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Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
Jual Tabita Skin Care di Tabitawhiteningcream.com - Berita Kamis malam itu mengejutkan Afrika Selatan (Afsel) dan dunia. Nelson Mandela tutup usia di rumahnya di Johannesburg. Warga langsung tumpah ruah ke jalan-jalan, isak tangis membahana di seantero negeri. Warga -beberapa hanya mengenakan piyama- berbondong-bondong datang ke rumah Mandela di distrik Houghton usai berita kematian tersebar pukul 20.50. Mereka menyalakan lilin, menangis, dan berdoa. Beberapa terlihat menari, bukan berduka, melainkan merayakan kehidupan mantan presiden Afsel itu. "Dia adalah ikon perdamaian. Dia berjuang untuk negeri ini, untuk rakyat, saya sangat menghormatinya. Kematiannya adalah kehilangan besar bagi negeri ini," kata seorang warga kepada kantor berita Sky News, Jumat 6 Desember 2013. Tidak hanya di Afsel, orang-orang juga berkumpul di beberapa kota di dunia. Salah satunya di Lapangan Trafalgar di London, Inggris, dan di depan patungnya di Tempat Karaoke Washington, Amerika Serikat. Sesaat setelah pengumuman kematian oleh Presiden Jacob Zuma, ucapan belasungkawa berdatangan dari para pemimpin dunia. Camera.co.id toko kamera murah di indonesia Di PBB, Sekretaris Jenderal Ban Ki-moon melakukan hening cipta. "Mandela adalah raksasa keadilan dan inspirasi yang merakyat," kata Ban, dikutip CNN. Di Gedung Putih, Presiden Amerika Serikat Barack Obama tidak ketinggalan mengucapkan dukanya. Banjir ucapan selamat terus berdatangan. Mobil Sedan Corolla Mulai dari pemimpin negara hingga para selebritis dan atlet terkenal dunia. Indonesia juga tidak ketinggalan. Ucapan belasungkawa disampaikan oleh Menteri Luar Negeri Marty Natalegawa. Menurut kantor berita SAPA, jasad pria berusia 95 tahun ini telah dipindahkan ke rumah sakit militer di Pretoria. Dia rencananya akan dibalsem untuk dua-tiga hari ke depan. Upacara mengenang Mandela di stadion bola Johannesburg. Barulah pekan depan -antara Jumat atau Sabtu- tokoh anti apartheid ini akan diterbangkan untuk dikuburkan di kampung halamannya, Qunu. Sementara itu, bendera setelah tiang akan terus berkibar di Afsel. Dalam beberapa bulan terakhir, kondisi Mandela Agen Bola Promo 100% Shobet IBCBet Casino Poker Tangkas Online memang terus menurun. Juni lalu, dia dilarikan ke rumah sakit akibat infeksi paru-paru, kondisinya kritis. Dia dipindahkan ke rumahnya pada 1 September lalu. Kamarnya disulap menjadi unit perawatan intensif (ICU), dengan alat penopang kehidupan yang terus bekerja. Penyakit paru ini telah diidapnya sejak Agen Bola Promo 100% Shobet IBCBet Casino Poker Tangkas Online di penjara PulauRobben, tempatnya mendekam selama 27 tahun. Lahir pada 18 Juli 2918 di klan Madiba di kota Mvezo, Mandela kecil diberi nama Rolihlahla, yang dalam istilah Xhosa, berarti "pembuat kekacauan". Paket wisata Nama Nelson disematkan oleh guru SD Qunu tempatnya belajar. Dia sempat kuliah di Universitas College of Fort Hare mengambil jurusan sejarah. Namun dikeluarkan akibat terlibat unjuk rasa. skorbola.co situs portal berita sepakbola terkini Dia kemudian meraih gelar Alat Bantu Sex sarjana hukum di Universitas Afrika Selatan dan kembali ke Fort Hare untuk ikut prosesi wisuda di tahun 1943. Mandela kabur ke Johannesburg tahun 1941 karena ingin dikawin paksa. Di kota ini, penggemar tinju ini kuliah di Universitas Witwatersrand mengambil jurusan hukum tahun 1943. Dia keluar dari kampus itu tahun 1948 karena Cara memperbanyak sperma kekurangan biaya. Di kampus dengan beragam etnis itu, Mandela melihat situasi Afrika yang radikal, liberal, rasis dan diskriminatif. Dari sinilah sikap anti apartheidnya muncul. Setelah serangkaian demonstrasi dan aksi, dia divonis seumur hidup pada Pengadilan Rivonis tahun 1962 memperbanyak sperma karena percobaan menggulingkan pemerintahan. Dia dibebaskan tahun 1990 berkat lobi internasional dan desakan dari dalam negeri. Tahun 1993, bersama dengan Pinjaman modal usaha Presiden Afsel kala itu F.W. de Klerk, Mandela meraih penghargaan Nobel perdamaian atas perannya menghapuskan sistem dominasi kulit putih dan diskriminasi kulit hitam, apartheid. Pria yang gemar memakai baju batik -atau disebut Madiba shirt di Afsel- ini terpilih jadi presiden pada tahun 1990 hingga 1999. Usai kepemimpinannya, Pinjaman tanpa agunan Mandela mengumpulkan para pemimpin dunia di bawah bendera The Elders. Selain itu, dia juga kerap turun membantu Afsel mengatasi penyebaran AIDS dan mempromosikan perdamaian dunia. Saat menjabat presiden, dia disenangi Pinjaman tanpa jaminan karena kelugasannya dalam bersikap. Salah satunya saat mengkritik kebijakan George W Bush di Irak saat Presiden AS itu berkunjung ke Afsel tahun 2003. Dia mengatakan bahwa Bush adalah "presiden yang tidak bisa berpikir dengan benar." Dicap Teroris Kendati hubungan dengan Amerika dan Pulau tidung murah Inggris terlihat baik-baik saja, namun ironisnya Mandela ternyata dicap teroris oleh dua negara itu. Label teroris ini baru dicabut Inggris pada tahun 2006 dan Amerika tahun 2008. Masuknya Mandela dalam daftar teroris Barat Paket pulau tidung murah tahun 1980an karena kepemimpinannya dalam UmKhonto we Sizwe (MK), sayap militan ANC (Kongres Nasional Afrika). Selain itu, dia juga dicap komunis karena Uni Soviet sangat dekat dengan ANC. Partai Komunis Afrika Selatan juga merupakan sekutu dekat ANC. Tahun 