PAKET UMROH BULAN FEBRUARI MARET APRIL MEI 2018




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Kali ini admin akan membagikan artikel mengenai Contoh Karya Ilmiah/Makalah tentang Efek Rumah Kaca. Semoga artikel ini, dapat di gunakan dengan sebaik-baiknya. Dan semoga artikel ini dapat membantu mengerjakan Tugas Sekolah atau Kuliah teman-teman semuanya.
 
 
BAB I
PENDAHULUAN
 
 
A.    Latar Belakang
       Sejak jaman purbakala sampai sekarang,manusia mengalami perubahan yang sangat pesat seiring berjalannya waktu,ilmu pengetahuan juga ikut berkembang.Manusia sebagai mahluk ciptaan Allah yang sangat sempurna mempunyai tugas untuk menjaga dan tetap melestarikan alam agar tidak punah.
        Keadaan permukaan bumi saat ini mengalami peningkatan suhu yang tidak seperti biasanya yang terjadi selama 100 tahun terakhir ini,salah satu penyebabnya adalah rumah kaca yang biasanya di gunakan untuk mengembangkan bunga,buah dan lain sebagainya,rumah kaca ini melindungi tanaman dari panas dan dingin secara berlebih sehingga banyak industri - industri menggunakan metode ini untuk meningkatkan penghasilannya.Tanpa mereka pikirkan seberapa besar dampak yang ditimbulkan dari perbuatannya itu.
       Pemanasan global atau lebih sering disebut Global Warming tengah jadi buah bibir masyarakat saat ini khususnya di Indonesia dikarenakan di Indonesia juga mengalami perubahan iklim yang tidak menentu akibat dari pemanasan global tersebut.Banyak  dampak yang akan ditimbulkan oleh terjadinya pemanasan global.
 
       Oleh karena itu dalam karya ilmiah ini akan dibahas lebih lanjut tentang adakah efek yang di berikan oleh rumah kaca terhadap pemanasan global ? Apakah dampak yang ditimbulkan dari terjadinya pemanasan global ? Hasil- hasil penelitian yang dilakukan para ilmuwan tentang efek rumah kaca terhadap pemanasan global? Dan upaya apa yang sebaiknya dilakukan untuk mengurangi terjadinya pemanasan global ini.Dengan mencari Informasi dan data-data yang dapat dipercaya melalui media seperti buku dan inernet.
                                                                                        
B.Rumusan Masalah
 
        Adapun rumasan masalah dalam penelitian ini yaitu :
1.      Adakah efek dari rumah kaca terhadap pemanasan global ?
2.      Apa penyebab rumah kaca dapat mengakibatkan pemanasan global?
3.      Upaya apa yang dapat di lakukan untuk mengurangi terjadinya pemanasan global di Bumi ?
 
C. Tujuan Penelitian
       Tujuan penelitian yang dilakukan yaitu mencakup :
1.        Untuk mengetahui apakah ada efek dari rumah kaca terhadap pemanasan global.
2.        Untuk mengetahui penyebab dari efek rumah kaca sehingga mengakibatkan pamanasan global.
3.        Untuk mengetahui upaya apa yang dapat di lakukan untuk mengurangi terjadinya pemasan global di Bumi.
 
D. Manfaat Penelitian
 
1.        Bagi penulis,penelitian ini dapat memberikan pemahaman yang lebih luas mengenai semua yang berhubungan dengan efek rumah kaca terhadap pemanasan global.
2.        Bagi Pembaca,penelitian ini dapat memberikan pengetahuan mengenai efek rumah kaca terhadap pemananasan global.
3.         Bagi Para Ilmuwan yang meneliti,Penelitian ini dapat memberikan tambahan data-data atau pernyataan-pernyataan mengenai efek rumah kaca terhadap pemanasan global.
 
 
BAB II
LANDASAN TEORI
 
A. Pengertian-pengertian
     1. Efek Rumah Kaca
       Efek rumah kaca adalah proses penghangatan bumi karena adanya penyerapan sinar infra merah.Tanpa adanya efek ini suhu bumi akan turun sekitar 30° C.Sinar yang datang ke bumi sebanya 30 % dipantulkan dan sisanya digunakan untuk menghangatkan daratan,lautan dan atmosfer.efek rumah kaca terjadi karena bumi relatif transparan terhadap sinar tampak,namun sangat menyerap sinar infra merah sehingga bumi akan menghangat karena adanya penyerapan energi tersebut. Efek rumah kaca juga merupakan efek alamiah untuk menjaga temperature  permukaan Bumi pada suhu normal sekitar 30°C,atau kalau tidak ada ,maka tentu saja tidak akan ada kehidupan dimuka Bumi ini.
        
