listrik. Dalam sebuah harddisk, biasanya terdapat lebih dari satu piringan untuk memperbesar kapasitas data yang dapat ditampung.
Dalam perkembangannya harddisk ukuran fiskiknya menjadi semakin tipis dan kecil namun memiliki daya tampung data yang sangat besar. Harddisk saat juga tidak hanya dapat terpasang di dalam perangkat (internal) tetapi juga dapat dipasang di luar perangkat (eksternal) dengan menggunakan kabel USB ataupun kabel lain yang mendukung. 
5. Video Graphic Array (VGA)
VGA card atau kartu grafis berfungsi sebagai penghubung yang memungkinkan pengiriman data-data grafis antara PC dan perangkat display seperti monitor atau proyektor. yang mengambil memori dari RAM utama komputer, ini merupakan kebanyakkan dari mainboard berkartu grafis onboard yang beredar dipasaran dikarenakan harganya yang lebih murah dari jenis mainboard lainnya. Karena kartu grafis onboard jenis kedua ini mengambil memori dari RAM utama komputer maka biasanya ukuran RAM komputer kita akan berkurang sebanyak jumlah yang dipakai kartu grafis onboard tersebut. Jadi jangan heran kalo RAM di komputer kita tidak menunjukkan ukuran yang seharusnya, mungkin hanya dikarenakan terpakai sebagian sebagai memori bagi kartu grafis onboard komputermu.
6. Optical Disk Drive (CD Room /DVD Room)
Optical disk drive adalah bagian integral dari konsumen yang berdiri sendiri peralatan seperti CD players, pemutar DVD dan DVD recorder. Mereka juga sangat umum digunakan pada perangkat lunak komputer untuk membaca dan konsumen media yang didistribusikan dalam bentuk CD, dan untuk merekam cakram untuk arsip dan pertukaran data. Optical drive-bersama memori flash-sebagian besar telah mengungsi floppy disk drive dan tape drive magnetik untuk tujuan ini karena biaya rendah dan media optik yang nyaris di mana-mana optical drive di komputer dan perangkat keras konsumen hiburan.
7. POWER SUPPLY UNIT ( PSU )
Pada dasarnya power supply termasuk dari bagian power conversion. Power conversion sendiri terdiri dari tiga macam: AC/DC Power Supply,DC/DC Converter,dan DC/AC Inverter. Power supply untuk PC sering juga disebut sebagai PSU (power supply unit).
PSU termasuk power conversion AC/DC, Fungsi utamanya mengubah listrik arus bolak-balik (AC) yang tersedia dari aliran listrik (di Indonesia, PLN). Menjadi arus listrik searah (DC) yang dibutuhkan oleh komponen pada PC.  
8. MONITOR
Disebut juga screen atau display. Fungsi dari layar monitor adalah untuk menampilkan video dan informasi grafis yang dihasilkan dari komputer melalui alat yang disebut kartu grafis (VGA Card). Monitor ini bentuk fisiknya hampir sama dengan televisi , hanya saja televisi biasanya mampu menampilkan informasi grafis dengan ukuran resolusi yang lebih tinggi. 
9. KEYBOARD & MOUSE
Keyboard dan mouse berfungsi sebagai alat input untuk memasukkan perintah teks, karakter, atau menggerakkan objek pada antarmuka grafis untuk diproses oleh komputer. Ukuran dan bentuk dari kedua alat ini cukup beragam, namun fungsinya sama saja.
10. PRINTER & SCANER
Printer berfungsi sebagai alat output cetak dari dokumen elektronik baik bentuk teks maupun grafis. Pada komputer rumahan biasanya menggunakan kertas sebagai media cetaknya. Sedangkan fungsi scanner adalah kebalikan dari printer yaitu memindai input data dari luar komputer ke dalam bentuk elektronik yang dapat diolah secara digital. 
11. SPEAKER
Fungsi dari speaker adalah sebagai alat output suara yang dihasilkan dari komputer. Selain speaker, sering juga kita temukan orang yang menggunakan headphone/headset sebagai alat output suara.
12. SOUND CARD
Fungsinya sebagai penghubung antara komputer dan alat output audio seperti speaker
13. MODEM
Alat ini berfungsi untuk menghubungkan komputer ke internet
14. LAN CARD
Fungsinya sebagai penghubung komputer dalam suatu jaringan.
BAGIAN BAGIAN KOMPUTER

saco-indonesia.com, Saya ingin mengawali renungan kita kali ini dengan mengingatkan pada salah satu kisah kehidupan yang mungkin banyak tercecer di depan mata kita. Cerita ini tentang seorang kakek yang sederhana, hidup sebagai orang kampung yang bersahaja. Suatu sore, ia mendapati pohon pepaya di depan rumahnya telah berbuah. Walaupun hanya dua buah namun telah menguning dan siap dipanen. Ia berencana memetik buah itu di keesokan hari. Namun, tatkala pagi tiba, ia mendapati satu buah pepayanya hilang dicuri orang.

 

Kakek itu begitu bersedih, hingga istrinya merasa heran. “masak hanya karena sebuah pepaya saja engkau demikian murung” ujar sang istri.

“bukan itu yang aku sedihkan” jawab sang kakek, “aku kepikiran, betapa sulitnya orang itu mengambil pepaya kita. Ia harus sembunyi-sembunyi di tengah malam agar tidak ketahuan orang. Belum lagi mesti memanjatnya dengan susah payah untuk bisa memetiknya..”

“dari itu Bune” lanjut sang kakek, “saya akan pinjam tangga dan saya taruh di bawah pohon pepaya kita, mudah-mudahan ia datang kembali malam ini dan tidak akan kesulitan lagi mengambil yang satunya”.
Namun saat pagi kembali hadir, ia mendapati pepaya yang tinggal sebuah itu tetap ada beserta tangganya tanpa bergeser sedikitpun. Ia mencoba bersabar, dan berharap pencuri itu akan muncul lagi di malam ini. Namun di pagi berikutnya, tetap saja buah pepaya itu masih di tempatnya.

Di sore harinya, sang kakek kedatangan seorang tamu yang menenteng duah buah pepaya besar di tangannya. Ia belum pernah mengenal si tamu tersebut. Singkat cerita, setelah berbincang lama, saat hendak pamitan tamu itu dengan amat menyesal mengaku bahwa ialah yang telah mencuri pepayanya.

“Sebenarnya” kata sang tamu, “di malam berikutnya saya ingin mencuri buah pepaya yang tersisa. Namun saat saya menemukan ada tangga di sana, saya tersadarkan dan sejak itu saya bertekad untuk tidak mencuri lagi. Untuk itu, saya kembalikan pepaya Anda dan untuk menebus kesalahan saya, saya hadiahkan pepaya yang baru saya beli di pasar untuk Anda”.

Hikmah yang bisa diambil dari kisah inspirasi diatas, adalah tentang keikhlasan, kesabaran, kebajikan dan cara pandang positif terhadap kehidupan.

Mampukah kita tetap bersikap positif saat kita kehilangan sesuatu yang kita cintai dengan ikhlas mencari sisi baiknya serta melupakan sakitnya suatu “musibah”?

Sumber:Pengjian LDII(Liwon Maulana "galipat")

 

Cerita Inspiratif: Kisah Kakek dan Pencuri Pepaya

Tujuh tahun menjadi Tenaga Kerja Indonesia (TKI) di Korea di Korea, benar-benar tidak disia-siakan oleh Mugiyanto, yang umurnya sudah tidak terbilang muda.

Bapak satu anak yang tinggal di Dusun Silowan, Kelurahan Pager Sari, Kecamatan Bergas, Kabupaten Semarang, Jawa Tengah ini merasa cukup mengais modal dengan tiga tahun menjadi buruh bimbel (1997-2000), dan empat tahun menjadi buruh tekstil (2005-2009). Setelah itu, ia menekuni bisnis pembuatan batako, paving, bis beton, kolong selokan, dan lain-lain.