1961, MK melakukan serangan bom Wisata pulau tidung murah dan sabotase terhadap fasilitas pemerintahan apartheid. Dalam pengadilannya, Mandela mengaku bersalah atas 156 kekerasan publik, termasuk pengeboman, salah satunya di stasiun kereta Johannesburg yang menewaskan orang tidak berdosa. Mandela dipenjara 27 Paket wisata pulau tidung murah tahun akibat tindakan tersebut. "ANC adalah tipikal organisasi teroris. Tabita Skin Care Semua orang yang berpikir partai ini akan menjalankan pemerintahan di Afrika Selatan berarti mereka telah hidup di negeri dongeg," kata Perdana Menteri Inggris kala itu, Margaret Thatcher tahun 1987. Kendati masa lalunya yang kelam, namun di bawah Mandela, Tabita Skin care Original ekonomi Afsel mengalami kemajuan. Mandela yakin betul, perekonomian yang kuat berhubungan erat dengan perkembangan politik negara. Harga tabita skin care Berakhirnya sistem apartheid berarti terbukanya kesempatan yang luas bagi warga kulit hitam untuk bekerja. Pertumbuhan ekonomi Afsel meningkat Harga tabita skin care dari kurang dari 1,5 persen dari tahun 1980 dan 1994, menjadi 3 persen dari 1995 ke 2003. Pendapatan rata-rata warga kulit putih Afsel meningkat 62 persen dari 1993 hingga 2008, menurut ahli ekonomi dari Universitas Cape Town Murrah Leibbrandt. Peningkatan pendapatan terbesar dialami oleh Paket wisata pulau tidung warga kulit hitam dalam periode yang sama, yaitu 93 persen. Kesempatan memperoleh pendidikan juga meningkat. Jumlah angka pelajar meningkat dari 50 persen menjadi 70 persen dari 1994 hingga 2005. Afsel juga menjadi mitra penting bagi negara tetangga. Jual Laptop Murah Investasi regional di Afsel saja sekitar 70 persen. Impor meningkat dari US$16,3 miliar tahun 1993 menjadi US$68,7 miliar tahun 2006. Namun dia punya kesalahan fatal Klikgaul.com portal berita artis, k-pop, zodiak, love paling keren dan update karena lambat dalam kampanye penanganan HIV/AIDS yang mengurangi peluang hidup rakyat Afsel. Tahun 1993, hanya empat persen dari wanita hamil HIV positif di negara itu. Jumlah ini meningkat 28 persen 10 tahun kemudian. Sekarang satu dari 10 populasi di negara itu HIV-positif. Selepas Mandela Namun kemajuan ekonomi Afsel tidak dirasakan seluruh rakyat. Pengentasan diskriminasi di negara itu ternyata belum juga usai. Jurang pemisah antara kulit hitam dan putih masih lebar. Walaupun dalam sepuluh tahun terakhir Afsel Tabita skin care kerap menggembar-gemborkan keseimbangan di bawah jargon "memperkuat ekonomi kulit hitam", namun nyatanya negara ini masih merupakan salah satu yang paling timpang masyarakatnya. Kulit putih masih mendominasi perekonomian. Tahun 1993, pendapatan kulit putih sembilan kali lipat lebih besar dari kulit hitam. Tahun 2008, jumlah ini hanya turun sedikit, kurang dari Tabita Indonesia delapan kali lipat lebih besar. Reuters menuliskan, satu dari tiga orang kulit hitam adalah pengangguran. Harga tabita Sementara hanya satu dari 20 kulit putih yang menganggur. Program pengentasan kemiskinan juga berjalan lambat. Hanya enam persen rumah kulit putih yang tidak dialiri air bersih. Sementara sepertiga warga etnis Afrika tidak memiliki akses air. Ketimpangan bahkan bisa terlihat di Pakar SEO Indonesia pemukiman tempat Mandela tinggal di Houghton. Rumah-rumah orang kaya di wilayah itu kebanyakan milik kulit putih. Kulit hitam, hanya jadi pembantu, satpam atau tukang kebun. "Mandela melakukan terlalu jauh dalam Jasa SEO Murah Terbaik berbuat baik pada komunitas non-hitam, bahkan di beberapa kasus mengorbankan kulit hitam. Itu terlalu baik," kata Presiden Zimbabwe, Robert Mugabe dalam dokumenter yang ditayangkan stasiun televisi Afsel Mei 2013 lalu. Setahun terakhir, Afsel dilanda mogok Konsultan SEO Indonesia kerja besar para karyawan industri pertambangan dan manufaktur, menyebabkan pertumbuhan GDP tersendat. Kuartal ketiga tahun ini, ekonomi Afsel hanya tumbuh 0,7 persen dari kuartal sebelumnya. Bandingkan dengan pertumbuhan 3,2 persen di kuartal kedua. "Mandela terus mengatakan: Jasa SEO Murah 'Saya di sini untuk rakyat, saya adalah pelayan negara.' Tapi apa yang dia lakukan? Dia tandatangani dokumen yang memperbolehkan kulit putih menguasai tambang dan pertanian. Dia tidak melakukan apapun untuk orang miskin di negara ini," kata warga, Majozi Pilane, 49. Hal ini juga disampaikan oleh mantan istrinya sendiri, Pinjaman modal Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, dalam wawancara tahun 2010 dengan penulis buku V.S. Naipaul. Dia mengatakan, Mandela berubah setelah menjalani hukuman penjara 27 tahun. "Mandela masuk penjara saat menjadi revolusioner muda Jasa SEO Murah yang membara. Tapi coba lihat dia sekarang. Mandela mengecewakan kita. Dia menyetujui kesepakatan yang buruk bagi kulit hitam. Secara ekonomi kita (kulit hitam) masih tertinggal. Ekonomi hanya untuk kulit putih," kata Winnie. Mandela bukanlah malaikat. Tapi tidak bisa dipungkiri, sosoknya jadi kebanggaan dan pahlawan pembela orang yang termarjinalkan. Ketiadaan Mandela di samping mereka, dikhawatirkan cara memperbanyak sperma akan membuat jurang pemisah hitam dan putih semakin dalam. "Sekarang tanpa Madiba, saya seperti tidak lagi punya kesempatan. Orang kaya akan semakin kaya, dan melupakan kami. memperbanyak sperma Orang miskin diabaikan. Lihat politisi kita sekarang, mereka tidak ada yang seperti Madiba," kata Joseph Nkosi, 36, warga Alexandra, Johannesburg.
 