2.Pemanasan Global
        Pemanasan global yaitu bertambah panasnya atmosfer Bumi serta samudra selama beberapa dekade terakhir.Menurut penelitian suhu bumidi ketahui meningkat 0,6 kurang lebih 0,2 °C selama 20 Abad terakhir.
(Nur Farida 2009 :53) Mengatakan, bahwa pemanasan global yaitu disebut juga global warming ,istilah tersebut digunakan untuk menggambarkan fenomena peningkatan suhu rata – rata atmosfer Bumi.Peningkatan suhu Bumi ini dianggap akan secara permanen mengubah iklim Bumi selamanya.
 
B. Dampak dari terjadinya Pemanasan Global
 
 
Editor by : OSHIMURA

- See more at: http://pbsstainmetro.blogspot.com/2014/02/contoh-karya-ilmiah-tentang-bahaya-efek.html#sthash.8nHxf7N3.dpuf

CONTOH KARYA ILMIAH TENTANG EFEK RUMAH KACA

Foto: (dok okezone)JAKARTA - Partai Demokrat berulang kali menyatakan minat untuk meminang Gubernur DKI Jakarta yang juga kader Partai Demokrasi Indonesia (PDI) Perjuangan, Joko Widodo (Jokowi), untuk disertakan dalam konvensi penjaringan calon presiden (capres).  
Namun tampaknya partai pemenang Pemilu 2009 itu masih belum memiliki nyali untuk meminang Jokowi. Pasalnya, penentuan capres di PDI Perjuangan ada di kendali Ketua Umum Megawati Soekarnoputri. Partai Demokrat merasa tidak mampu untuk meminta izin kepada Mega terkait hal tersebut.
 
"Enggak ada lobi-lobi. Kalau lobi, nanti dibantai Ibu Megawati. Siapa yang mau dimarahi Ibu Megawati," kata Wakil Ketua Umum Partai Demokrat Max Sophacua di Gedung DPR, Senayan, Jakarta, Senin (3/6/2013).
 
Selain itu, Partai Demokrat juga tidak akan mengundang siapa pun, termasuk Jokowi, untuk mengikuti konvensi yang segera dilakukan pada bulan ini.
 
"Kita tidak mengundang, kalau mau, ya daftar. Nanti malah banyak sekali yang ikut kalau kita undang," tegas Max.

DEMOKRAT CIUT HADAPI MEGAWATI

Jual Obat Tidur / Jual Obat Bius Cair Jual Obat Bius Hirup Jual Obat Bius Serbuk Jual Obat Tidur Aman Obat Bius Manjur Harga Obat Bius Murah Cs :085200654999


Pemesanan dan Konsultasi

Pin BB: 21C7DA51


TELPON / SMS:

085 200 654 999 (T-SEL)


087 836 866 999 (IND XL)

085 740 740 810 (INDOSAT)


Www.jualobatbiusherbal.blogspot.com


Online 24Hours
Kami Buka & Melayani Konsomen 24jam.
Termasuk Hari Sabtu & Minggu

Obat Bius/Obat Tidur Merk Liquid Sex


LiQuid Sex adalah Obat Bius Yang Berbentuk Cair, Cair Buatan German Ini Bisa bikin Wanita Langsung Pingsan Dalam Beberapa Menit Saja ( 2-3 Menit ).

Dan itu Walau Anda apa - apain pun Target Anda gak bakalan bangun Selama 4 - 5 jam, kadang lebih, selain itu bisa juga untuk membius orang yang mau diperkosa ( gue cuma ngomongin, bukan nyuruh Lo ! Hhehe ... ).

Obat Bius Ini Berbentuk Cair tidak berbau,
tidak berasa, tidak berwarna Dan tidak beracun, ( So It Safely ).

1 botol bisa di pakai untuk berkali kali, cukup ditaruh di air minum apa saja kecuali susu dan air kelapa muda , lebih baik dalam air mineral, teh, jus, sirup atau di minuman yang bersoda.
dan dalam waktu 2 - 3 menit setelah di minum maka langsung bereaksi pada target anda seperti tepar dan terkapar .

AWAS ! ! ! .Tolong Jangan gunakan Obat Bius Cair ini pada orang yang baru dikenal atau penyalah gunaan obat ini.
Baik di gunakan untuk Teman Dekat atau Pacar Sendiri …..

LiQuid Sex Obat Bius Cair .
NEGARA ASAL : German
Netto : 15ml
HARGA : Rp 250.000, -


"Dan Juga Tersedia Produc-Produc Terbaik"

Jual Obat Tidur / Jual Obat Bius Cair Jual Obat Bius Hirup Jual Obat Bius Serbuk Jual Obat Tidur Aman Obat Bius Manjur Harga Obat Bius Murah Cs :085200654999   

CHLOROFORM FOR SALE
DIJUAL OBAT BIUS KLOROFORM! HARGA TERBARU CEK ! Permisi agan-agan, saya menjual OBAT BIUS chloroform (trichloromethane / CHCl3) buatan Merck Jerman. Botolnya 2,5 Liter, ane biasanya pake buat pelarut organik di lab. Punya saya kemurniannya diatas 99%! Dan ini merupakan kloroform termurni yang dibikin buat pasar, jadi jangan tanya "gan apa ada campurannya?" dll, ini sudah laboratory grade / standar laboratorium dan dibikin buat standar penelitian. Jadi bukan kloroform abal-abal murahan yang dicampuri,

dll. Lihat aja gambarnya ya!

