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Ayam kampung atau biasa disebut ayam Buras (Bukan Ras) merupakan jenis ayam yang sudah yang banyak di ternakan secara tradisional  di pedesaana. Sebutan ayam kampung adalah merujuk kepada ayam yang memang kenyataanya banyak ditemukan di kampung-kampung, walaupun memang ada juga Beternak ayam Kampung di Perkotaan. Jenis ayam kampung cukup beragam, tetapi pada umumnya memiliki sifat yang relatif sama yaitu lebih kebal/tahan terhadap penyakit dibandingkan dengan ayam ras . Ayam kampung juga lebih tahan terhadap gejala Stress. Dan itulah salah-satu keunggulan Ayam kampung, disamping masih banyak lagi keunggulan-keunggulan ayam kampung (Ayam Ras) dibandingkan dengan ayam ras. Beberapa keunggulan ayam kampung dibandingkan dengan ayam ras. Ayam kampong lebih kebal terhadap serangan berbagai penyakit Lebih tahan stress, tidak terganggu dengan suasana lingkungan yang hiruk pikuk. Memiliki adaptasi yang tinggi terhadap perubahan lingkungan . Lebih toleran terhadap perubahan cuaca Harga jual lebih tinggi disbanding ayam ras Telurnya di anggap lebih berkhasiat, sehingga harga jual telurnya lebih mahal Dagingnya lebih enak dan gurih di banding ayam potong (ras) Permintaan akan kebutuhan ayam kampung cukup tinggi Bangsa-bangsa ayam kampung sampai saat ini tidak diketahui dengan pasti, tetapi ayam hutan (gallus varius linnaeus) diperkirakan sebagai nenek moyang ayam kampung. Hal ini terlihat dari sifat-sifat dan morfologi ayam kampung yang mempunyai kemiripan dengan ayam hutan. Warna bulu ayam kampung sangat beragam, yaitu mulai dari hitam, putih, kekuningan, merah tua,atau kombinasi, dari warna-warna tersebut. Pemeliharaan ternak ayam buras di Pandaisikek Pemilihan Bibit Ternak. Pemilihan bibit ayam kampung secara umum juga sama dengan ayam ras, yaitu dipilih bibit dari induk yang mempunyai kemampuan produksi tinggi, misalnya dari kemampuan bertelurnya, sifat tumbuhnya dan mempunyai performance yang sehat, lincah, tidak cacat, mata cerah, tidak ada kotoran yang menempel dibubur, serta bulu tampak baik dan mengembang. Kandang Ternak Ayam Buras. Perkandangan untuk pemeliharaan ayam kampung sangat tergantung dari cara pemeliharaan itu sendiri. Pemeliharaan ayam secara ekstensif atau dilepas hanya memerlukan jenis perkandangan yang seadanya. Kandang hanya berfungsi untuk tidur pada malam hari. Jenis kandang atau pemeliharaan ternak ayam buras/ ternak ayam kampung secara semi intensif dibuat lebih baik dari kandang untuk pemeliharaan secara akstensif karena selain untuk tidur pada malam hari, kandang juga digunakan untuk melakukan aktifitas. Sementara kandang untuk pemeliharaan ayam kampung secara intensif perlu mendapatkan perhatian khusus. Kandang dapat dibuat seperti pada kandang ayam ras karena pada pemeliharaan ternak ayam buras/ ternak ayam kampung secara intensif, ayam kampung akan dipelihara secara terus menerus didalam sehingga kandang berfungsi sebagai tempat tinggal, aktifitas makan, minum, istirahat, dan berproduksi. Sistem kandang yang digunakan bisa sama dengan sistem-sistem kandang ayam ras petelur, yaitu sistem liter dan sistem sangkar. Kepadatan kandang juga perlu diperhatikan. Penggunaan wadah pakan dan minum juga sama dengan ayam petelur. Penempatan wadah dan pakan minuman juga sama yaitu ditempatkan secara berdekatan. Pemeliharaan ayam kampung juga bisa dilakukan secara ekstensif dan intensif. Pemeliharaan secara ekstensif adalah pemeliharaan dengan cara dilepas dan ayam dibiarkan berkeliaran mencari pakan sendiri. Pemeliharaan ini menghasilkan produksi yang rendah. Sementara pemeliharaan secara intensif yaitu dengan cara mengandangkan ayam. Kebutuhan ayam seperti meningkatkan produksi. Pada pemeliharaan secara tradisional, produksi telur rata-rata 30-40 butir per tahun. sementara dengan pemeliharaan intensif dapat meningkat menjadi 163 butir per 200 hari. Pakan Ayam Buras. Pada pemeliharaan ayam kampung secara intensif, pemberian pakan dapat dilakukan seperti pada ayam ras petelur. Namun karena kemampuan produksi ayam kampung terbatas tidak seperti ayam ras petelur. Pemberian pakannya bisa dicampur sendiri. Bahan pakan yang digunakan antara lain jagung giling, bekatul dan konsentrat jadi dan sayur-sayuran. Konversi pakan pada ayam kampung sekitar 4,9. Pemberian pakan dibedakan dalam pakan awal (starter), pertumbuhan (grower) dan masa bertelur (layer). Selain hasil ramuan sendiri, pakan yang diberikan pada ayam pedaging juga bisa berupa pakan jadi. Pencegahan Penyakit Ternak Ayam Buras. Pemeliharaan kesehatan pada ayam kampung tidak jauh beda dengan ayam ras, yaitu melalui program pembersihan kandang, perlengkapannya dan lingkungannya; sanitasi; serta hapus hama kandang. Penyakit yang sering menyerang ayam kampung yaitu new castle (NW), cronic deceaces (CRD) dan cacar. Hal-hal yang biasa dilakukan dalam pencegahan penyakit pada ayam kampung sebagai berikut: -      Hindarkan anak ayam dari perubahan cuaca, anak ayam dapat diberi tambahan vitamin karena pada kondisi ini, anak ayam mudah terserang penyakit. -      Memberikan vaksinasi ND secara teratur -      Berikan pakan yang cukup berkualitas -      Jaga kerbersihan, perlengkapan dan lingkup kandang -      Berikan obat bila perlu saja -      Berikan obat cacing dan antibiotik secara berkala Akan tetapi perlakuan-perlakuan tersebut di atas belumlah dilaksanakn oleh peternak ayam, hal ini disebabkan karena tujuan beternak ayam hanyalah sebagai usaha sampingan dan ada juga yang hanay sekedar hobby saja. Panen Ternak Ayam Buras. Hasil panen ayam kampung berupa telur dan daging. Dibandingkan ayam ras, telur dan daging ayam kampung yang mempunyai rasa yang lebih khas dan lebih disukai oleh konsumen. Produksi daging ayam kampung dapat dilakukan pada ayam dara atau ayam dara apkir. Ayam kampung bisa dijual dalam keadaan hidup atau karkas. Pembibitan pada ayam kampung. tidak seperti ayam ras yang dilakukan oleh breding farm. Pembibitan ayam kampung dilakukan secara alami oleh induk yang menetaskan telurnya sendiri atau secara penetasan buatan dengan menggunakan mesin tetes oleh peternak atau pengusaha peternakan. Lama penetasan telur ayam kampung sekitar 18 hari. Cara penetasan sama dengan ayam ras. (EC-1266). MARI BETERNAK AYAM KAMPUNG