PAKET WISATA PULAU TIDUNG MURAH DI LALATIDUNG.COM

saco-indonesia.com, Ketinggian air di Kali Ciliwung yang telah melintasi, Kampung Pulo, Jatinegara, Jakarta Timur kian meninggi akibat air kiriman dari Bogor. Bahkan air pun juga sudah mulai menggenangi Jalan Jatinegara Barat sejak pukul 11.00 WIB siang.

Melihat kondisi seperti ini, petugas kepolisian juga langsung mengalihkan arus lalu lintas di Jalan Jatinegara Barat menuju Matraman dialihkan ke Jalan Jatinegara Timur, yang tidak tergenang air.

"Sengaja kami tutup, karena takut merugikan para pengguna jalan. Nanti kalau diterjang bisa pada mogok," kata petugas kepolisan Ipda Rudi, ditemui di lokasi, Kamis (30/1).

Selain itu, beberapa pos pengungsian yang sempat di bongkar kini juga sudah mulai disiapkan kembali untuk posko bantuan di jalur Transjakarta. Terlihat juga warga Kampung Pulo kini sudah mulai meninggalkan rumahnya.

"Katanya mau naik lagi, ini makanya kita bangun tenda lagi, untuk ngungsi," kata Ani, salah satu warga yang memilih tidak tinggal di pos pengungsian.

hingga kini evakuasi terhadap warga pun juga masih dilakukan oleh petugas gabungan dari Dinas Pemadam Kebakaran Jakarta Timur, Tagana, BNPB, Satpol PP, dan anggota TNI.

Kasudin Damkar PB Jakarta Timur, Abdul Karim juga mengatakan sedikitnya ada delapan perahu karet sudah standby di tanggul Kali Ciliwung untuk dapat mengevakuasi warga Kampung Pulo.

"Kalau dari Damkar Jaktim ada empat perahu, satpol PP ada 2 dan TNI juga ada 2. Jadi 8 semuanya yang standby untuk dapat evakuasi warga," kata Abdul.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

JALAN JATINEGARA BARAT KEMBALI DITUTUP

JAKARTA, Saco-Indonesia.com — Bus Transjakarta Koridor III (Kalideres-Harmoni) kembali stop beroperasi. Kepala Humas Unit Pengelola (UP) Transjakarta Sri Ulina Pinem menjelaskan, banyak penyebab yang mengakibatkan transjakarta Koridor III berhenti beroperasi.

"Halte Jembatan Baru kembali dijadikan tempat pengungsian warga setempat,di Jakarta, Selasa (4/2/2014).

Halte Transjakarta Jembatan Baru, Daan Mogot, Jakarta Barat, pada pekan sebelumnya juga pernah digunakan sebagai lokasi pengungsian warga. Menurut Ulina, warga memilih halte transjakarta karena sudah tidak memiliki pilihan lokasi lainnya. Sebab, pada tahun-tahun sebelumnya, mereka juga mengungsi di tempat yang sama.

Para pengungsi, kata Ulina, tetap menjaga fasilitas yang ada di halte. Selain itu, UP Transjakarta tetap menempatkan para petugas mereka seperti biasanya meskipun halte telah beralih fungsi. Halte tetap dijaga, baik saat siang maupun malam hari.

"Karena belum ada lokasi pengungsian dan banjir belum surut, ya kita kasih izin," kata Ulina.

Nantinya, apabila banjir di lingkungan mereka berangsur surut, akan diinformasikan kepada mereka untuk segera kembali ke rumah masing-masing. Sebab, halte transjakarta merupakan salah satu pelayanan publik yang selalu digunakan masyarakat.

Selain itu, penyebab lain transjakarta Koridor III berhenti beroperasi disebabkan tingginya genangan air di Jembatan Gantung setinggi 40-50 cm. Genangan juga terpantau di depan Dispenda setinggi 50 cm, Sumber Waras setinggi 20-30 cm, dan Taman Kota sekitar 30-35 cm.

Perbaikan jalan

Beberapa halte transjakarta juga tidak berfungsi disebabkan perbaikan jalan oleh Dinas Pekerjaan Umum DKI Jakarta di beberapa titik, seperti di Koridor I (Blok M-Kota), Halte Karet, Setiabudi, Hotel Indonesia, dan Bank Indonesia arah Kota tidak dapat digunakan. Selain itu, pintu penurunan penumpang di Halte Harmoni arah Kota juga tidak dapat dipergunakan. Namun, pelayanan tetap beroperasi normal.

Kemudian, di Koridor II (Harmoni-Pulogadung), Halte Balaikota dan Gambir 2 arah Pulogadung tidak dapat dipergunakan. Perjalanan tetap berjalan normal. Untuk Koridor IV (Pulogadung-Dukuh Atas), Halte Manggarai arah Dukuh Atas untuk sementara, kata Ulina, tidak dapat digunakan untuk menaikkan dan menurunkan penumpang karena ada pembongkaran jalan oleh Dinas PU. Sementara Koridor IX (Pinang Ranti-Pluit), Halte Semanggi arah Pinang Ranti ditutup.

Pengalihan

Beberapa koridor transjakarta mengalami pengalihan arus lalu lintas akibat banjir yang menggenangi sejumlah jalan Ibu Kota. Seperti Koridor IX (Pinang Ranti-Pluit), beroperasi dari Halte Pinang Ranti sampai Halte Rumah Sakit Harapan Kita. Hal itu disebabkan adanya genangan air di Central Park arah Grogol, Jakarta Barat, setinggi 50-60 cm.

Untuk di Koridor V (Ancol-Kampung Melayu), pelayanan transjakarta beroperasi hanya sampai Halte Senen. Hal itu disebabkan tingginya titik genangan air di Jembatan Merah 30-40 cm dan Mangga Dua 20-30 cm.

Untuk Koridor VIII (Harmoni-Lebak Bulus), akibat banjir yang merendam kawasan Green Garden, perjalanan kembali dialihkan melalui Tol Kebon Jeruk-Tomang. Perjalanan tidak melalui empat halte, yakni Halte Grogol, Kedoya Green Garden, Kedoya Assidiqiyah, dan Duri Kepa.

"Untuk pelayanan operasional bus transjakarta dari koridor I,II,IV,VI,VII,VIII,X, XI, XII beroperasi normal," kata Ulina.

Sumber :kompas.com

Editor : Maulana Lee

Halte Transjakarta Koridor III Tak Beroperasi, karna jadi tempat Pengungsian

NEW YORK, Saco-Indonesia.com - Sekarang harga minyak AS turun sedikit pada Rabu (29/1/2014) waktu setempat (Kamis pagi WIB), karena persediaan minyak mentah AS pekan lalu naik lebih besar dari yang diperkirakan.

Minyak mentah light sweet atau West Texas Intermediate (WTI) untuk pengiriman Maret turun tipis lima sen ditutup pada di 97,36 dollar AS per barel di New York Mercantile Exchange.

Sedangkan minyak mentah Brent North Sea untuk penyerahan Maret naik 36 sen menjadi 107,77 dollar AS per barel di perdagangan London.

Departemen Energi AS (DoE) mengatakan persediaan minyak mentah Amerika Serikat meningkat 6,4 juta barel dalam pekan yang berakhir 24 Januari, lebih besar dari perkiraan analis untuk kenaikan 2,2 juta barel.

Sebuah kenaikan menunjukkan melemahnya permintaan di ekonomi dan negara konsumen minyak terbesar dunia itu.

Sementara itu Federal Reserve seperti yang diperkirakan kembali memangkas stimulusmya sebesar 10 miliar dollar AS untuk bulan kedua berturut-turut menjadi 65 miliar dollar AS per bulan.

Desmond Chua, analis pasar di CMC Markets di Singapura, mengatakan pengurangan stimulus (tapering) tambahan kemungkinan akan meningkatkan greenback, membuat minyak yang dihargakan dalam dolar lebih mahal bagi negara-negara yang menggunakan mata uang lain, sehingga mengurangi permintaan.