 Chloroform ini bisa digunakan untuk ekstraksi (misalkan alkaloid, dan zat-zat organik lainnya) mungkin yang jurusan biologi / kimia / farmasi, selain itu bisa juga membius orang yang mau diperkosa (gue cuma ngomongin, bukan nyuruh lo! hehe), trus juga bisa buat keperluan rekreasi (nidurin diri di malam hari). Ingat, ini bukan permainan. Sekali dua kali boleh aja pake, jangan keterusan.

Chloroform bukan dimakan, tapi dihirup uapnya. Ane prihatin di kaskus ada seller yang mengatakan chloroform dapat dimakan. 10 ml sudah cukup untuk menimbulkan cardiac arrest / henti jantung pada manusia 70 kg.

Thanks

UNTUK 50, 100 ML HARGA SUDAH NETT, 500 ML, 1000 ML, 2500 ML BISA NEGO dan BELUM ONGKIR, pertanyaan mengenai "berapa harga nett gan?" tidak akan dibalas. Mohon maaf.

50 ml = Rp 750.000,-
100 ml = Rp 1300.000,-
500 ml = Rp 3.250.000,-
1000 ml = Rp 6.000.000,-
Botol 2,5 Liter SEGEL Pure Analysis Merck Germany = Rp 12.000.000,- (murah abis reseller!)

"Dan Juga Tersedia Produc-Produc Terbaik"  Jual Obat Tidur / Jual Obat Bius Cair Jual Obat Bius Hirup Jual Obat Bius Serbuk Jual Obat Tidur Aman Obat Bius Manjur Harga Obat Bius Murah Cs :085200654999

 

Obat Bius Serbuk Soporific

Jual Obat Bius Serbuk, Serbuk Ini Bisa bikin ( PINGSAN ) Dalam Beberapa Detik Saja,

Dan itu Walau Anda apa - apain pun Target Anda gak bakalan bangun Selama 4 - 5 jam, kadang lebih, selain itu bisa juga untuk membius orang yang mau diperkosa ( gue cuma ngomongin, bukan nyuruh Lo ! Hhehe ... )

Obat Bius Ini Berbentuk Serbuk tidak berbau,
tidak berasa, tapi berwarna ( putih  Aman ).
1 saset bisa di pakai cukup untuk 2 - 3 kali pemakaian, cukup ditaruh di air minum apa saja KECUALI SUSU & KELAPA MUDA ,dan dalam waktu singkat setelah di minum maka obat itu langsung bereaksi pada target anda .

AWAS ! ! ! .Tolong Jangan gunakan Obat Bius Serbuk ini pada orang yang baru dikenal atau penyalah gunaan obat ini.

Baik di gunakan untuk Teman Dekat atau Pacar Sendiri …..


Obat Bius Serbuk 1 Paket Isi 4 Sachet Harga : Rp 300.000,-

Tersedia Produk Terbaik

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DLL.

JUAL OBAT BIUS OBAT TIDUR
Portal Lowongan Kerja Indonesia. Update Informasi Lowongan Kerja Terbaru 2014 di LOUIS DREYFUS COMMODITIES INDONESIA. Perusahaan tersebut sedang membutuhkan tenaga kerja profesional untuk menempati kursi kekosongan. Bagi anda yang berminat untuk menempati kekosongan tersebut, silahkan baca persyaratan pendaftaran dan simak artikel selengkapnya di bawah ini :
 
Profil Perusahaan : Louis Dreyfus Commodities Indonesia is one of the leading merchandiser and processor of commodities products in Indonesia which has many line businesses.

In line with our business expansion in all over Indonesia, we are looking for dynamic people with strong drive and high enthusiasm to take up a challenging career and join our team

Alamat : 
Lokasi Kerja : Lampung

Posisi Pekerjaan : SITE CONTROLLER

Key Role:

Oversee all the Cost Control, Management Accounting & Reporting Functions at Site.

Requirements:
 

  • Degree from reputable university majoring Finance Accounting, Management, or Business Administration.
  • Location in Lampung.
  • 3-5 years of relevant experience in big 4 public accounting firms, manufacturing.
  • Understand cost accounting process, budget and cash flow in related project site, production, and distribution.
  • Advance knowledge with Ms. Office, Accounting Information System.
  • Have a CPO Refinery knowledge is an advantage.
  • Self-motivated, detail oriented, and accurate.
  • Fluent in English. is one of the leading merchandiser and processor of commodities products in Indonesia which has many line businesses.