saco-indonesia.com, Empat kali beraksi, kawanan perampok truk telah dibekuk oleh aparat Jatanras Polda Metro Jaya. Dalam aksinya komplotan bandit yang beranggotakan empat orang ini kerap menyasar truk yang bermuatan barang dengan modus berpura-pura menumpang.

Kasubdit Jatanras Polda Metro Jaya AKBP Herry Heryawan juga menyebutkan keempat pelaku yang dibekuk masing-masing, Erwandi alias Andi, 29, Iwan Setiawan alias Iwan, 23, Kusnadi alias Engkus, 21, dan Juli Erwan, 20. Aksi terakhir kawanan garong ini telah dilakukan terhadap truk kontainer yang bermutan sabun dan sampo pada 26 September 2013 lalu.

“Mereka naik truk dari Jalan Perintis Kemerdekaan, Pulogadung dengan berpura-pura menumpang,” kata Herry. Kemudian sebelum truk masuk ke jalan tol, mereka mulai beraksi. Satu pelaku yang telah membawa senjata tajam  berupa clurit, menodong sopir dan kernet. Sementara pelaku lain mengikat dan melakban awak truk. “Kemudian, kemudi diambil alih oleh pelaku “Korban kemudian dibuang di pinggir tol, sementara para pelaku telah membawa truk tersebut,” kata Herry.

Truk yang bermuatan perlengkapan mandi itu kemudian telah diarahkan oleh para pelaku ke daerah Pondok Gede, Bekasi untuk dapat dijual muatannya. “Para pelaku kita bekuk pada 15 Desember lalu setelah korban melaporkan kejadian itu,”. Dalam pemeriksaan kawanan bandit ini juga mengaku sudah  4 kali beraksi. “Tersangka Juli pernah ditahan di LP Paledang karena kasus penodongan dengan senjata tajam, kemudian pembunuhan, curas dan kepemilikan senjata tajam,” tutur Herry.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

KAWANAN PERAMPOK TRUK DITANGKAP OLEH POLISI

saco-indonesia.com, Bergulirnya musim baru Indonesia Super League (ISL) rupanya juga ingin dibarengi PSSI dengan lebih tegas dalam menindak pelanggaran yang dilakukan pelaku sepakbola.