Sumber :Kompas.com

Editor : Maulana Lee

Stok AS Meningkat, Harga Minyak Dunia Turun

saco-indonesia.com, Empat kementerian telah menandatangi Surat Keputusan Bersama (SKB) untuk dapat menjalankan kampanye antikorupsi. Keempat kemeterian itu adalah Kementerian Komunikasi dan Informatika, Kementerian BUMN, Kementerian Dalam Negeri dan Kementerian PAN-RB.

Empat kementerian itu sepakat untuk dapat melaksanakan kampanye antikorupsi sesuai dengan perundang-undangan serta menetapkan aksi kampaye antikorupsi sebagaimana yang telah tercantum dalam lampiran SKB.

"Memasuki periode ke-2 pemerintahan Presiden Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, pemerintah semakin intensif dalam menjalankan aksi-aksi antikorupsi. Hal itu telah tercermin sejak keluarnya Inpres Nomor 9 tahun 2011 tentang Rencana Aksi Pencegahan dan Pemberantasan Korupsi," kata  Menkominfo, Tifatul Sembiring, di Gedung Kementerian Kominfo, Jakarta Pusat, Senin (23/12/2013).

Dijelaskannya, program kerjasama tersebut sudah dimulai hari ini dan tak mengenal batas akhir. "Meski ganti menteri dan presiden, kerjasama ini akan tetap berjalan," terangnya.

Menurut dia, Kemenkominfo setidaknya juga sudah menjalankan dua aksi kampanye antikorupsi. Pertama, sosialisasi pendidikan budaya antikorupsi untuk tingkat pemerintah daerah dan kedua, pelatihan untuk kampanye antikorupsi.

Hadir dalam kesempatan itu Ketua Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK) Abraham Samad. "Kami juga ingin memastikan agar tiap lembaga bisa memperbaiki sistem. Karena sistem manajemen yang sedang berlangsung itu terkadang memproduksi kegiatan korupsi," kata Samad.

Dengan penandatanganan itu, Samad juga berharap bisa membuat suatu sistem yang mencegah produksi korupsi. "Ada beberapa item-item yang akan kita laksanakan ke depan, seperti yang dijelaskan tadi," tukasnya.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

4 KEMENTERIAN JANJI TAK KORUPSI

Judge Patterson helped to protect the rights of Attica inmates after the prison riot in 1971 and later served on the Federal District Court in Manhattan.

Robert Patterson Jr., Lawyer and Judge Who Fought for the Accused, Dies at 91

Ms. Meadows was the older sister of Audrey Meadows, who played Alice Kramden on “The Honeymooners.”

Jayne Meadows, Actress and Steve Allen’s Wife and Co-Star, Dies at 95

As he reflected on the festering wounds deepened by race and grievance that have been on painful display in America’s cities lately, President Obama on Monday found himself thinking about a young man he had just met named Malachi.

A few minutes before, in a closed-door round-table discussion at Lehman College in the Bronx, Mr. Obama had asked a group of black and Hispanic students from disadvantaged backgrounds what could be done to help them reach their goals. Several talked about counseling and guidance programs.

“Malachi, he just talked about — we should talk about love,” Mr. Obama told a crowd afterward, drifting away from his prepared remarks. “Because Malachi and I shared the fact that our dad wasn’t around and that sometimes we wondered why he wasn’t around and what had happened. But really, that’s what this comes down to is: Do we love these kids?”

Many presidents have governed during times of racial tension, but Mr. Obama is the first to see in the mirror a face that looks like those on the other side of history’s ledger. While his first term was consumed with the economy, war and health care, his second keeps coming back to the societal divide that was not bridged by his election. A president who eschewed focusing on race now seems to have found his voice again as he thinks about how to use his remaining time in office and beyond.

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Obama Speaks of a ‘Sense of Unfairness’

Obama Speaks of a ‘Sense of Unfairness’

At an event announcing the creation of a nonprofit focusing on young minority men, President Obama talked about the underlying reasons for recent protests in Baltimore and other cities.

By Associated Press on Publish Date May 4, 2015. Photo by Stephen Crowley/The New York Times.

In the aftermath of racially charged unrest in places like Baltimore, Ferguson, Mo., and New York, Mr. Obama came to the Bronx on Monday for the announcement of a new nonprofit organization that is being spun off from his White House initiative called My Brother’s Keeper. Staked by more than $80 million in commitments from corporations and other donors, the new group, My Brother’s Keeper Alliance, will in effect provide the nucleus for Mr. Obama’s post-presidency, which will begin in January 2017.

“This will remain a mission for me and for Michelle not just for the rest of my presidency but for the rest of my life,” Mr. Obama said. “And the reason is simple,” he added. Referring to some of the youths he had just met, he said: “We see ourselves in these young men. I grew up without a dad. I grew up lost sometimes and adrift, not having a sense of a clear path. The only difference between me and a lot of other young men in this neighborhood and all across the country is that I grew up in an environment that was a little more forgiving.”

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Organizers said the new alliance already had financial pledges from companies like American Express, Deloitte, Discovery Communications and News Corporation. The money will be used to help companies address obstacles facing young black and Hispanic men, provide grants to programs for disadvantaged youths, and help communities aid their populations.

Joe Echevarria, a former chief executive of Deloitte, the accounting and consulting firm, will lead the alliance, and among those on its leadership team or advisory group are executives at PepsiCo, News Corporation, Sprint, BET and Prudential Group Insurance; former Secretary of State Colin L. Powell; Senator Cory Booker, Democrat of New Jersey; former Attorney General Eric H. Holder Jr.; the music star John Legend; the retired athletes Alonzo Mourning, Jerome Bettis and Shaquille O’Neal; and the mayors of Indianapolis, Sacramento and Philadelphia.

The alliance, while nominally independent of the White House, may face some of the same questions confronting former Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton as she begins another presidential campaign. Some of those donating to the alliance may have interests in government action, and skeptics may wonder whether they are trying to curry favor with the president by contributing.

“The Obama administration will have no role in deciding how donations are screened and what criteria they’ll set at the alliance for donor policies, because it’s an entirely separate entity,” Josh Earnest, the White House press secretary, told reporters on Air Force One en route to New York. But he added, “I’m confident that the members of the board are well aware of the president’s commitment to transparency.”

The alliance was in the works before the disturbances last week after the death of Freddie Gray, the black man who suffered fatal injuries while in police custody in Baltimore, but it reflected the evolution of Mr. Obama’s presidency. For him, in a way, it is coming back to issues that animated him as a young community organizer and politician. It was his own struggle with race and identity, captured in his youthful memoir, “Dreams From My Father,” that stood him apart from other presidential aspirants.

But that was a side of him that he kept largely to himself through the first years of his presidency while he focused on other priorities like turning the economy around, expanding government-subsidized health care and avoiding electoral land mines en route to re-election.

After securing a second term, Mr. Obama appeared more emboldened. Just a month after his 2013 inauguration, he talked passionately about opportunity and race with a group of teenage boys in Chicago, a moment aides point to as perhaps the first time he had spoken about these issues in such a personal, powerful way as president. A few months later, he publicly lamented the death of Trayvon Martin, a black Florida teenager, saying that “could have been me 35 years ago.”