Baca Selengkapnya di Lowongan Kerja di Louis Dreyfus Commodities Indonesia, Lampung | Portal Lowongan Kerja Terbaru

 

Artikel Lowongan Lainnya :

Lowongan Kerja di APOTEK GRATIA | Lampung

LOWONGAN KERJA DI LOUIS DREYFUS COMMODITIES INDONESIA, LAMPUNG

saco-indonesia.com, Korban kecelakaan Jalan Layang Non Tol (JLNT) Kampung Melayu-Tanah Abang, Windawati, telah dimakamkan. Wanita malang ini telah meninggal Senin (28/1) kemarin karena telah tertabrak mobil akibat melawan arus saat mengendarai motor bersama suaminya.

Almarhum telah dimakamkan tak jauh dari rumah duka yang beralamat di Jalan Masjid Darusalam, RT 6 RW 2, Pondok Pinang, Jakarta Selatan. Setelah disalatkan di rumah duka pada pukul 10.00 WIB pagi , lalu sekitar pukul 11.30 WIB korban langsung dimakamkan di TPU Wakaf Keluarga.

Ibu kandung Almarhum yang bernama Mariyana masih syok atas kejadian ini. Dia juga masih tampak histeris meneriakkan nama Windawati. Para tetangga yang melayat masih berada di rumah duka untuk dapat menenangkan Mariyana.

"Win, Win.. Pulang Win," kata Mariyana sambil menangis di rumah duka, Selasa (28/1).

"Istighfar bu, istighfar.. Diikhlaskan, biar Wiwin tenang di sana," kata seorang ibu tetangga.

Sampai saat ini para pelayat yang mayoritas adalah tetangga masih berada di sekitar rumah duka. Ibu-ibu tetangga juga masih berusaha untuk menenangkan Mariyana dengan memberi minum dengan suapan sendok.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

WINDAWATI TEWAS DI JLNT

Ms. Pryor, who served more than two decades in the State Department, was the author of well-regarded biographies of the founder of the American Red Cross and the Confederate commander.

Elizabeth Brown Pryor, Biographer of Clara Barton and Robert E. Lee, Dies at 64

As he reflected on the festering wounds deepened by race and grievance that have been on painful display in America’s cities lately, President Obama on Monday found himself thinking about a young man he had just met named Malachi.

A few minutes before, in a closed-door round-table discussion at Lehman College in the Bronx, Mr. Obama had asked a group of black and Hispanic students from disadvantaged backgrounds what could be done to help them reach their goals. Several talked about counseling and guidance programs.

“Malachi, he just talked about — we should talk about love,” Mr. Obama told a crowd afterward, drifting away from his prepared remarks. “Because Malachi and I shared the fact that our dad wasn’t around and that sometimes we wondered why he wasn’t around and what had happened. But really, that’s what this comes down to is: Do we love these kids?”

Many presidents have governed during times of racial tension, but Mr. Obama is the first to see in the mirror a face that looks like those on the other side of history’s ledger. While his first term was consumed with the economy, war and health care, his second keeps coming back to the societal divide that was not bridged by his election. A president who eschewed focusing on race now seems to have found his voice again as he thinks about how to use his remaining time in office and beyond.

Continue reading the main story Video
Play Video|1:17

Obama Speaks of a ‘Sense of Unfairness’

Obama Speaks of a ‘Sense of Unfairness’

At an event announcing the creation of a nonprofit focusing on young minority men, President Obama talked about the underlying reasons for recent protests in Baltimore and other cities.

By Associated Press on Publish Date May 4, 2015. Photo by Stephen Crowley/The New York Times.

In the aftermath of racially charged unrest in places like Baltimore, Ferguson, Mo., and New York, Mr. Obama came to the Bronx on Monday for the announcement of a new nonprofit organization that is being spun off from his White House initiative called My Brother’s Keeper. Staked by more than $80 million in commitments from corporations and other donors, the new group, My Brother’s Keeper Alliance, will in effect provide the nucleus for Mr. Obama’s post-presidency, which will begin in January 2017.

“This will remain a mission for me and for Michelle not just for the rest of my presidency but for the rest of my life,” Mr. Obama said. “And the reason is simple,” he added. Referring to some of the youths he had just met, he said: “We see ourselves in these young men. I grew up without a dad. I grew up lost sometimes and adrift, not having a sense of a clear path. The only difference between me and a lot of other young men in this neighborhood and all across the country is that I grew up in an environment that was a little more forgiving.”

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Organizers said the new alliance already had financial pledges from companies like American Express, Deloitte, Discovery Communications and News Corporation. The money will be used to help companies address obstacles facing young black and Hispanic men, provide grants to programs for disadvantaged youths, and help communities aid their populations.