Menurut Ketua Umum PSSI, Djohar Arifin, pihaknya kini juga akan lebih memperhatikan masalah tersebut karena telah menilai sepakbola Indonesia sudah menjadi sorotan dunia internasional.

"Kita sudah go international. Klub-klub besar dunia sudah mau hadir di negeri ini, kita juga sudah lelah mendapat hukuman. Segala insiden kotor bakal akan sangat merugikan. Bukan hanya keuangan saja , tapi juga nama bangsa Indonesia jadi terseret," ujar Djohar kepada para wartawan.

Lebih lanjut, Djohar juga menegaskan bahwa semua permasalahan yang telah dilaporkan nantinya akan menjadi tanggung jawab Komisi Disiplin PSSI untuk dapat menindaklanjutinya.

"Hukuman tentu juga akan diberikan jika melanggar peraturan. Laporan dari pengawas pertandingan akan segera disampaikan ke komisi disiplin. Badan peradilan kita adalah Komdis, tapi saya juga berharap sepakbola kita bisa bersih." imbuhnya.

Pada pekan perdana ISL musim ini telah tercatat beberapa kejadian kontroversial sudah terjadi, salah satunya adalah protes yang dilancarkan kubu Mitra Kukar terhadap kepemimpinan wasit di laga kontra Persebaya.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

PSSI JANJI LEBIH TEGAS TINDAK PELANGGARAN

saco-indonesia.com, Masalah pembajakan hak cipta untuk karya lagu di Indonesia sudah mencapai titik nadir. Yeah, begitu mudahnya kita mendapatkan lagu-lagu dengan format mp3 secara ilegal, entah itu download dari layanan file sharing, men- copy dari teman maupun membelinya dari lapak-lapak DVD di pinggir jalan. Bahkan artis dan label dibuat pusing dengan permasalahan ini, berbagai kampanye anti bajakan dan langkah- langkah lainnya untuk mencegah terjadinya pembajakan gencar dilakukan.

Okey, saya juga mengakui kalau dulu pernah download lagu-lagu secara ilegal. Kemudian saya menyadari bahwa karya lagu merupakan sumber penghasilan bagi para musisi dan mendapatkannya secara ilegal tentunya sangat merugikan bagi para musisi tersebut. Sangat penting untuk menyadari akan masalah copyright atau hak cipta bagi kita yang bekerja di dunia kreatif.

Bagi Anda yang berkocek tebal tentu tidak memiliki masalah untuk dapat membeli dan menikmati lagu-lagu. Tapi bagi kamu yang memiliki dana terbatas dan tidak cukup untuk membeli sebuah CD, solusinya? Download lagu gratis! (dan legal tentunya) Yeah, banyak sekali online resource yang menyediakan lagu-lagu ber-format mp3 secara gratis. Memang kebanyakan dari musisi-musisi indie dan (mungkin) masih asing didengar bagai dari antah berantah. But, hei secara musikalitas lagu-lagunya gak kalah keren dari artis-artis terkenal loh. Mencoba mendengarkan sesuatu yang baru tentu menjadi tantangan tersendiri kan? :D dan para hipster bilang “is too mainstream! let’s get indie”.

Jamendo

Jamendo

Jamendo

Semua lagu di Jamendo gratis untuk di-download dan dilisensikan dari salah satu lisensi Creative Commons atau Free Art License, sehingga hukum untuk men- copy, berbagi, memodifikasi dan digunakan secara komersial sudah diatur pada tiap lisensi yang dicantumkan pada lagu-lagu tersebut. Ada lebih dari 32.000 album dari seluruh musisi di dunia yang tersedia untuk di-download sekarang di Jamendo. Menjadikan Jamendo salah satu dari website terbaik untuk men-download lagu gratis dan tumbuh menjadi perpustakaan lagu-lagu gratis.

PureVolume

PureVolume

PureVolume

PureVolume adalah sebuah website yang digunakan untuk mencari dan mempromosikan seorang musisi maupun band. Musisi atau band di PureVolume memiliki akses penuh untuk men-upload lagu dan mengaturnya untuk dibagikan gratis ataupun dijual, men- upload video, menjual merchandise dan memberi info jadwal tour/konser mereka.