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President Obama on Monday with Darinel Montero, a student at Bronx International High School who introduced him before remarks at Lehman College in the Bronx. Credit Stephen Crowley/The New York Times

That case, along with public ruptures of anger over police shootings in Ferguson and elsewhere, have pushed the issue of race and law enforcement onto the public agenda. Aides said they imagined that with his presidency in its final stages, Mr. Obama might be thinking more about what comes next and causes he can advance as a private citizen.

That is not to say that his public discussion of these issues has been universally welcomed. Some conservatives said he had made matters worse by seeming in their view to blame police officers in some of the disputed cases.

“President Obama, when he was elected, could have been a unifying leader,” Senator Ted Cruz of Texas, a Republican candidate for president, said at a forum last week. “He has made decisions that I think have inflamed racial tensions.”

On the other side of the ideological spectrum, some liberal African-American activists have complained that Mr. Obama has not done enough to help downtrodden communities. While he is speaking out more, these critics argue, he has hardly used the power of the presidency to make the sort of radical change they say is necessary.

The line Mr. Obama has tried to straddle has been a serrated one. He condemns police brutality as he defends most officers as honorable. He condemns “criminals and thugs” who looted in Baltimore while expressing empathy with those trapped in a cycle of poverty and hopelessness.

In the Bronx on Monday, Mr. Obama bemoaned the death of Brian Moore, a plainclothes New York police officer who had died earlier in the day after being shot in the head Saturday on a Queens street. Most police officers are “good and honest and fair and care deeply about their communities,” even as they put their lives on the line, Mr. Obama said.

“Which is why in addressing the issues in Baltimore or Ferguson or New York, the point I made was that if we’re just looking at policing, we’re looking at it too narrowly,” he added. “If we ask the police to simply contain and control problems that we ourselves have been unwilling to invest and solve, that’s not fair to the communities, it’s not fair to the police.”

Moreover, if society writes off some people, he said, “that’s not the kind of country I want to live in; that’s not what America is about.”

His message to young men like Malachi Hernandez, who attends Boston Latin Academy in Massachusetts, is not to give up.

“I want you to know you matter,” he said. “You matter to us.”

Obama Finds a Bolder Voice on Race Issues

Mr. Miller, of the firm Weil, Gotshal & Manges, represented companies including Lehman Brothers, General Motors and American Airlines, and mentored many of the top Chapter 11 practitioners today.

Harvey R. Miller, Renowned Bankruptcy Lawyer, Dies at 82

Hockey is not exactly known as a city game, but played on roller skates, it once held sway as the sport of choice in many New York neighborhoods.

“City kids had no rinks, no ice, but they would do anything to play hockey,” said Edward Moffett, former director of the Long Island City Y.M.C.A. Roller Hockey League, in Queens, whose games were played in city playgrounds going back to the 1940s.

From the 1960s through the 1980s, the league had more than 60 teams, he said. Players included the Mullen brothers of Hell’s Kitchen and Dan Dorion of Astoria, Queens, who would later play on ice for the National Hockey League.

One street legend from the heyday of New York roller hockey was Craig Allen, who lived in the Woodside Houses projects and became one of the city’s hardest hitters and top scorers.

“Craig was a warrior, one of the best roller hockey players in the city in the ’70s,” said Dave Garmendia, 60, a retired New York police officer who grew up playing with Mr. Allen. “His teammates loved him and his opponents feared him.”

Young Craig took up hockey on the streets of Queens in the 1960s, playing pickup games between sewer covers, wearing steel-wheeled skates clamped onto school shoes and using a roll of electrical tape as the puck.

His skill and ferocity drew attention, Mr. Garmendia said, but so did his skin color. He was black, in a sport made up almost entirely by white players.

“Roller hockey was a white kid’s game, plain and simple, but Craig broke the color barrier,” Mr. Garmendia said. “We used to say Craig did more for race relations than the N.A.A.C.P.”

Mr. Allen went on to coach and referee roller hockey in New York before moving several years ago to South Carolina. But he continued to organize an annual alumni game at Dutch Kills Playground in Long Island City, the same site that held the local championship games.

The reunion this year was on Saturday, but Mr. Allen never made it. On April 26, just before boarding the bus to New York, he died of an asthma attack at age 61.

Word of his death spread rapidly among hundreds of his old hockey colleagues who resolved to continue with the event, now renamed the Craig Allen Memorial Roller Hockey Reunion.

The turnout on Saturday was the largest ever, with players pulling on their old equipment, choosing sides and taking once again to the rink of cracked blacktop with faded lines and circles. They wore no helmets, although one player wore a fedora.

Another, Vinnie Juliano, 77, of Long Island City, wore his hearing aids, along with his 50-year-old taped-up quads, or four-wheeled skates with a leather boot. Many players here never converted to in-line skates, and neither did Mr. Allen, whose photograph appeared on a poster hanging behind the players’ bench.

“I’m seeing people walking by wondering why all these rusty, grizzly old guys are here playing hockey,” one player, Tommy Dominguez, said. “We’re here for Craig, and let me tell you, these old guys still play hard.”

Everyone seemed to have a Craig Allen story, from his earliest teams at Public School 151 to the Bryant Rangers, the Woodside Wings, the Woodside Blues and more.

Mr. Allen, who became a yellow-cab driver, was always recruiting new talent. He gained the nickname Cabby for his habit of stopping at playgrounds all over the city to scout players.

Teams were organized around neighborhoods and churches, and often sponsored by local bars. Mr. Allen, for one, played for bars, including Garry Owen’s and on the Fiddler’s Green Jokers team in Inwood, Manhattan.

Play was tough and fights were frequent.

“We were basically street gangs on skates,” said Steve Rogg, 56, a mail clerk who grew up in Jackson Heights, Queens, and who on Saturday wore his Riedell Classic quads from 1972. “If another team caught up with you the night before a game, they tossed you a beating so you couldn’t play the next day.”

Mr. Garmendia said Mr. Allen’s skin color provoked many fights.

“When we’d go to some ignorant neighborhoods, a lot of players would use slurs,” Mr. Garmendia said, recalling a game in Ozone Park, Queens, where local fans parked motorcycles in a lineup next to the blacktop and taunted Mr. Allen. Mr. Garmendia said he checked a player into the motorcycles, “and the bikes went down like dominoes, which started a serious brawl.”

A group of fans at a game in Brooklyn once stuck a pole through the rink fence as Mr. Allen skated by and broke his jaw, Mr. Garmendia said, adding that carloads of reinforcements soon arrived to defend Mr. Allen.

And at another racially incited brawl, the police responded with six patrol cars and a helicopter.

Before play began on Saturday, the players gathered at center rink to honor Mr. Allen. Billy Barnwell, 59, of Woodside, recalled once how an all-white, all-star squad snubbed Mr. Allen by playing him third string. He scored seven goals in the first game and made first string immediately.

“He’d always hear racial stuff before the game, and I’d ask him, ‘How do you put up with that?’” Mr. Barnwell recalled. “Craig would say, ‘We’ll take care of it,’ and by the end of the game, he’d win guys over. They’d say, ‘This guy’s good.’”