Joe Echevarria, a former chief executive of Deloitte, the accounting and consulting firm, will lead the alliance, and among those on its leadership team or advisory group are executives at PepsiCo, News Corporation, Sprint, BET and Prudential Group Insurance; former Secretary of State Colin L. Powell; Senator Cory Booker, Democrat of New Jersey; former Attorney General Eric H. Holder Jr.; the music star John Legend; the retired athletes Alonzo Mourning, Jerome Bettis and Shaquille O’Neal; and the mayors of Indianapolis, Sacramento and Philadelphia.

The alliance, while nominally independent of the White House, may face some of the same questions confronting former Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton as she begins another presidential campaign. Some of those donating to the alliance may have interests in government action, and skeptics may wonder whether they are trying to curry favor with the president by contributing.

“The Obama administration will have no role in deciding how donations are screened and what criteria they’ll set at the alliance for donor policies, because it’s an entirely separate entity,” Josh Earnest, the White House press secretary, told reporters on Air Force One en route to New York. But he added, “I’m confident that the members of the board are well aware of the president’s commitment to transparency.”

The alliance was in the works before the disturbances last week after the death of Freddie Gray, the black man who suffered fatal injuries while in police custody in Baltimore, but it reflected the evolution of Mr. Obama’s presidency. For him, in a way, it is coming back to issues that animated him as a young community organizer and politician. It was his own struggle with race and identity, captured in his youthful memoir, “Dreams From My Father,” that stood him apart from other presidential aspirants.

But that was a side of him that he kept largely to himself through the first years of his presidency while he focused on other priorities like turning the economy around, expanding government-subsidized health care and avoiding electoral land mines en route to re-election.

After securing a second term, Mr. Obama appeared more emboldened. Just a month after his 2013 inauguration, he talked passionately about opportunity and race with a group of teenage boys in Chicago, a moment aides point to as perhaps the first time he had spoken about these issues in such a personal, powerful way as president. A few months later, he publicly lamented the death of Trayvon Martin, a black Florida teenager, saying that “could have been me 35 years ago.”

Photo
 
President Obama on Monday with Darinel Montero, a student at Bronx International High School who introduced him before remarks at Lehman College in the Bronx. Credit Stephen Crowley/The New York Times

That case, along with public ruptures of anger over police shootings in Ferguson and elsewhere, have pushed the issue of race and law enforcement onto the public agenda. Aides said they imagined that with his presidency in its final stages, Mr. Obama might be thinking more about what comes next and causes he can advance as a private citizen.

That is not to say that his public discussion of these issues has been universally welcomed. Some conservatives said he had made matters worse by seeming in their view to blame police officers in some of the disputed cases.

“President Obama, when he was elected, could have been a unifying leader,” Senator Ted Cruz of Texas, a Republican candidate for president, said at a forum last week. “He has made decisions that I think have inflamed racial tensions.”

On the other side of the ideological spectrum, some liberal African-American activists have complained that Mr. Obama has not done enough to help downtrodden communities. While he is speaking out more, these critics argue, he has hardly used the power of the presidency to make the sort of radical change they say is necessary.

The line Mr. Obama has tried to straddle has been a serrated one. He condemns police brutality as he defends most officers as honorable. He condemns “criminals and thugs” who looted in Baltimore while expressing empathy with those trapped in a cycle of poverty and hopelessness.

In the Bronx on Monday, Mr. Obama bemoaned the death of Brian Moore, a plainclothes New York police officer who had died earlier in the day after being shot in the head Saturday on a Queens street. Most police officers are “good and honest and fair and care deeply about their communities,” even as they put their lives on the line, Mr. Obama said.

“Which is why in addressing the issues in Baltimore or Ferguson or New York, the point I made was that if we’re just looking at policing, we’re looking at it too narrowly,” he added. “If we ask the police to simply contain and control problems that we ourselves have been unwilling to invest and solve, that’s not fair to the communities, it’s not fair to the police.”

Moreover, if society writes off some people, he said, “that’s not the kind of country I want to live in; that’s not what America is about.”

His message to young men like Malachi Hernandez, who attends Boston Latin Academy in Massachusetts, is not to give up.

“I want you to know you matter,” he said. “You matter to us.”

Obama Finds a Bolder Voice on Race Issues

Mr. Tepper was not a musical child and had no formal training, but he grew up to write both lyrics and tunes, trading off duties with the other member of the team, Roy C. Bennett.

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Ms. Plisetskaya, renowned for her fluidity of movement, expressive acting and willful personality, danced on the Bolshoi stage well into her 60s, but her life was shadowed by Stalinism.

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Fullmer, who reigned when fight clubs abounded and Friday night fights were a television staple, was known for his title bouts with Sugar Ray Robinson and Carmen Basilio.

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From sea to shining sea, or at least from one side of the Hudson to the other, politicians you have barely heard of are being accused of wrongdoing. There were so many court proceedings involving public officials on Monday that it was hard to keep up.