Sekitar tujuh tahun menjadi TKI merupakan waktu yang sangat singkat sekali dalam mencari modal. Oleh karena itu, ia tidak membuang-buang waktu yang relatif singkat tersebut untuk bekerja dan menabung.

Mengapa ia tidak membuang-buang waktu? Sebab, Mugiyanto setelah mendarat di tanah Air akan menjalani usaha sendiri.

Mugiyanto menjelaskan, untuk melakoni bisnisnya tersebut modal yang dibutuhkan mencapai ratusan juta. Modal tersebut dikucurkannya untuk membeli tanah tempat produksi dan gudang sederhana sebesar Rp90 juta. Untuk peralatan dan mesin cetak batako, bis beton, dibutuhkan modal sebesar Rp45 juta. Membeli dua unit truk kecil untuk mengantar produk pesanan dan operasional diperlukan uang sebesar Rp100 juta. Nah, itu belum terhitung bahan-bahan, seperti pasir, semen, dan sirtu.

Jadi, dalam membuka usahanya, ia menyiapkan modal kurang lebih sebesar Rp225 juta. "Semua uang saya peroleh dari menabung selama menjadi TKI di Korea," ujarnya.

Kini, usahanya berjalan maju. Mugoyanto mengaku dirinya mampu meraup untung sebesar Rp5 juta hingga Rp 7 juta per bulannya. (*DI)
'Mugiyanto, Mantan TKI yang Sukses Jadi Pengusaha Batako ':

Artikel Bisnis Lainnya

    Mengapa Teman Sekelas yang Lebih Muda Lebih Sukses Pernahkah Anda merasa tersaingi dengan seseorang yang usianya tak lebih tua dari Anda, bahkan lebih muda tetapi telah berada setingkat dengan Anda? Anda bisa menemukan orang-orang seperti ini di berbagai kesempatan, seperti di kelas saat Anda masih sekolah dulu, atau kuliah atau ... Artikel Bisnis

    Kisah Jatuh-bangun Pemilik Corner Kebab Sebagai pebisnis baru, tentu banyak masalah yang harus dihadapi oleh Ardi, nama panggilan dari pemilik franchise atau waralaba Corner Kebab, Ardiansyah Murdiawan Saputra. Namun, berbagai masalah itu dianggap Ardi bukan sebagai hambatan, melainkan tantangan yang harus ... Artikel Bisnis

    EXCELSO, Kopi untuk Kalangan Menengah Atas Bagi Anda penggemar kopi tentu tak asing dengan nama EXCELSO. Kafe EXCELSO tersebut kali pertama dibuka pada September 1991 di Plaza Indonesia, Jakarta, untuk mendukung merek kopi yang baru diciptakan oleh PT Santos Jaya Abadi, yaitu kopi EXCELSO. Kopi EXCELSO dibuat dan dipasarkan ... Artikel Bisnis

    Ingin Kuliah Entrepreneurship? Baca Ini Dulu Jika Anda benar ingin sukses dalam berwirausaha, mungkin Anda bisa mempertimbangkan untuk mengambil sebuah jurusan entrepreneurshp atau yang berhubungan dengan entrepreneurship di universitas. Bagi Anda yang menyukai dunia bisnis dan wirausaha, tentunya ini menjadi sebuah peluang ... Artikel Bisnis

    Cetak Omzet Puluhan Juta dari Mi Ayam Bisnis makanan memang tak pernah surut. Salah satunya ialah bisnis mi ayam. Meski banyak pemain, toh bisnis ini tetap menjanjikan. Hal tersebut membuat Teguh Mardianto mantap mengeluti usaha yang telah dirintis oleh ibunya sejak tahun 1993 di daerah Prambanan, Klaten, Jawa ... Artikel Bisnis

 

PEMBUATAN BATAKO, DENGAN MESIN BATAKO
Satuan reserse unit Perlindungan Perempuan dan Anak (PPA) Polresta Depok, telah berhasil menangkap FR yang berusia 17 tahun , atas dugaan menganiaya mantan kekasihnya, MUM yang berusia 16 tahun , karena tidak mau diputus hubungan. Keduanya juga merupakan pelajar di salah satu sekolah yang sama di Jagakarsa, Jakarta Selatan. Kisah tragis yang telah dialami oleh korban, terungkap setelah menceritakan segala perbuatan mantan kekasihnya tersebut ke keluarganya. Berdasarkan dari keterangan dari adik korban, Salwa, kakaknya tersebut telah mengalami luka memar disekujur tubuh akibat dari perlakuan penganiayaan oleh FR. Keduanya juga pernah menjalin kasih asmara, namun tidak bertahan lama, lantaran sikap FR yang suka melakukan kekerasan terhadap kakaknya. “Motif pelaku memukul kakaknya diduga karena motif jalinan asmara,”ujarnya. Akibatnya, lanjut Salwa, warga Pancoranmas itu luka memar di tangan dan kaki. Selain itu berdasarkan informasi dari teman sekolah korban, kakaknya tersebut juga pernah diancam dengan menggunakan pisau kater pemotong kertas. “Kakak saya acapkali menerima pukulan,” jelasnya. Luka fisik yang harus diterima remaja tersebut, juga telah membuat kakaknya mengalami gangguan mental. Hal itu telah terlihat dengan merosotnya nilai di sekolah. “Belakang hari ini, nilai kakak merosot dratis. Dikhawatirkan ada kaitannya dari dampak penyiksaan dan ancaman pelaku,”ungkapnya. Wakapolresta Depok, AKBP Irwan Anwar juga mengatakan membenarkan ada penangkapan pelaku akibat kekerasan yang telah dilakukan pelaku ke korban. “Anggota penyidik masih mendalami kasusnya, dan mencari motif sesungguhnya dibalik aksi pelaku,”ungkapnya. Kasusnya, ujar Irwan, sedang ditangani oleh Unit Perlindungan Perempuan dan Anak (PPA) Polres Depok. “Kami juga masih perlu memeriksa lagi. Sementara ini, kasusnya terus dikembangkan,” tandas Irwan. Kasus yang telah dialami FR dengan MUM mirip dengan kisah badai asmara antara yang menimpa Ade Sara Angelina Suroto,18, mahasiswi Bunda Mulya yang tewas dihabisi mantan pacarnya sendiri, Ahmad Imam Al Hafitd, 19, bersama kekasihnya, Assyifa Ramadani, 18. Bedanya dalam kasus ini, korban tidak sampai tewas. PELAJAR DITANGKAP POLISI

Sewa mobil di Cirebon murah. Murah bukan berarti miskin kualitas. Murah juga merupakan upaya dari pihak penyedia layanan untuk dapat memberikan tarif layanan yang diinginkan dan banyak dibutuhkan oleh konsumen. Demikian juga dengan layanan jasa sewa mobil di Cirebon. Anda juga bisa menemukan banyak layanan jasa sewa mobil murah yang tak kalah berkualitasnya dengan mobil-mobil yang mahal. Jika ada yang murah dan berkualitas, mengapa harus pilih yang mahal?

Tak semua orang saat bepergian telah memiliki anggaran yang besar. Sebagian orang telah memilih bepergian secara kolektif dengan tujuan untuk dapat menghemat anggaran. Salah satu anggaran yang cukup besar dikeluarkan selama dalam perjalanan adalah soal transportasi. Oleh karena itu, jika Anda akan bepergian ke Kota Cirebon secara bersama, sewa mobil di Cirebon dengan harga yang murah merupakan solusi perjalanan yang menyenangkan dan tentunya banyak dicari orang.

Banyak juga orang yang tak mempermasalahkan suasana kendaraan selama perjalanan karena faktor pendanaan yang terbatas. Namun sebenarnya kondisi dana yang terbatas tak menjadi alasan untuk Anda tidak bisa nyaman dalam perjalanan. Ada banyak tawaran sewa mobil di Cirebon yang bisa Anda dapatkan dengan harga yang murah meriah dan tetap nyaman berkualitas.