Tribute for a Roller Hockey Warrior

Ms. Turner and her twin sister founded the Love Kitchen in 1986 in a church basement in Knoxville, Tenn., and it continues to provide clothing and meals.

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WASHINGTON — The former deputy director of the C.I.A. asserts in a forthcoming book that Republicans, in their eagerness to politicize the killing of the American ambassador to Libya, repeatedly distorted the agency’s analysis of events. But he also argues that the C.I.A. should get out of the business of providing “talking points” for administration officials in national security events that quickly become partisan, as happened after the Benghazi attack in 2012.

The official, Michael J. Morell, dismisses the allegation that the United States military and C.I.A. officers “were ordered to stand down and not come to the rescue of their comrades,” and he says there is “no evidence” to support the charge that “there was a conspiracy between C.I.A. and the White House to spin the Benghazi story in a way that would protect the political interests of the president and Secretary Clinton,” referring to the secretary of state at the time, Hillary Rodham Clinton.

But he also concludes that the White House itself embellished some of the talking points provided by the Central Intelligence Agency and had blocked him from sending an internal study of agency conclusions to Congress.

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Michael J. Morell Credit Mark Wilson/Getty Images

“I finally did so without asking,” just before leaving government, he writes, and after the White House released internal emails to a committee investigating the State Department’s handling of the issue.

A lengthy congressional investigation remains underway, one that many Republicans hope to use against Mrs. Clinton in the 2016 election cycle.

In parts of the book, “The Great War of Our Time” (Twelve), Mr. Morell praises his C.I.A. colleagues for many successes in stopping terrorist attacks, but he is surprisingly critical of other C.I.A. failings — and those of the National Security Agency.

Soon after Mr. Morell retired in 2013 after 33 years in the agency, President Obama appointed him to a commission reviewing the actions of the National Security Agency after the disclosures of Edward J. Snowden, a former intelligence contractor who released classified documents about the government’s eavesdropping abilities. Mr. Morell writes that he was surprised by what he found.

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“You would have thought that of all the government entities on the planet, the one least vulnerable to such grand theft would have been the N.S.A.,” he writes. “But it turned out that the N.S.A. had left itself vulnerable.”

He concludes that most Wall Street firms had better cybersecurity than the N.S.A. had when Mr. Snowden swept information from its systems in 2013. While he said he found himself “chagrined by how well the N.S.A. was doing” compared with the C.I.A. in stepping up its collection of data on intelligence targets, he also sensed that the N.S.A., which specializes in electronic spying, was operating without considering the implications of its methods.

“The N.S.A. had largely been collecting information because it could, not necessarily in all cases because it should,” he says.

The book is to be released next week.

Mr. Morell was a career analyst who rose through the ranks of the agency, and he ended up in the No. 2 post. He served as President George W. Bush’s personal intelligence briefer in the first months of his presidency — in those days, he could often be spotted at the Starbucks in Waco, Tex., catching up on his reading — and was with him in the schoolhouse in Florida on the morning of Sept. 11, 2001, when the Bush presidency changed in an instant.

Mr. Morell twice took over as acting C.I.A. director, first when Leon E. Panetta was appointed secretary of defense and then when retired Gen. David H. Petraeus resigned over an extramarital affair with his biographer, a relationship that included his handing her classified notes of his time as America’s best-known military commander.

Mr. Morell says he first learned of the affair from Mr. Petraeus only the night before he resigned, and just as the Benghazi events were turning into a political firestorm. While praising Mr. Petraeus, who had told his deputy “I am very lucky” to run the C.I.A., Mr. Morell writes that “the organization did not feel the same way about him.” The former general “created the impression through the tone of his voice and his body language that he did not want people to disagree with him (which was not true in my own interaction with him),” he says.

But it is his account of the Benghazi attacks — and how the C.I.A. was drawn into the debate over whether the Obama White House deliberately distorted its account of the death of Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens — that is bound to attract attention, at least partly because of its relevance to the coming presidential election. The initial assessments that the C.I.A. gave to the White House said demonstrations had preceded the attack. By the time analysts reversed their opinion, Susan E. Rice, now the national security adviser, had made a series of statements on Sunday talk shows describing the initial assessment. The controversy and other comments Ms. Rice made derailed Mr. Obama’s plan to appoint her as secretary of state.

The experience prompted Mr. Morell to write that the C.I.A. should stay out of the business of preparing talking points — especially on issues that are being seized upon for “political purposes.” He is critical of the State Department for not beefing up security in Libya for its diplomats, as the C.I.A., he said, did for its employees.

But he concludes that the assault in which the ambassador was killed took place “with little or no advance planning” and “was not well organized.” He says the attackers “did not appear to be looking for Americans to harm. They appeared intent on looting and conducting some vandalism,” setting fires that killed Mr. Stevens and a security official, Sean Smith.

Mr. Morell paints a picture of an agency that was struggling, largely unsuccessfully, to understand dynamics in the Middle East and North Africa when the Arab Spring broke out in late 2011 in Tunisia. The agency’s analysts failed to see the forces of revolution coming — and then failed again, he writes, when they told Mr. Obama that the uprisings would undercut Al Qaeda by showing there was a democratic pathway to change.

“There is no good explanation for our not being able to see the pressures growing to dangerous levels across the region,” he writes. The agency had again relied too heavily “on a handful of strong leaders in the countries of concern to help us understand what was going on in the Arab street,” he says, and those leaders themselves were clueless.

Moreover, an agency that has always overvalued secretly gathered intelligence and undervalued “open source” material “was not doing enough to mine the wealth of information available through social media,” he writes. “We thought and told policy makers that this outburst of popular revolt would damage Al Qaeda by undermining the group’s narrative,” he writes.

Instead, weak governments in Egypt, and the absence of governance from Libya to Yemen, were “a boon to Islamic extremists across both the Middle East and North Africa.”

Mr. Morell is gentle about most of the politicians he dealt with — he expresses admiration for both Mr. Bush and Mr. Obama, though he accuses former Vice President Dick Cheney of deliberately implying a connection between Al Qaeda and Iraq that the C.I.A. had concluded probably did not exist. But when it comes to the events leading up to the Bush administration’s decision to go to war in Iraq, he is critical of his own agency.

Mr. Morell concludes that the Bush White House did not have to twist intelligence on Saddam Hussein’s alleged effort to rekindle the country’s work on weapons of mass destruction.

“The view that hard-liners in the Bush administration forced the intelligence community into its position on W.M.D. is just flat wrong,” he writes. “No one pushed. The analysts were already there and they had been there for years, long before Bush came to office.”

Ex-C.I.A. Official Rebuts Republican Claims on Benghazi Attack in ‘The Great War of Our Time’
Frontline  An installment of this PBS program looks at the effects of Ebola on Liberia and other countries, as well as the origins of the outbreak.
Frontline

Frontline An installment of this PBS program looks at the effects of Ebola on Liberia and other countries, as well as the origins of the outbreak.