In Newark, two underlings of Gov. Chris Christie were arraigned on charges that they were in on the truly deranged plot to block traffic leading onto the George Washington Bridge.

Ten miles away, in Lower Manhattan, Dean G. Skelos, the leader of the New York State Senate, and his son, Adam B. Skelos, were arrested by the Federal Bureau of Investigation on accusations of far more conventional political larceny, involving a job with a sewer company for the son and commissions on title insurance and bond work.

The younger man managed to receive a 150 percent pay increase from the sewer company even though, as he said on tape, he “literally knew nothing about water or, you know, any of that stuff,” according to a criminal complaint the United States attorney’s office filed.

The success of Adam Skelos, 32, was attributed by prosecutors to his father’s influence as the leader of the Senate and as a potentate among state Republicans. The indictment can also be read as one of those unfailingly sad tales of a father who cannot stop indulging a grown son. The senator himself is not alleged to have profited from the schemes, except by being relieved of the burden of underwriting Adam.

The bridge traffic caper is its own species of crazy; what distinguishes the charges against the two Skeloses is the apparent absence of a survival instinct. It is one thing not to know anything about water or that stuff. More remarkable, if true, is the fact that the sewer machinations continued even after the former New York Assembly speaker, Sheldon Silver, was charged in January with taking bribes disguised as fees.

It was by then common gossip in political and news media circles that Senator Skelos, a Republican, the counterpart in the Senate to Mr. Silver, a Democrat, in the Assembly, could be next in line for the criminal dock. “Stay tuned,” the United States attorney, Preet Bharara said, leaving not much to the imagination.

Even though the cat had been unmistakably belled, Skelos father and son continued to talk about how to advance the interests of the sewer company, though the son did begin to use a burner cellphone, the kind people pay for in cash, with no traceable contracts.

That was indeed prudent, as prosecutors had been wiretapping the cellphones of both men. But it would seem that the burner was of limited value, because by then the prosecutors had managed to secure the help of a business executive who agreed to record calls with the Skeloses. It would further seem that the business executive was more attentive to the perils of pending investigations than the politician.

Through the end of the New York State budget negotiations in March, the hopes of the younger Skelos rested on his father’s ability to devise legislation that would benefit the sewer company. That did not pan out. But Senator Skelos did boast that he had haggled with Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo, a Democrat, in a successful effort to raise a $150 million allocation for Long Island to $550 million, for what the budget called “transformative economic development projects.” It included money for the kind of work done by the sewer company.

The lawyer for Adam Skelos said he was not guilty and would win in court. Senator Skelos issued a ringing declaration that he was unequivocally innocent.

THIS was also the approach taken in New Jersey by Bill Baroni, a man of great presence and eloquence who stopped outside the federal courthouse to note that he had taken risks as a Republican by bucking his party to support paid family leave, medical marijuana and marriage equality. “I would never risk my career, my job, my reputation for something like this,” Mr. Baroni said. “I am an innocent man.”

The lawyer for his co-defendant, Bridget Anne Kelly, the former deputy chief of staff to Mr. Christie, a Republican, said that she would strongly rebut the charges.

Perhaps they had nothing to do with the lane closings. But neither Mr. Baroni nor Ms. Kelly addressed the question of why they did not return repeated calls from the mayor of Fort Lee, N.J., begging them to stop the traffic tie-ups, over three days.

That silence was a low moment. But perhaps New York hit bottom faster. Senator Skelos, the prosecutors charged, arranged to meet Long Island politicians at the wake of Wenjian Liu, a New York City police officer shot dead in December, to press for payments to the company employing his son.

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The 6-foot-10 Phillips played alongside the 6-11 Rick Robey on the Wildcats team that won the 1978 N.C.A.A. men’s basketball title.

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Though Robin and Joan Rolfs owned two rare talking dolls manufactured by Thomas Edison’s phonograph company in 1890, they did not dare play the wax cylinder records tucked inside each one.

The Rolfses, longtime collectors of Edison phonographs, knew that if they turned the cranks on the dolls’ backs, the steel phonograph needle might damage or destroy the grooves of the hollow, ring-shaped cylinder. And so for years, the dolls sat side by side inside a display cabinet, bearers of a message from the dawn of sound recording that nobody could hear.

In 1890, Edison’s dolls were a flop; production lasted only six weeks. Children found them difficult to operate and more scary than cuddly. The recordings inside, which featured snippets of nursery rhymes, wore out quickly.

Yet sound historians say the cylinders were the first entertainment records ever made, and the young girls hired to recite the rhymes were the world’s first recording artists.

Year after year, the Rolfses asked experts if there might be a safe way to play the recordings. Then a government laboratory developed a method to play fragile records without touching them.