Sewa mobil di Cirebon ada banyak jenis armadanya, mulai dari armada avanza, elf, xenia dan lain sebagainya, hingga jenis-jenis mobil elit ditawarkan untuk mereka yang memiliki banyak anggaran dalam perjalanan. Sewa mobil di Cirebon akan membuat perjalanan Anda menjadi lebih berkesan di Kota Cirebon. Berbagai objek wisata sejarah, mengunjungi pusat kerajinan batik, mencicipi aneka rasa kuliner yang sulit dilupakan, berbelanja aneka jenis batik berkualitas dan oleh-oleh Kota Cirebon lainnya.

Sewa mobil di Cirebon sekarang juga, dan nikmati perjalanan berkesan bersama orang-orang tercinta. Sesekali untuk bisa menikmati suasana liburan yang lebih berkesan, ada baiknya Anda memilih sewa mobil di Cirebon ketimbang harus membawa mobil sendiri dan letih meyetir sendiri. Tujuan dari liburan adalah rileks dan santai, dengan memilih sewa mobil maka hal itu bisa Anda wujudkan.

 

SEWA MOBIL CIREBON

Mr. Alger, who served five terms from Texas, led Republican women in a confrontation with Lyndon B. Johnson that may have cost Richard M. Nixon the 1960 presidential election.

Bruce Alger, 96, Dies; Led ‘Mink Coat’ Protest Against Lyndon Johnson

Judge Patterson helped to protect the rights of Attica inmates after the prison riot in 1971 and later served on the Federal District Court in Manhattan.

Robert Patterson Jr., Lawyer and Judge Who Fought for the Accused, Dies at 91

The bottle Mr. Sokolin famously broke was a 1787 Château Margaux, which was said to have belonged to Thomas Jefferson. Mr. Sokolin had been hoping to sell it for $519,750.

William Sokolin, Wine Seller Who Broke Famed Bottle, Dies at 85

HOBART, Tasmania — Few places seem out of reach for China’s leader, Xi Jinping, who has traveled from European capitals to obscure Pacific and Caribbean islands in pursuit of his nation’s strategic interests.

So perhaps it was not surprising when he turned up last fall in this city on the edge of the Southern Ocean to put down a long-distance marker in another faraway region, Antarctica, 2,000 miles south of this Australian port.

Standing on the deck of an icebreaker that ferries Chinese scientists from this last stop before the frozen continent, Mr. Xi pledged that China would continue to expand in one of the few places on earth that remain unexploited by humans.

He signed a five-year accord with the Australian government that allows Chinese vessels and, in the future, aircraft to resupply for fuel and food before heading south. That will help secure easier access to a region that is believed to have vast oil and mineral resources; huge quantities of high-protein sea life; and for times of possible future dire need, fresh water contained in icebergs.

It was not until 1985, about seven decades after Robert Scott and Roald Amundsen raced to the South Pole, that a team representing Beijing hoisted the Chinese flag over the nation’s first Antarctic research base, the Great Wall Station on King George Island.

But now China seems determined to catch up. As it has bolstered spending on Antarctic research, and as the early explorers, especially the United States and Australia, confront stagnant budgets, there is growing concern about its intentions.

China’s operations on the continent — it opened its fourth research station last year, chose a site for a fifth, and is investing in a second icebreaker and new ice-capable planes and helicopters — are already the fastest growing of the 52 signatories to the Antarctic Treaty. That gentlemen’s agreement reached in 1959 bans military activity on the continent and aims to preserve it as one of the world’s last wildernesses; a related pact prohibits mining.

Advertisement

But Mr. Xi’s visit was another sign that China is positioning itself to take advantage of the continent’s resource potential when the treaty expires in 2048 — or in the event that it is ripped up before, Chinese and Australian experts say.

“So far, our research is natural-science based, but we know there is more and more concern about resource security,” said Yang Huigen, director general of the Polar Research Institute of China, who accompanied Mr. Xi last November on his visit to Hobart and stood with him on the icebreaker, Xue Long, or Snow Dragon.

With that in mind, the polar institute recently opened a new division devoted to the study of resources, law, geopolitics and governance in Antarctica and the Arctic, Mr. Yang said.

Australia, a strategic ally of the United States that has strong economic relations with China, is watching China’s buildup in the Antarctic with a mix of gratitude — China’s presence offers support for Australia’s Antarctic science program, which is short of cash — and wariness.

“We should have no illusions about the deeper agenda — one that has not even been agreed to by Chinese scientists but is driven by Xi, and most likely his successors,” said Peter Jennings, executive director of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute and a former senior official in the Australian Department of Defense.

“This is part of a broader pattern of a mercantilist approach all around the world,” Mr. Jennings added. “A big driver of Chinese policy is to secure long-term energy supply and food supply.”

That approach was evident last month when a large Chinese agriculture enterprise announced an expansion of its fishing operations around Antarctica to catch more krill — small, protein-rich crustaceans that are abundant in Antarctic waters.

“The Antarctic is a treasure house for all human beings, and China should go there and share,” Liu Shenli, the chairman of the China National Agricultural Development Group, told China Daily, a state-owned newspaper. China would aim to fish up to two million tons of krill a year, he said, a substantial increase from what it currently harvests.

Because sovereignty over Antarctica is unclear, nations have sought to strengthen their claims over the ice-covered land by building research bases and naming geographic features. China’s fifth station will put it within reach of the six American facilities, and ahead of Australia’s three.

Chinese mappers have also given Chinese names to more than 300 sites, compared with the thousands of locations on the continent with English names.

In the unspoken competition for Antarctica’s future, scientific achievement can also translate into influence. Chinese scientists are driving to be the first to drill and recover an ice core containing tiny air bubbles that provide a record of climate change stretching as far back as 1.5 million years. It is an expensive and delicate effort at which others, including the European Union and Australia, have failed.

In a breakthrough a decade ago, European scientists extracted an ice core nearly two miles long that revealed 800,000 years of climate history. But finding an ice core going back further would allow scientists to examine a change in the earth’s climate cycles believed to have occurred 900,000 to 1.2 million years ago.

China is betting it has found the best location to drill, at an area called Dome A, or Dome Argus, the highest point on the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Though it is considered one of the coldest places on the planet, with temperatures of 130 degrees below zero Fahrenheit, a Chinese expedition explored the area in 2005 and established a research station in 2009.

“The international community has drilled in lots of places, but no luck so far,” said Xiao Cunde, a member of the first party to reach the site and the deputy director of the Institute for Climate Change at the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences. “We think at Dome A we will have a straight shot at the one-million-year ice core.”

Mr. Xiao said China had already begun drilling and hoped to find what scientists are looking for in four to five years.

To support its Antarctic aspirations, China is building a sophisticated $300 million icebreaker that is expected to be ready in a few years, said Xia Limin, deputy director of the Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Administration in Beijing. It has also bought a high-tech fixed-wing aircraft, outfitted in the United States, for taking sensitive scientific soundings from the ice.

China has chosen the site for its fifth research station at Inexpressible Island, named by a group of British explorers who were stranded at the desolate site in 1912 and survived the winter by excavating a small ice cave.

Mr. Xia said the inhospitable spot was ideal because China did not have a presence in that part of Antarctica, and because the rocky site did not have much snow, making it relatively cheap to build there.

Anne-Marie Brady, a professor of political science at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand and the author of a soon-to-be-released book, “China as a Polar Great Power,” said Chinese scientists also believed they had a good chance of finding mineral and energy resources near the site.

“China is playing a long game in Antarctica and keeping other states guessing about its true intentions and interests are part of its poker hand,” she said. But she noted that China’s interest in finding minerals was presented “loud and clear to domestic audiences” as the main reason it was investing in Antarctica.

Because commercial drilling is banned, estimates of energy and mineral resources in Antarctica rely on remote sensing data and comparisons with similar geological environments elsewhere, said Millard F. Coffin, executive director of the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies in Hobart.