The program traces the outbreak to its origin, thought to be a tree full of bats in Guinea.

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A variation of volleyball with nine men on each side is profiled Tuesday night on the World Channel in an absorbing documentary called “9-Man.”

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The 6-foot-10 Phillips played alongside the 6-11 Rick Robey on the Wildcats team that won the 1978 N.C.A.A. men’s basketball title.

Mike Phillips, Half of Kentucky’s ‘Twin Towers’ of Basketball, Dies at 59

Mr. Fox, known for his well-honed countrified voice, wrote about things dear to South Carolina and won over Yankee critics.

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HOBART, Tasmania — Few places seem out of reach for China’s leader, Xi Jinping, who has traveled from European capitals to obscure Pacific and Caribbean islands in pursuit of his nation’s strategic interests.

So perhaps it was not surprising when he turned up last fall in this city on the edge of the Southern Ocean to put down a long-distance marker in another faraway region, Antarctica, 2,000 miles south of this Australian port.

Standing on the deck of an icebreaker that ferries Chinese scientists from this last stop before the frozen continent, Mr. Xi pledged that China would continue to expand in one of the few places on earth that remain unexploited by humans.

He signed a five-year accord with the Australian government that allows Chinese vessels and, in the future, aircraft to resupply for fuel and food before heading south. That will help secure easier access to a region that is believed to have vast oil and mineral resources; huge quantities of high-protein sea life; and for times of possible future dire need, fresh water contained in icebergs.

It was not until 1985, about seven decades after Robert Scott and Roald Amundsen raced to the South Pole, that a team representing Beijing hoisted the Chinese flag over the nation’s first Antarctic research base, the Great Wall Station on King George Island.

But now China seems determined to catch up. As it has bolstered spending on Antarctic research, and as the early explorers, especially the United States and Australia, confront stagnant budgets, there is growing concern about its intentions.

China’s operations on the continent — it opened its fourth research station last year, chose a site for a fifth, and is investing in a second icebreaker and new ice-capable planes and helicopters — are already the fastest growing of the 52 signatories to the Antarctic Treaty. That gentlemen’s agreement reached in 1959 bans military activity on the continent and aims to preserve it as one of the world’s last wildernesses; a related pact prohibits mining.

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But Mr. Xi’s visit was another sign that China is positioning itself to take advantage of the continent’s resource potential when the treaty expires in 2048 — or in the event that it is ripped up before, Chinese and Australian experts say.

“So far, our research is natural-science based, but we know there is more and more concern about resource security,” said Yang Huigen, director general of the Polar Research Institute of China, who accompanied Mr. Xi last November on his visit to Hobart and stood with him on the icebreaker, Xue Long, or Snow Dragon.

With that in mind, the polar institute recently opened a new division devoted to the study of resources, law, geopolitics and governance in Antarctica and the Arctic, Mr. Yang said.

Australia, a strategic ally of the United States that has strong economic relations with China, is watching China’s buildup in the Antarctic with a mix of gratitude — China’s presence offers support for Australia’s Antarctic science program, which is short of cash — and wariness.

“We should have no illusions about the deeper agenda — one that has not even been agreed to by Chinese scientists but is driven by Xi, and most likely his successors,” said Peter Jennings, executive director of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute and a former senior official in the Australian Department of Defense.

“This is part of a broader pattern of a mercantilist approach all around the world,” Mr. Jennings added. “A big driver of Chinese policy is to secure long-term energy supply and food supply.”

That approach was evident last month when a large Chinese agriculture enterprise announced an expansion of its fishing operations around Antarctica to catch more krill — small, protein-rich crustaceans that are abundant in Antarctic waters.

“The Antarctic is a treasure house for all human beings, and China should go there and share,” Liu Shenli, the chairman of the China National Agricultural Development Group, told China Daily, a state-owned newspaper. China would aim to fish up to two million tons of krill a year, he said, a substantial increase from what it currently harvests.

Because sovereignty over Antarctica is unclear, nations have sought to strengthen their claims over the ice-covered land by building research bases and naming geographic features. China’s fifth station will put it within reach of the six American facilities, and ahead of Australia’s three.

Chinese mappers have also given Chinese names to more than 300 sites, compared with the thousands of locations on the continent with English names.

In the unspoken competition for Antarctica’s future, scientific achievement can also translate into influence. Chinese scientists are driving to be the first to drill and recover an ice core containing tiny air bubbles that provide a record of climate change stretching as far back as 1.5 million years. It is an expensive and delicate effort at which others, including the European Union and Australia, have failed.

In a breakthrough a decade ago, European scientists extracted an ice core nearly two miles long that revealed 800,000 years of climate history. But finding an ice core going back further would allow scientists to examine a change in the earth’s climate cycles believed to have occurred 900,000 to 1.2 million years ago.

China is betting it has found the best location to drill, at an area called Dome A, or Dome Argus, the highest point on the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Though it is considered one of the coldest places on the planet, with temperatures of 130 degrees below zero Fahrenheit, a Chinese expedition explored the area in 2005 and established a research station in 2009.

“The international community has drilled in lots of places, but no luck so far,” said Xiao Cunde, a member of the first party to reach the site and the deputy director of the Institute for Climate Change at the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences. “We think at Dome A we will have a straight shot at the one-million-year ice core.”

Mr. Xiao said China had already begun drilling and hoped to find what scientists are looking for in four to five years.

To support its Antarctic aspirations, China is building a sophisticated $300 million icebreaker that is expected to be ready in a few years, said Xia Limin, deputy director of the Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Administration in Beijing. It has also bought a high-tech fixed-wing aircraft, outfitted in the United States, for taking sensitive scientific soundings from the ice.

China has chosen the site for its fifth research station at Inexpressible Island, named by a group of British explorers who were stranded at the desolate site in 1912 and survived the winter by excavating a small ice cave.

Mr. Xia said the inhospitable spot was ideal because China did not have a presence in that part of Antarctica, and because the rocky site did not have much snow, making it relatively cheap to build there.

Anne-Marie Brady, a professor of political science at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand and the author of a soon-to-be-released book, “China as a Polar Great Power,” said Chinese scientists also believed they had a good chance of finding mineral and energy resources near the site.

“China is playing a long game in Antarctica and keeping other states guessing about its true intentions and interests are part of its poker hand,” she said. But she noted that China’s interest in finding minerals was presented “loud and clear to domestic audiences” as the main reason it was investing in Antarctica.

Because commercial drilling is banned, estimates of energy and mineral resources in Antarctica rely on remote sensing data and comparisons with similar geological environments elsewhere, said Millard F. Coffin, executive director of the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies in Hobart.

But the difficulty of extraction in such severe conditions and uncertainty about future commodity prices make it unlikely that China or any country would defy the ban on mining anytime soon.

Tourism, however, is already booming. Travelers from China are still a relatively small contingent in the Antarctic compared with the more than 13,000 Americans who visited in 2013, and as yet there are no licensed Chinese tour operators.