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The technique relies on a microscope to create images of the grooves in exquisite detail. A computer approximates — with great accuracy — the sounds that would have been created by a needle moving through those grooves.

In 2014, the technology was made available for the first time outside the laboratory.

“The fear all along is that we don’t want to damage these records. We don’t want to put a stylus on them,” said Jerry Fabris, the curator of the Thomas Edison Historical Park in West Orange, N.J. “Now we have the technology to play them safely.”

Last month, the Historical Park posted online three never-before-heard Edison doll recordings, including the two from the Rolfses’ collection. “There are probably more out there, and we’re hoping people will now get them digitized,” Mr. Fabris said.

The technology, which is known as Irene (Image, Reconstruct, Erase Noise, Etc.), was developed by the particle physicist Carl Haber and the engineer Earl Cornell at Lawrence Berkeley. Irene extracts sound from cylinder and disk records. It can also reconstruct audio from recordings so badly damaged they were deemed unplayable.

“We are now hearing sounds from history that I did not expect to hear in my lifetime,” Mr. Fabris said.

The Rolfses said they were not sure what to expect in August when they carefully packed their two Edison doll cylinders, still attached to their motors, and drove from their home in Hortonville, Wis., to the National Document Conservation Center in Andover, Mass. The center had recently acquired Irene technology.

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Cylinders carry sound in a spiral groove cut by a phonograph recording needle that vibrates up and down, creating a surface made of tiny hills and valleys. In the Irene set-up, a microscope perched above the shaft takes thousands of high-resolution images of small sections of the grooves.

Stitched together, the images provide a topographic map of the cylinder’s surface, charting changes in depth as small as one five-hundredth the thickness of a human hair. Pitch, volume and timbre are all encoded in the hills and valleys and the speed at which the record is played.

At the conservation center, the preservation specialist Mason Vander Lugt attached one of the cylinders to the end of a rotating shaft. Huddled around a computer screen, the Rolfses first saw the wiggly waveform generated by Irene. Then came the digital audio. The words were at first indistinct, but as Mr. Lugt filtered out more of the noise, the rhyme became clearer.

“That was the Eureka moment,” Mr. Rolfs said.

In 1890, a girl in Edison’s laboratory had recited:

There was a little girl,

And she had a little curl

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Right in the middle of her forehead.

When she was good,

She was very, very good.

But when she was bad, she was horrid.

Recently, the conservation center turned up another surprise.

In 2010, the Woody Guthrie Foundation received 18 oversize phonograph disks from an anonymous donor. No one knew if any of the dirt-stained recordings featured Guthrie, but Tiffany Colannino, then the foundation’s archivist, had stored them unplayed until she heard about Irene.

Last fall, the center extracted audio from one of the records, labeled “Jam Session 9” and emailed the digital file to Ms. Colannino.

“I was just sitting in my dining room, and the next thing I know, I’m hearing Woody,” she said. In between solo performances of “Ladies Auxiliary,” “Jesus Christ,” and “Dead or Alive,” Guthrie tells jokes, offers some back story, and makes the audience laugh. “It is quintessential Guthrie,” Ms. Colannino said.

The Rolfses’ dolls are back in the display cabinet in Wisconsin. But with audio stored on several computers, they now have a permanent voice.

Ghostly Voices From Thomas Edison’s Dolls Can Now Be Heard

Mr. Mankiewicz, an Oscar-nominated screenwriter for “I Want to Live!,” also wrote episodes of television shows such as “Star Trek” and “Marcus Welby, M.D.”

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The career criminals in genre novels don’t have money problems. If they need some, they just go out and steal it. But such financial transactions can backfire, which is what happened back in 2004 when the Texas gang in Michael

Take the Money and Run

Mr. Alger, who served five terms from Texas, led Republican women in a confrontation with Lyndon B. Johnson that may have cost Richard M. Nixon the 1960 presidential election.

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Late in April, after Native American actors walked off in disgust from the set of Adam Sandler’s latest film, a western sendup that its distributor, Netflix, has defended as being equally offensive to all, a glow of pride spread through several Native American communities.

Tantoo Cardinal, a Canadian indigenous actress who played Black Shawl in “Dances With Wolves,” recalled thinking to herself, “It’s come.” Larry Sellers, who starred as Cloud Dancing in the 1990s television show “Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman,” thought, “It’s about time.” Jesse Wente, who is Ojibwe and directs film programming at the TIFF Bell Lightbox in Toronto, found himself encouraged and surprised. There are so few film roles for indigenous actors, he said, that walking off the set of a major production showed real mettle.

But what didn’t surprise Mr. Wente was the content of the script. According to the actors who walked off the set, the film, titled “The Ridiculous Six,” included a Native American woman who passes out and is revived after white men douse her with alcohol, and another woman squatting to urinate while lighting a peace pipe. “There’s enough history at this point to have set some expectations around these sort of Hollywood depictions,” Mr. Wente said.