But the difficulty of extraction in such severe conditions and uncertainty about future commodity prices make it unlikely that China or any country would defy the ban on mining anytime soon.

Tourism, however, is already booming. Travelers from China are still a relatively small contingent in the Antarctic compared with the more than 13,000 Americans who visited in 2013, and as yet there are no licensed Chinese tour operators.

But that is about to change, said Anthony Bergin, deputy director of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute. “I understand very soon there will be Chinese tourists on Chinese vessels with all-Chinese crew in the Antarctic,” he said.

 

Top News China’s Intents Are Questioned as It Builds in Antarctica

Mr. Pfaff was an international affairs columnist and author who found Washington’s intervention in world affairs often misguided.

William Pfaff, Critic of American Foreign Policy, Dies at 86

Mr. Miller, of the firm Weil, Gotshal & Manges, represented companies including Lehman Brothers, General Motors and American Airlines, and mentored many of the top Chapter 11 practitioners today.

Harvey R. Miller, Renowned Bankruptcy Lawyer, Dies at 82

Hockey is not exactly known as a city game, but played on roller skates, it once held sway as the sport of choice in many New York neighborhoods.

“City kids had no rinks, no ice, but they would do anything to play hockey,” said Edward Moffett, former director of the Long Island City Y.M.C.A. Roller Hockey League, in Queens, whose games were played in city playgrounds going back to the 1940s.

From the 1960s through the 1980s, the league had more than 60 teams, he said. Players included the Mullen brothers of Hell’s Kitchen and Dan Dorion of Astoria, Queens, who would later play on ice for the National Hockey League.

One street legend from the heyday of New York roller hockey was Craig Allen, who lived in the Woodside Houses projects and became one of the city’s hardest hitters and top scorers.

“Craig was a warrior, one of the best roller hockey players in the city in the ’70s,” said Dave Garmendia, 60, a retired New York police officer who grew up playing with Mr. Allen. “His teammates loved him and his opponents feared him.”

Young Craig took up hockey on the streets of Queens in the 1960s, playing pickup games between sewer covers, wearing steel-wheeled skates clamped onto school shoes and using a roll of electrical tape as the puck.

His skill and ferocity drew attention, Mr. Garmendia said, but so did his skin color. He was black, in a sport made up almost entirely by white players.

“Roller hockey was a white kid’s game, plain and simple, but Craig broke the color barrier,” Mr. Garmendia said. “We used to say Craig did more for race relations than the N.A.A.C.P.”

Mr. Allen went on to coach and referee roller hockey in New York before moving several years ago to South Carolina. But he continued to organize an annual alumni game at Dutch Kills Playground in Long Island City, the same site that held the local championship games.

The reunion this year was on Saturday, but Mr. Allen never made it. On April 26, just before boarding the bus to New York, he died of an asthma attack at age 61.

Word of his death spread rapidly among hundreds of his old hockey colleagues who resolved to continue with the event, now renamed the Craig Allen Memorial Roller Hockey Reunion.

The turnout on Saturday was the largest ever, with players pulling on their old equipment, choosing sides and taking once again to the rink of cracked blacktop with faded lines and circles. They wore no helmets, although one player wore a fedora.

Another, Vinnie Juliano, 77, of Long Island City, wore his hearing aids, along with his 50-year-old taped-up quads, or four-wheeled skates with a leather boot. Many players here never converted to in-line skates, and neither did Mr. Allen, whose photograph appeared on a poster hanging behind the players’ bench.

“I’m seeing people walking by wondering why all these rusty, grizzly old guys are here playing hockey,” one player, Tommy Dominguez, said. “We’re here for Craig, and let me tell you, these old guys still play hard.”

Everyone seemed to have a Craig Allen story, from his earliest teams at Public School 151 to the Bryant Rangers, the Woodside Wings, the Woodside Blues and more.

Mr. Allen, who became a yellow-cab driver, was always recruiting new talent. He gained the nickname Cabby for his habit of stopping at playgrounds all over the city to scout players.

Teams were organized around neighborhoods and churches, and often sponsored by local bars. Mr. Allen, for one, played for bars, including Garry Owen’s and on the Fiddler’s Green Jokers team in Inwood, Manhattan.

Play was tough and fights were frequent.

“We were basically street gangs on skates,” said Steve Rogg, 56, a mail clerk who grew up in Jackson Heights, Queens, and who on Saturday wore his Riedell Classic quads from 1972. “If another team caught up with you the night before a game, they tossed you a beating so you couldn’t play the next day.”

Mr. Garmendia said Mr. Allen’s skin color provoked many fights.

“When we’d go to some ignorant neighborhoods, a lot of players would use slurs,” Mr. Garmendia said, recalling a game in Ozone Park, Queens, where local fans parked motorcycles in a lineup next to the blacktop and taunted Mr. Allen. Mr. Garmendia said he checked a player into the motorcycles, “and the bikes went down like dominoes, which started a serious brawl.”

A group of fans at a game in Brooklyn once stuck a pole through the rink fence as Mr. Allen skated by and broke his jaw, Mr. Garmendia said, adding that carloads of reinforcements soon arrived to defend Mr. Allen.

And at another racially incited brawl, the police responded with six patrol cars and a helicopter.

Before play began on Saturday, the players gathered at center rink to honor Mr. Allen. Billy Barnwell, 59, of Woodside, recalled once how an all-white, all-star squad snubbed Mr. Allen by playing him third string. He scored seven goals in the first game and made first string immediately.

“He’d always hear racial stuff before the game, and I’d ask him, ‘How do you put up with that?’” Mr. Barnwell recalled. “Craig would say, ‘We’ll take care of it,’ and by the end of the game, he’d win guys over. They’d say, ‘This guy’s good.’”

Tribute for a Roller Hockey Warrior

Even as a high school student, Dave Goldberg was urging female classmates to speak up. As a young dot-com executive, he had one girlfriend after another, but fell hard for a driven friend named Sheryl Sandberg, pining after her for years. After they wed, Mr. Goldberg pushed her to negotiate hard for high compensation and arranged his schedule so that he could be home with their children when she was traveling for work.

Mr. Goldberg, who died unexpectedly on Friday, was a genial, 47-year-old Silicon Valley entrepreneur who built his latest company, SurveyMonkey, from a modest enterprise to one recently valued by investors at $2 billion. But he was also perhaps the signature male feminist of his era: the first major chief executive in memory to spur his wife to become as successful in business as he was, and an essential figure in “Lean In,” Ms. Sandberg’s blockbuster guide to female achievement.

Over the weekend, even strangers were shocked at his death, both because of his relatively young age and because they knew of him as the living, breathing, car-pooling center of a new philosophy of two-career marriage.

“They were very much the role models for what this next generation wants to grapple with,” said Debora L. Spar, the president of Barnard College. In a 2011 commencement speech there, Ms. Sandberg told the graduates that whom they married would be their most important career decision.

In the play “The Heidi Chronicles,” revived on Broadway this spring, a male character who is the founder of a media company says that “I don’t want to come home to an A-plus,” explaining that his ambitions require him to marry an unthreatening helpmeet. Mr. Goldberg grew up to hold the opposite view, starting with his upbringing in progressive Minneapolis circles where “there was woman power in every aspect of our lives,” Jeffrey Dachis, a childhood friend, said in an interview.

The Goldberg parents read “The Feminine Mystique” together — in fact, Mr. Goldberg’s father introduced it to his wife, according to Ms. Sandberg’s book. In 1976, Paula Goldberg helped found a nonprofit to aid children with disabilities. Her husband, Mel, a law professor who taught at night, made the family breakfast at home.

Later, when Dave Goldberg was in high school and his prom date, Jill Chessen, stayed silent in a politics class, he chastised her afterward. He said, “You need to speak up,” Ms. Chessen recalled in an interview. “They need to hear your voice.”

Years later, when Karin Gilford, an early employee at Launch Media, Mr. Goldberg’s digital music company, became a mother, he knew exactly what to do. He kept giving her challenging assignments, she recalled, but also let her work from home one day a week. After Yahoo acquired Launch, Mr. Goldberg became known for distributing roses to all the women in the office on Valentine’s Day.