But that is about to change, said Anthony Bergin, deputy director of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute. “I understand very soon there will be Chinese tourists on Chinese vessels with all-Chinese crew in the Antarctic,” he said.

 

Top News China’s Intents Are Questioned as It Builds in Antarctica

WASHINGTON — The last three men to win the Republican nomination have been the prosperous son of a president (George W. Bush), a senator who could not recall how many homes his family owned (John McCain of Arizona; it was seven) and a private equity executive worth an estimated $200 million (Mitt Romney).

The candidates hoping to be the party’s nominee in 2016 are trying to create a very different set of associations. On Sunday, Ben Carson, a retired neurosurgeon, joined the presidential field.

Senator Marco Rubio of Florida praises his parents, a bartender and a Kmart stock clerk, as he urges audiences not to forget “the workers in our hotel kitchens, the landscaping crews in our neighborhoods, the late-night janitorial staff that clean our offices.”

Gov. Scott Walker of Wisconsin, a preacher’s son, posts on Twitter about his ham-and-cheese sandwiches and boasts of his coupon-clipping frugality. His $1 Kohl’s sweater has become a campaign celebrity in its own right.

Senator Rand Paul of Kentucky laments the existence of “two Americas,” borrowing the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s phrase to describe economically and racially troubled communities like Ferguson, Mo., and Detroit.

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Senator Marco Rubio of Florida praises his parents, a bartender and a Kmart stock clerk. Credit Joe Raedle/Getty Images

“Some say, ‘But Democrats care more about the poor,’ ” Mr. Paul likes to say. “If that’s true, why is black unemployment still twice white unemployment? Why has household income declined by $3,500 over the past six years?”

We are in the midst of the Empathy Primary — the rhetorical battleground shaping the Republican presidential field of 2016.

Harmed by the perception that they favor the wealthy at the expense of middle-of-the-road Americans, the party’s contenders are each trying their hardest to get across what the elder George Bush once inelegantly told recession-battered voters in 1992: “Message: I care.”

Their ability to do so — less bluntly, more sincerely — could prove decisive in an election year when power, privilege and family connections will loom large for both parties.

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Questions of understanding and compassion cost Republicans in the last election. Mr. Romney, who memorably dismissed the “47 percent” of Americans as freeloaders, lost to President Obama by 63 percentage points among voters who cast their ballots for the candidate who “cares about people like me,” according to exit polls.

And a Pew poll from February showed that people still believe Republicans are indifferent to working Americans: 54 percent said the Republican Party does not care about the middle class.

That taint of callousness explains why Senator Ted Cruz of Texas declared last week that Republicans “are and should be the party of the 47 percent” — and why another son of a president, Jeb Bush, has made economic opportunity the centerpiece of his message.

With his pedigree and considerable wealth — since he left the Florida governor’s office almost a decade ago he has earned millions of dollars sitting on corporate boards and advising banks — Mr. Bush probably has the most complicated task making the argument to voters that he understands their concerns.

On a visit last week to Puerto Rico, Mr. Bush sounded every bit the populist, railing against “elites” who have stifled economic growth and innovation. In the kind of economy he envisions leading, he said: “We wouldn’t have the middle being squeezed. People in poverty would have a chance to rise up. And the social strains that exist — because the haves and have-nots is the big debate in our country today — would subside.”

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Who Is Running for President (and Who’s Not)?

Republicans’ emphasis on poorer and working-class Americans now represents a shift from the party’s longstanding focus on business owners and “job creators” as the drivers of economic opportunity.

This is intentional, Republican operatives said.

In the last presidential election, Republicans rushed to defend business owners against what they saw as hostility by Democrats to successful, wealthy entrepreneurs.

“Part of what you had was a reaction to the Democrats’ dehumanization of business owners: ‘Oh, you think you started your plumbing company? No you didn’t,’ ” said Grover Norquist, the conservative activist and president of Americans for Tax Reform.

But now, Mr. Norquist said, Republicans should move past that. “Focus on the people in the room who know someone who couldn’t get a job, or a promotion, or a raise because taxes are too high or regulations eat up companies’ time,” he said. “The rich guy can take care of himself.”

Democrats argue that the public will ultimately see through such an approach because Republican positions like opposing a minimum-wage increase and giving private banks a larger role in student loans would hurt working Americans.

“If Republican candidates are just repeating the same tired policies, I’m not sure that smiling while saying it is going to be enough,” said Guy Cecil, a Democratic strategist who is joining a “super PAC” working on behalf of Hillary Rodham Clinton.

Republicans have already attacked Mrs. Clinton over the wealth and power she and her husband have accumulated, caricaturing her as an out-of-touch multimillionaire who earns hundreds of thousands of dollars per speech and has not driven a car since 1996.

Mr. Walker hit this theme recently on Fox News, pointing to Mrs. Clinton’s lucrative book deals and her multiple residences. “This is not someone who is connected with everyday Americans,” he said. His own net worth, according to The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, is less than a half-million dollars; Mr. Walker also owes tens of thousands of dollars on his credit cards.

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But showing off a cheap sweater or boasting of a bootstraps family background not only helps draw a contrast with Mrs. Clinton’s latter-day affluence, it is also an implicit argument against Mr. Bush.

Mr. Walker, who featured a 1998 Saturn with more than 100,000 miles on the odometer in a 2010 campaign ad during his first run for governor, likes to talk about flipping burgers at McDonald’s as a young person. His mother, he has said, grew up on a farm with no indoor plumbing until she was in high school.

Mr. Rubio, among the least wealthy members of the Senate, with an estimated net worth of around a half-million dollars, uses his working-class upbringing as evidence of the “exceptionalism” of America, “where even the son of a bartender and a maid can have the same dreams and the same future as those who come from power and privilege.”

Mr. Cruz alludes to his family’s dysfunction — his parents, he says, were heavy drinkers — and recounts his father’s tale of fleeing Cuba with $100 sewn into his underwear.

Gov. Chris Christie of New Jersey notes that his father paid his way through college working nights at an ice cream plant.

But sometimes the attempts at projecting authenticity can seem forced. Mr. Christie recently found himself on the defensive after telling a New Hampshire audience, “I don’t consider myself a wealthy man.” Tax returns showed that he and his wife, a longtime Wall Street executive, earned nearly $700,000 in 2013.

The story of success against the odds is a political classic, even if it is one the Republican Party has not been able to tell for a long time. Ronald Reagan liked to say that while he had not been born on the wrong side of the tracks, he could always hear the whistle. Richard Nixon was fond of reminding voters how he was born in a house his father had built.

“Probably the idea that is most attractive to an average voter, and an idea that both Republicans and Democrats try to craft into their messages, is this idea that you can rise from nothing,” said Charles C. W. Cooke, a writer for National Review.

There is a certain delight Republicans take in turning that message to their advantage now.

“That’s what Obama did with Hillary,” Mr. Cooke said. “He acknowledged it openly: ‘This is ridiculous. Look at me, this one-term senator with dark skin and all of America’s unsolved racial problems, running against the wife of the last Democratic president.”

G.O.P. Hopefuls Now Aiming to Woo the Middle Class
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