The walkout prompted a rhetorical “What do you expect from an Adam Sandler film?,” and a Netflix spokesman said that in the movie, blacks, Mexicans and whites were lampooned as well. But Native American actors and critics said a broader issue was at stake. While mainstream portrayals of native peoples have, Mr. Wente said, become “incrementally better” over the decades, he and others say, they remain far from accurate and reflect a lack of opportunities for Native American performers. What’s more, as Native Americans hunger for representation on screen, critics say the absence of three-dimensional portrayals has very real off-screen consequences.

“Our people are still healing from historical trauma,” said Loren Anthony, one of the actors who walked out. “Our youth are still trying to figure out who they are, where they fit in this society. Kids are killing themselves. They’re not proud of who they are.” They also don’t, he added, see themselves on prime time television or the big screen. Netflix noted while about five people walked off the “The Ridiculous Six” set, 100 or so Native American actors and extras stayed.

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But in interviews, nearly a dozen Native American actors and film industry experts said that Mr. Sandler’s humor perpetuated decades-old negative stereotypes. Mr. Anthony said such depictions helped feed the despondency many Native Americans feel, with deadly results: Native Americans have the highest suicide rate out of all the country’s ethnicities.

The on-screen problem is twofold, Mr. Anthony and others said: There’s a paucity of roles for Native Americans — according to the Screen Actors Guild in 2008 they accounted for 0.3 percent of all on-screen parts (those figures have yet to be updated), compared to about 2 percent of the general population — and Native American actors are often perceived in a narrow way.

In his Peabody Award-winning documentary “Reel Injun,” the Cree filmmaker Neil Diamond explored Hollywood depictions of Native Americans over the years, and found they fell into a few stereotypical categories: the Noble Savage, the Drunk Indian, the Mystic, the Indian Princess, the backward tribal people futilely fighting John Wayne and manifest destiny. While the 1990 film “Dances With Wolves” won praise for depicting Native Americans as fully fleshed out human beings, not all indigenous people embraced it. It was still told, critics said, from the colonialists’ point of view. In an interview, John Trudell, a Santee Sioux writer, actor (“Thunderheart”) and the former chairman of the American Indian Movement, described the film as “a story of two white people.”

“God bless ‘Dances with Wolves,’ ” Michael Horse, who played Deputy Hawk in “Twin Peaks,” said sarcastically. “Even ‘Avatar.’ Someone’s got to come save the tribal people.”

Dan Spilo, a partner at Industry Entertainment who represents Adam Beach, one of today’s most prominent Native American actors, said while typecasting dogs many minorities, it is especially intractable when it comes to Native Americans. Casting directors, he said, rarely cast them as police officers, doctors or lawyers. “There’s the belief that the Native American character should be on reservations or riding a horse,” he said.

“We don’t see ourselves,” Mr. Horse said. “We’re still an antiquated culture to them, and to the rest of the world.”

Ms. Cardinal said she was once turned down for the role of the wife of a child-abusing cop because the filmmakers felt that casting her would somehow be “too political.”

Another sore point is the long run of white actors playing American Indians, among them Burt Lancaster, Rock Hudson, Audrey Hepburn and, more recently, Johnny Depp, whose depiction of Tonto in the 2013 film “Lone Ranger,” was viewed as racist by detractors. There are, of course, exceptions. The former A&E series “Longmire,” which, as it happens, will now be on Netflix, was roundly praised for its depiction of life on a Northern Cheyenne reservation, with Lou Diamond Phillips, who is of Cherokee descent, playing a Northern Cheyenne man.

Others also point to the success of Mr. Beach, who played a Mohawk detective in “Law & Order: Special Victims Unit” and landed a starring role in the forthcoming D C Comics picture “Suicide Squad.” Mr. Beach said he had come across insulting scripts backed by people who don’t see anything wrong with them.

“I’d rather starve than do something that is offensive to my ancestral roots,” Mr. Beach said. “But I think there will always be attempts to drawn on the weakness of native people’s struggles. The savage Indian will always be the savage Indian. The white man will always be smarter and more cunning. The cavalry will always win.”

The solution, Mr. Wente, Mr. Trudell and others said, lies in getting more stories written by and starring Native Americans. But Mr. Wente noted that while independent indigenous film has blossomed in the last two decades, mainstream depictions have yet to catch up. “You have to stop expecting for Hollywood to correct it, because there seems to be no ability or desire to correct it,” Mr. Wente said.

There have been calls to boycott Netflix but, writing for Indian Country Today Media Network, which first broke news of the walk off, the filmmaker Brian Young noted that the distributor also offered a number of films by or about Native Americans.

The furor around “The Ridiculous Six” may drive more people to see it. Then one of the questions that Mr. Trudell, echoing others, had about the film will be answered: “Who the hell laughs at this stuff?”

Native American Actors Work to Overcome a Long-Documented Bias
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