Ms. Sandberg, who often describes herself as bossy-in-a-good-way, enchanted him when they became friendly in the mid-1990s. He “was smitten with her,” Ms. Chessen remembered. Ms. Sandberg was dating someone else, but Mr. Goldberg still hung around, even helping her and her then-boyfriend move, recalled Bob Roback, a friend and co-founder of Launch. When they finally married in 2004, friends remember thinking how similar the two were, and that the qualities that might have made Ms. Sandberg intimidating to some men drew Mr. Goldberg to her even more.

Over the next decade, Mr. Goldberg and Ms. Sandberg pioneered new ways of capturing information online, had a son and then a daughter, became immensely wealthy, and hashed out their who-does-what-in-this-marriage issues. Mr. Goldberg’s commute from the Bay Area to Los Angeles became a strain, so he relocated, later joking that he “lost the coin flip” of where they would live. He paid the bills, she planned the birthday parties, and both often left their offices at 5:30 so they could eat dinner with their children before resuming work afterward.

Friends in Silicon Valley say they were careful to conduct their careers separately, politely refusing when outsiders would ask one about the other’s work: Ms. Sandberg’s role building Facebook into an information and advertising powerhouse, and Mr. Goldberg at SurveyMonkey, which made polling faster and cheaper. But privately, their work was intertwined. He often began statements to his team with the phrase “Well, Sheryl said” sharing her business advice. He counseled her, too, starting with her salary negotiations with Mark Zuckerberg.

“I wanted Mark to really feel he stretched to get Sheryl, because she was worth it,” Mr. Goldberg explained in a 2013 “60 Minutes” interview, his Minnesota accent and his smile intact as he offered a rare peek of the intersection of marriage and money at the top of corporate life.

 

 

While his wife grew increasingly outspoken about women’s advancement, Mr. Goldberg quietly advised the men in the office on family and partnership matters, an associate said. Six out of 16 members of SurveyMonkey’s management team are female, an almost unheard-of ratio among Silicon Valley “unicorns,” or companies valued at over $1 billion.

When Mellody Hobson, a friend and finance executive, wrote a chapter of “Lean In” about women of color for the college edition of the book, Mr. Goldberg gave her feedback on the draft, a clue to his deep involvement. He joked with Ms. Hobson that she was too long-winded, like Ms. Sandberg, but aside from that, he said he loved the chapter, she said in an interview.

By then, Mr. Goldberg was a figure of fascination who inspired a “where can I get one of those?” reaction among many of the women who had read the best seller “Lean In.” Some lamented that Ms. Sandberg’s advice hinged too much on marrying a Dave Goldberg, who was humble enough to plan around his wife, attentive enough to worry about which shoes his young daughter would wear, and rich enough to help pay for the help that made the family’s balancing act manageable.

Now that he is gone, and Ms. Sandberg goes from being half of a celebrated partnership to perhaps the business world’s most prominent single mother, the pages of “Lean In” carry a new sting of loss.

“We are never at 50-50 at any given moment — perfect equality is hard to define or sustain — but we allow the pendulum to swing back and forth between us,” she wrote in 2013, adding that they were looking forward to raising teenagers together.

“Fortunately, I have Dave to figure it out with me,” she wrote.

Dave Goldberg Was Lifelong Women’s Advocate

A lapsed seminarian, Mr. Chambers succeeded Saul Alinsky as leader of the social justice umbrella group Industrial Areas Foundation.

Edward Chambers, Early Leader in Community Organizing, Dies at 85

Ms. Plisetskaya, renowned for her fluidity of movement, expressive acting and willful personality, danced on the Bolshoi stage well into her 60s, but her life was shadowed by Stalinism.

Maya Plisetskaya, Ballerina Who Embodied Bolshoi, Dies at 89

Ms. von Furstenberg made her debut in the movies and on the Broadway stage in the early 1950s as a teenager and later reinvented herself as a television actress, writer and philanthropist.

Betsy von Furstenberg, Baroness and Versatile Actress, Dies at 83

A 2-minute-42-second demo recording captured in one take turned out to be a one-hit wonder for Mr. Ely, who was 19 when he sang the garage-band classic.

Jack Ely, Who Sang the Kingsmen’s ‘Louie Louie’, Dies at 71

From sea to shining sea, or at least from one side of the Hudson to the other, politicians you have barely heard of are being accused of wrongdoing. There were so many court proceedings involving public officials on Monday that it was hard to keep up.

In Newark, two underlings of Gov. Chris Christie were arraigned on charges that they were in on the truly deranged plot to block traffic leading onto the George Washington Bridge.

Ten miles away, in Lower Manhattan, Dean G. Skelos, the leader of the New York State Senate, and his son, Adam B. Skelos, were arrested by the Federal Bureau of Investigation on accusations of far more conventional political larceny, involving a job with a sewer company for the son and commissions on title insurance and bond work.

The younger man managed to receive a 150 percent pay increase from the sewer company even though, as he said on tape, he “literally knew nothing about water or, you know, any of that stuff,” according to a criminal complaint the United States attorney’s office filed.

The success of Adam Skelos, 32, was attributed by prosecutors to his father’s influence as the leader of the Senate and as a potentate among state Republicans. The indictment can also be read as one of those unfailingly sad tales of a father who cannot stop indulging a grown son. The senator himself is not alleged to have profited from the schemes, except by being relieved of the burden of underwriting Adam.

The bridge traffic caper is its own species of crazy; what distinguishes the charges against the two Skeloses is the apparent absence of a survival instinct. It is one thing not to know anything about water or that stuff. More remarkable, if true, is the fact that the sewer machinations continued even after the former New York Assembly speaker, Sheldon Silver, was charged in January with taking bribes disguised as fees.

It was by then common gossip in political and news media circles that Senator Skelos, a Republican, the counterpart in the Senate to Mr. Silver, a Democrat, in the Assembly, could be next in line for the criminal dock. “Stay tuned,” the United States attorney, Preet Bharara said, leaving not much to the imagination.

Even though the cat had been unmistakably belled, Skelos father and son continued to talk about how to advance the interests of the sewer company, though the son did begin to use a burner cellphone, the kind people pay for in cash, with no traceable contracts.

That was indeed prudent, as prosecutors had been wiretapping the cellphones of both men. But it would seem that the burner was of limited value, because by then the prosecutors had managed to secure the help of a business executive who agreed to record calls with the Skeloses. It would further seem that the business executive was more attentive to the perils of pending investigations than the politician.

Through the end of the New York State budget negotiations in March, the hopes of the younger Skelos rested on his father’s ability to devise legislation that would benefit the sewer company. That did not pan out. But Senator Skelos did boast that he had haggled with Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo, a Democrat, in a successful effort to raise a $150 million allocation for Long Island to $550 million, for what the budget called “transformative economic development projects.” It included money for the kind of work done by the sewer company.

The lawyer for Adam Skelos said he was not guilty and would win in court. Senator Skelos issued a ringing declaration that he was unequivocally innocent.

THIS was also the approach taken in New Jersey by Bill Baroni, a man of great presence and eloquence who stopped outside the federal courthouse to note that he had taken risks as a Republican by bucking his party to support paid family leave, medical marijuana and marriage equality. “I would never risk my career, my job, my reputation for something like this,” Mr. Baroni said. “I am an innocent man.”

The lawyer for his co-defendant, Bridget Anne Kelly, the former deputy chief of staff to Mr. Christie, a Republican, said that she would strongly rebut the charges.

Perhaps they had nothing to do with the lane closings. But neither Mr. Baroni nor Ms. Kelly addressed the question of why they did not return repeated calls from the mayor of Fort Lee, N.J., begging them to stop the traffic tie-ups, over three days.

That silence was a low moment. But perhaps New York hit bottom faster. Senator Skelos, the prosecutors charged, arranged to meet Long Island politicians at the wake of Wenjian Liu, a New York City police officer shot dead in December, to press for payments to the company employing his son.

Sometimes it seems as though for some people, the only thing to be ashamed of is shame itself.

Finding Scandal in New York and New Jersey, but No Shame

The 2015 Met Gala has only officially begun, but there's a clear leader in the race for best couple, no small feat at an event that threatens to sap Hollywood of every celebrity it has for the duration of an East Coast evening.

That would be Marc Jacobs and his surprise guest (who, by some miracle, remained under wraps until their red carpet debut), Cher.

“This has been a dream of mine for a very, very long time,” Mr. Jacobs said.

It is Cher's first appearance at the Met Gala since 1997, when she arrived on the arm of Donatella Versace.

– MATTHEW SCHNEIER

Cher and Marc Jacobs

THE WRITERS ASHLEY AND JAQUAVIS COLEMAN know the value of a good curtain-raiser. The couple have co-authored dozens of novels, and they like to start them with a bang: a headlong action sequence, a blast of violence or sex that rocks readers back on their heels. But the Colemans concede they would be hard-pressed to dream up anything more gripping than their own real-life opening scene.

In the summer of 2001, JaQuavis Coleman was a 16-year-old foster child in Flint, Mich., the former auto-manufacturing mecca that had devolved, in the wake of General Motors’ plant closures, into one of the country’s most dangerous cities, with a decimated economy and a violent crime rate more than three times the national average. When JaQuavis was 8, social services had removed him from his mother’s home. He spent years bouncing between foster families. At 16, JaQuavis was also a businessman: a crack dealer with a network of street-corner peddlers in his employ.

One day that summer, JaQuavis met a fellow dealer in a parking lot on Flint’s west side. He was there to make a bulk sale of a quarter-brick, or “nine-piece” — a nine-ounce parcel of cocaine, with a street value of about $11,000. In the middle of the transaction, JaQuavis heard the telltale chirp of a walkie-talkie. His customer, he now realized, was an undercover policeman. JaQuavis jumped into his car and spun out onto the road, with two unmarked police cars in pursuit. He didn’t want to get into a high-speed chase, so he whipped his car into a church parking lot and made a run for it, darting into an alleyway behind a row of small houses, where he tossed the quarter-brick into some bushes. When JaQuavis reached the small residential street on the other side of the houses, he was greeted by the police, who handcuffed him and went to search behind the houses where, they told him, they were certain he had ditched the drugs. JaQuavis had been dealing since he was 12, had amassed more than $100,000 and had never been arrested. Now, he thought: It’s over.

But when the police looked in the bushes, they couldn’t find any cocaine. They interrogated JaQuavis, who denied having ever possessed or sold drugs. They combed the backyard alley some more. After an hour of fruitless efforts, the police were forced to unlock the handcuffs and release their suspect.

JaQuavis was baffled by the turn of events until the next day, when he received a phone call. The previous afternoon, a 15-year-old girl had been sitting in her home on the west side of Flint when she heard sirens. She looked out of the window of her bedroom, and watched a young man throw a package in the bushes behind her house. She recognized him. He was a high school classmate — a handsome, charismatic boy whom she had admired from afar. The girl crept outside and grabbed the bundle, which she hid in her basement. “I have something that belongs to you,” Ashley Snell told JaQuavis Coleman when she reached him by phone. “You wanna come over here and pick it up?”

Photo
Three of the nearly 50 works of urban fiction published by the Colemans over the last decade, often featuring drug deals, violence, sex and a brash kind of feminism.Credit Marko Metzinger

In the Colemans’ first novel, “Dirty Money” (2005), they told a version of this story. The outline was the same: the drug deal gone bad, the dope chucked in the bushes, the fateful phone call. To the extent that the authors took poetic license, it was to tone down the meet-cute improbability of the true-life events. In “Dirty Money,” the girl, Anari, and the crack dealer, Maurice, circle each other warily for a year or so before coupling up. But the facts of Ashley and JaQuavis’s romance outstripped pulp fiction. They fell in love more or less at first sight, moved into their own apartment while still in high school and were married in 2008. “We were together from the day we met,” Ashley says. “I don’t think we’ve spent more than a week apart in total over the past 14 years.”

That partnership turned out to be creative and entrepreneurial as well as romantic. Over the past decade, the Colemans have published nearly 50 books, sometimes as solo writers, sometimes under pseudonyms, but usually as collaborators with a byline that has become a trusted brand: “Ashley & JaQuavis.” They are marquee stars of urban fiction, or street lit, a genre whose inner-city settings and lurid mix of crime, sex and sensationalism have earned it comparisons to gangsta rap. The emergence of street lit is one of the big stories in recent American publishing, a juggernaut that has generated huge sales by catering to a readership — young, black and, for the most part, female — that historically has been ill-served by the book business. But the genre is also widely maligned. Street lit is subject to a kind of triple snobbery: scorned by literati who look down on genre fiction generally, ignored by a white publishing establishment that remains largely indifferent to black books and disparaged by African-American intellectuals for poor writing, coarse values and trafficking in racial stereotypes.

But if a certain kind of cultural prestige is shut off to the Colemans, they have reaped other rewards. They’ve built a large and loyal fan base, which gobbles up the new Ashley & JaQuavis titles that arrive every few months. Many of those books are sold at street-corner stands and other off-the-grid venues in African-American neighborhoods, a literary gray market that doesn’t register a blip on best-seller tallies. Yet the Colemans’ most popular series now regularly crack the trade fiction best-seller lists of The New York Times and Publishers Weekly. For years, the pair had no literary agent; they sold hundreds of thousands of books without banking a penny in royalties. Still, they have earned millions of dollars, almost exclusively from cash-for-manuscript deals negotiated directly with independent publishing houses. In short, though little known outside of the world of urban fiction, the Colemans are one of America’s most successful literary couples, a distinction they’ve achieved, they insist, because of their work’s gritty authenticity and their devotion to a primal literary virtue: the power of the ripping yarn.

“When you read our books, you’re gonna realize: ‘Ashley & JaQuavis are storytellers,’ ” says Ashley. “Our tales will get your heart pounding.”

THE COLEMANS’ HOME BASE — the cottage from which they operate their cottage industry — is a spacious four-bedroom house in a genteel suburb about 35 miles north of downtown Detroit. The house is plush, but when I visited this past winter, it was sparsely appointed. The couple had just recently moved in, and had only had time to fully furnish the bedroom of their 4-year-old son, Quaye.

In conversation, Ashley and JaQuavis exude both modesty and bravado: gratitude for their good fortune and bootstrappers’ pride in having made their own luck. They talk a lot about their time in the trenches, the years they spent as a drug dealer and “ride-or-die girl” tandem. In Flint they learned to “grind hard.” Writing, they say, is merely a more elevated kind of grind.

“Instead of hitting the block like we used to, we hit the laptops,” says Ashley. “I know what every word is worth. So while I’m writing, I’m like: ‘Okay, there’s a hundred dollars. There’s a thousand dollars. There’s five thousand dollars.’ ”

They maintain a rigorous regimen. They each try to write 5,000 words per day, five days a week. The writers stagger their shifts: JaQuavis goes to bed at 7 p.m. and wakes up early, around 3 or 4 in the morning, to work while his wife and child sleep. Ashley writes during the day, often in libraries or at Starbucks.

They divide the labor in other ways. Chapters are divvied up more or less equally, with tasks assigned according to individual strengths. (JaQuavis typically handles character development. Ashley loves writing murder scenes.) The results are stitched together, with no editorial interference from one author in the other’s text. The real work, they contend, is the brainstorming. The Colemans spend weeks mapping out their plot-driven books — long conversations that turn into elaborate diagrams on dry-erase boards. “JaQuavis and I are so close, it makes the process real easy,” says Ashley. “Sometimes when I’m thinking of something, a plot point, he’ll say it out loud, and I’m like: ‘Wait — did I say that?’ ”

Their collaboration developed by accident, and on the fly. Both were bookish teenagers. Ashley read lots of Judy Blume and John Grisham; JaQuavis liked Shakespeare, Richard Wright and “Atlas Shrugged.” (Their first official date was at a Borders bookstore, where Ashley bought “The Coldest Winter Ever,” the Sister Souljah novel often credited with kick-starting the contemporary street-lit movement.) In 2003, Ashley, then 17, was forced to terminate an ectopic pregnancy. She was bedridden for three weeks, and to provide distraction and boost her spirits, JaQuavis challenged his girlfriend to a writing contest. “She just wasn’t talking. She was laying in bed. I said, ‘You know what? I bet you I could write a better book than you.’ My wife is real competitive. So I said, ‘Yo, all right, $500 bet.’ And I saw her eyes spark, like, ‘What?! You can’t write no better book than me!’ So I wrote about three chapters. She wrote about three chapters. Two days later, we switched.”

The result, hammered out in a few days, would become “Dirty Money.” Two years later, when Ashley and JaQuavis were students at Ferris State University in Western Michigan, they sold the manuscript to Urban Books, a street-lit imprint founded by the best-selling author Carl Weber. At the time, JaQuavis was still making his living selling drugs. When Ashley got the phone call informing her that their book had been bought, she assumed they’d hit it big, and flushed more than $10,000 worth of cocaine down the toilet. Their advance was a mere $4,000.

Photo
The roots of street lit, found in the midcentury detective novels of Chester Himes and the ‘60s and ‘70s “ghetto fiction” of Iceberg Slim and Donald Goines.Credit Marko Metzinger

Those advances would soon increase, eventually reaching five and six figures. The Colemans built their career, JaQuavis says, in a manner that made sense to him as a veteran dope peddler: by flooding the street with product. From the start, they were prolific, churning out books at a rate of four or five a year. Their novels made their way into stores; the now-defunct chain Waldenbooks, which had stores in urban areas typically bypassed by booksellers, was a major engine of the street-lit market. But Ashley and JaQuavis took advantage of distribution channels established by pioneering urban fiction authors such as Teri Woods and Vickie Stringer, and a network of street-corner tables, magazine stands, corner shops and bodegas. Like rappers who establish their bona fides with gray-market mixtapes, street-lit authors use this system to circumnavigate industry gatekeepers, bringing their work straight to the genre’s core readership. But urban fiction has other aficionados, in less likely places. “Our books are so popular in the prison system,” JaQuavis says. “We’re banned in certain penitentiaries. Inmates fight over the books — there are incidents, you know? I have loved ones in jail, and they’re like: ‘Yo, your books can’t come in here. It’s against the rules.’ ”

The appeal of the Colemans’ work is not hard to fathom. The books are formulaic and taut; they deliver the expected goods efficiently and exuberantly. The titles telegraph the contents: “Diary of a Street Diva,” “Kiss Kiss, Bang Bang,” “Murderville.” The novels serve up a stream of explicit sex and violence in a slangy, tangy, profane voice. In Ashley & JaQuavis’s books people don’t get killed: they get “popped,” “laid out,” get their “cap twisted back.” The smut is constant, with emphasis on the earthy, sticky, olfactory particulars. Romance novel clichés — shuddering orgasms, heroic carnal feats, superlative sexual skill sets — are rendered in the Colemans’ punchy patois.

Subtlety, in other words, isn’t Ashley & JaQuavis’s forte. But their books do have a grainy specificity. In “The Cartel” (2008), the first novel in the Colemans’ best-selling saga of a Miami drug syndicate, they catch the sights and smells of a crack workshop in a housing project: the nostril-stinging scent of cocaine and baking soda bubbling on stovetops; the teams of women, stripped naked except for hospital masks so they can’t pilfer the merchandise, “cutting up the cooked coke on the round wood table.” The subject matter is dark, but the Colemans’ tone is not quite noir. Even in the grimmest scenes, the mood is high-spirited, with the writers palpably relishing the lewd and gory details: the bodies writhing in boudoirs and crumpling under volleys of bullets, the geysers of blood and other bodily fluids.

The luridness of street lit has made it a flashpoint, inciting controversy reminiscent of the hip-hop culture wars of the 1980s and ’90s. But the street-lit debate touches deeper historical roots, reviving decades-old arguments in black literary circles about the mandate to uplift the race and present wholesome images of African-Americans. In 1928, W. E. B. Du Bois slammed the “licentiousness” of “Home to Harlem,” Claude McKay’s rollicking novel of Harlem nightlife. McKay’s book, Du Bois wrote, “for the most part nauseates me, and after the dirtier parts of its filth I feel distinctly like taking a bath.” Similar sentiments have greeted 21st-century street lit. In a 2006 New York Times Op-Ed essay, the journalist and author Nick Chiles decried “the sexualization and degradation of black fiction.” African-American bookstores, Chiles complained, are “overrun with novels that . . . appeal exclusively to our most prurient natures — as if these nasty books were pairing off back in the stockrooms like little paperback rabbits and churning out even more graphic offspring that make Ralph Ellison books cringe into a dusty corner.”

Copulating paperbacks aside, it’s clear that the street-lit debate is about more than literature, touching on questions of paternalism versus populism, and on middle-class anxieties about the black underclass. “It’s part and parcel of black elites’ efforts to define not only a literary tradition, but a racial politics,” said Kinohi Nishikawa, an assistant professor of English and African-American Studies at Princeton University. “There has always been a sense that because African-Americans’ opportunities to represent themselves are so limited in the first place, any hint of criminality or salaciousness would necessarily be a knock on the entire racial politics. One of the pressing debates about African-American literature today is: If we can’t include writers like Ashley & JaQuavis, to what extent is the foundation of our thinking about black literature faulty? Is it just a literature for elites? Or can it be inclusive, bringing urban fiction under the purview of our umbrella term ‘African-American literature’?”

Defenders of street lit note that the genre has a pedigree: a tradition of black pulp fiction that stretches from Chester Himes, the midcentury author of hardboiled Harlem detective stories, to the 1960s and ’70s “ghetto fiction” of Iceberg Slim and Donald Goines, to the current wave of urban fiction authors. Others argue for street lit as a social good, noting that it attracts a large audience that might otherwise never read at all. Scholars like Nishikawa link street lit to recent studies showing increased reading among African-Americans. A 2014 Pew Research Center report found that a greater percentage of black Americans are book readers than whites or Latinos.

For their part, the Colemans place their work in the broader black literary tradition. “You have Maya Angelou, Alice Walker, James Baldwin — all of these traditional black writers, who wrote about the struggles of racism, injustice, inequality,” says Ashley. “We’re writing about the struggle as it happens now. It’s just a different struggle. I’m telling my story. I’m telling the struggle of a black girl from Flint, Michigan, who grew up on welfare.”

Photo
The Colemans in their new four-bedroom house in the northern suburbs of Detroit.Credit Courtesy of Ashley and JaQuavis Coleman

Perhaps there is a high-minded case to be made for street lit. But the virtues of Ashley & JaQuavis’s work are more basic. Their novels do lack literary polish. The writing is not graceful; there are passages of clunky exposition and sex scenes that induce guffaws and eye rolls. But the pleasure quotient is high. The books flaunt a garish brand of feminism, with women characters cast not just as vixens, but also as gangsters — cold-blooded killers, “murder mamas.” The stories are exceptionally well-plotted. “The Cartel” opens by introducing its hero, the crime boss Carter Diamond; on page 9, a gunshot spatters Diamond’s brain across the interior of a police cruiser. The book then flashes back seven years and begins to hurtle forward again — a bullet train, whizzing readers through shifting alliances, romantic entanglements and betrayals, kidnappings, shootouts with Haitian and Dominican gangsters, and a cliffhanger closing scene that leaves the novel’s heroine tied to a chair in a basement, gruesomely tortured to the edge of death. Ashley & JaQuavis’s books are not Ralph Ellison, certainly, but they build up quite a head of steam. They move.

The Colemans are moving themselves these days. They recently signed a deal with St. Martin’s Press, which will bring out the next installment in the “Cartel” series as well as new solo series by both writers. The St. Martin’s deal is both lucrative and legitimizing — a validation of Ashley and JaQuavis’s work by one of publishing’s most venerable houses. The Colemans’ ambitions have grown, as well. A recent trilogy, “Murderville,” tackles human trafficking and the blood-diamond industry in West Africa, with storylines that sweep from Sierra Leone to Mexico to Los Angeles. Increasingly, Ashley & JaQuavis are leaning on research — traveling to far-flung settings and hitting the books in the libraries — and spending less time mining their own rough-and-tumble past.

But Flint remains a source of inspiration. One evening not long ago, JaQuavis led me on a tour of his hometown: a popular roadside bar; the parking lot where he met the undercover cop for the ill-fated drug deal; Ashley’s old house, the site of his almost-arrest. He took me to a ramshackle vehicle repair shop on Flint’s west side, where he worked as a kid, washing cars. He showed me a bathroom at the rear of the garage, where, at age 12, he sneaked away to inspect the first “boulder” of crack that he ever sold. A spray-painted sign on the garage wall, which JaQuavis remembered from his time at the car wash, offered words of warning:

WHAT EVERY YOUNG MAN SHOULD KNOW
ABOUT USING A GUN:
MURDER . . . 30 Years
ARMED ROBBERY . . . 15 Years
ASSAULT . . . 15 Years
RAPE . . . 20 Years
POSSESSION . . . 5 Years
JACKING . . . 20 YEARS

“We still love Flint, Michigan,” JaQuavis says. “It’s so seedy, so treacherous. But there’s some heart in this city. This is where it all started, selling books out the box. In the days when we would get those little $40,000 advances, they’d send us a couple boxes of books for free. We would hit the streets to sell our books, right out of the car trunk. It was a hustle. It still is.”

One old neighborhood asset that the Colemans have not shaken off is swagger. “My wife is the best female writer in the game,” JaQuavis told me. “I believe I’m the best male writer in the game. I’m sleeping next to the best writer in the world. And she’s doing the same.”

 
From T Magazine: Street Lit’s Power Couple
biaya umroh ramadhan di Pinang Ranti jakarta
paket promo umroh awal tahun di Cipinang Besar Utara jakarta
promo berangkat umrah desember di Bambu Apus jakarta
paket umroh maret di Pisangan Timur jakarta
paket berangkat umroh desember umrohdepag.com
harga paket umroh desember di Duren Sawit jakarta
harga berangkat umroh awal tahun di Rawa Bunga jakarta
promo berangkat umrah ramadhan di Pulogebang jakarta
paket umroh awal tahun di Jati jakarta
promo umroh januari di Cipinang Muara jakarta
harga paket umroh juni di Ciracas jakarta
paket promo berangkat umroh desember di Jatinegara jakarta
paket umroh april di Ceger jakarta
promo berangkat umroh akhir tahun di Pondok Kelapa jakarta
paket promo umrah januari bekasi barat
paket umroh juni di Cipayung jakarta
paket berangkat umroh ramadhan di Pekayon jakarta
biaya berangkat umrah mei di Jati jakarta
biaya berangkat umrah ramadhan di Ceger jakarta
biaya paket berangkat umrah april di Cipinang jakarta
biaya paket umrah april di Pulo Gadung jakarta
harga umroh awal tahun di Kampung Baru jakarta
biaya paket berangkat umrah juni di Kayu Putih jakarta
paket berangkat umrah maret di Pulo Gadung jakarta
paket berangkat umroh mei di Kebon Pala jakarta
harga umrah juni bekasi barat
paket promo umrah juni di Cipinang Muara jakarta
harga paket umrah februari di Cipinang jakarta
paket berangkat umrah mei di Cilangkap jakarta
paket promo umrah awal tahun di Dukuh jakarta
paket umroh april di Munjul jakarta
paket promo umroh mei di Ciracas jakarta
biaya paket umroh awal tahun di Pal Meriam jakarta
harga berangkat umroh april di Ceger jakarta
biaya berangkat umrah akhir tahun di Cawang jakarta
paket promo umrah desember di Susukan jakarta
biaya berangkat umrah mei di Bambu Apus jakarta
biaya paket umroh april di Lubang Buaya jakarta
promo umrah ramadhan bekasi selatan
harga berangkat umrah akhir tahun di Pinang Ranti jakarta
harga paket umroh februari di Pekayon jakarta
harga paket berangkat umroh mei di Ujung Menteng jakarta
paket umroh maret di Bali Mester jakarta
paket umrah desember di Kalisari jakarta
biaya paket umroh februari di Cipinang Muara jakarta
promo umroh desember di Kampung Gedong,Cijantung jakarta
harga umrah mei bekasi barat
paket promo berangkat umrah april bekasi selatan
biaya paket berangkat umrah juni di Dukuh jakarta
harga berangkat umrah maret di Malaka Jaya jakarta
biaya paket berangkat umrah akhir tahun di Kebon Manggis jakarta
harga paket berangkat umrah desember di Utan Kayu Selatan jakarta
promo umroh maret di Makasar jakarta
harga paket umroh akhir tahun di Cipayung jakarta
harga berangkat umrah awal tahun di Ceger jakarta
paket umrah mei di Pondok Kelapa jakarta
harga umrah akhir tahun di Duren Sawit jakarta
paket berangkat umroh akhir tahun di Utan Kayu Utara jakarta
paket umrah juni di Cilangkap jakarta
harga paket berangkat umroh februari di Cipinang Cempedak jakarta
harga paket umrah desember di Ciracas jakarta
harga berangkat umroh februari di Balekambang jakarta
promo berangkat umroh maret di Cililitan jakarta
biaya berangkat umrah awal tahun di Jatinegara jakarta
paket promo berangkat umrah akhir tahun bogor
biaya paket berangkat umroh ramadhan di Ciracas jakarta
paket umrah juni di Kayu Manis jakarta
harga umroh ramadhan di Pulo Gadung jakarta
promo umrah awal tahun di Cipayung jakarta
harga paket berangkat umrah februari di Halim Perdanakusuma jakarta
harga paket berangkat umroh akhir tahun di Cipinang Melayu jakarta
harga paket umroh maret di Kampung Tengah jakarta
paket berangkat umroh januari di Cakung Timur jakarta
biaya paket umroh ramadhan di Pulo Gadung jakarta
paket umrah awal tahun di Malaka Sari jakarta
harga umroh januari di Pondok Kelapa jakarta
promo umrah mei di Pulo Gadung jakarta
biaya paket berangkat umroh akhir tahun di Malaka Sari jakarta
paket berangkat umroh juni di Cakung Timur jakarta
biaya paket umrah maret di Pal Meriam jakarta
biaya paket umrah mei di Matraman jakarta
paket promo berangkat umrah februari di Pekayon jakarta
paket promo umrah maret di Rawamangun jakarta
promo umroh desember di Lubang Buaya jakarta
paket umroh akhir tahun di Malaka Sari jakarta
paket berangkat umrah maret di Ujung Menteng jakarta
biaya berangkat umrah maret di Jatinegara jakarta
biaya umrah januari di Kampung Baru jakarta
paket promo umrah awal tahun di Lubang Buaya jakarta
harga berangkat umrah juni bogor
paket promo umroh awal tahun di Utan Kayu Selatan jakarta
promo berangkat umrah januari di Ciracas jakarta
paket umrah mei di Jatinegara Kaum jakarta
biaya berangkat umroh desember di Matraman jakarta
biaya paket berangkat umroh januari di Bidaracina jakarta
harga umroh juni di Pulogebang jakarta
biaya paket berangkat umrah juni bekasi utara
paket promo berangkat umroh april di Balekambang jakarta
harga paket umrah februari di Kebon Pala jakarta
biaya umroh akhir tahun di Penggilingan jakarta