ReverbNation

ReverbNation

ReverbNation

ReverbNation menjadi sebuah wadah berkumpulnya para pelaku industri musik profesional, manajemen artis, label, musisi, band, promotor, dan tentunya fans. Banyak artis, musisi dan band terkenal nangkring disini, yang lokal Indonesia juga banyak. Biasanya mereka memberikan minimal satu lagu gratis untuk di-download.

LastFM

LastFM

LastFM

Selain menjadi jejaring sosial musik terbesar, LastFM juga turut memberikan lagu-lagu gratis terutama dari para musisi atau band indie. Masuk ke menu “Free Music Downloads” untuk melihat daftar lagu gratis dan men-download-nya.

MP3

MP3

MP3

MP3 adalah sebuah website yang dioperasikan oleh CNET Networks yang menyediakan informasi tentang lagu, album, dan video dari para musisi di seluruh dunia. Tidak hanya berbayar, MP3 juga menyediakan ribuan lagu-lagu gratis untuk di-download.

SoundCloud

SoundCloud

SoundCloud

Siapa yang tidak kenal SoundCloud? bagi pecinta musik tidak afdol rasanya bila tidak memiliki akun di sini. Selain sebagai social sound platform, SoundCloud juga menyediakan lagu-lagu dari para member-nya yang bisa di-download secara gratis.

NoiseTrade

NoiseTrade

NoiseTrade

Ide dari NoiseTrade sangat menarik! “Fans get free music. Artists connect with new fans. Everybody wins”. Sound very Indie, right? Tentunya NoiseTrade menjadi sebuah ‘Valhalla’ bagi para musisi di jalur indie.

Epitonic

Epitonic

Epitonic

Epitonic pertama kali di launch pada 8 Maret 1999. Website ini menjadi salah satu yang pertama sebagai music library dan informasi seputar industri musik. Sempat terbengkalai pada tahun 2004 dan pada 8 Maret 2011 Epitonic kembali di launch dengan penambahan fitur-fitur yang lebih keren.

Stereogum

Stereogum

Stereogum

Stereogum adalah salah satu blog mp3 pertama. Stereogum pertama kali rilis lebih fokus membahas pada genre musik indie dan alternatif. Tapi dengan antusiasme yang besar dari para musisi, kini Stereogum menghadirkan hampir semua genre musik. Anda bisa men-download lagu secara gratis dari beberapa artis terkenal seperti: Kanye West, Ryan Adams, Vampire Weekend, dan lain-lain.

FreeMusicArchive

FreeMusicArchive

FreeMusicArchive

Ingin mendapatkan playlist yang tidak biasa? Anda bisa mencoba di FreeMusicArchive. Download seluruh track dari playlist yang sudah di kurasi oleh para kurator indie terpercaya. “It’s not just free music; it’s good music”.

Myspoonful

Myspoonful

Myspoonful

Myspoonful memberikan lagu-lagu baru secara gratis tiap harinya. Tim Myspoonful rutin menkurasi artis atau musisi indie yang terbaik dan merekomendasikannya untuk anda.

Amazon MP3

Amazon mp3

Amazon mp3

Amazon salah satu toko online retail terbesar juga menjual lagu-lagu layaknya iTunes store. Selain berbayar, Amazon MP3 memberikan cukup banyak lagu gratis yang bisa anda download.

Insound

Insound

Insound

Insound adalah sebuah toko online musik yang salah satu produk terkenalnya adalah mixtape lagu digital yang di-convert dari vynil. Insound juga memberikan 1-2 track gratis untuk di-download setiap harinya (mungkin sebagai bentuk dari promosinya).

Museopen

Museopen

Museopen

Museopen adalah sebuat website non-profit yang memfokuskan pada pengembangan akses dan informasi musik serta sebagai bahan pendidikan. Museopen menyediakan musik rekaman gratis, sheet music dan textbooks kepada publik secara gratis. Suka dengan musik orkestra, Museopen bisa menjadi referensi yang bagus.

Overclocked Remix

Overclocked Remix

Overclocked Remix

Suka dengan musik remix khas game? atau penggemar film Scott Pilgrim vs The World? Well, Overclocked Remix didedikasikan buat anda.

CCMixter

CCMixter

CCMixter

CCMixter hampir serupa seperti Overclocked Remix, tetapi lebih luas dan tidak terfokus hanya untuk musik remix game saja. Musisi remix maupun komunitas remix bisa men- upload karyanya di sini untuk dibagikan secara gratis.

Penutup

Cukup banyak sekali online resource untuk mendapatkan lagu-lagu secara legal dan gratis. Hari gini dibilang gak gaul, karena playlist-mu terbatas? hehehe… balas deh tuh anak-anak songong dengan playlist lagu-lagu indie dan pengetahuan musik yang mumpuni yang didapat dari website-website diatas. “Is too mainstream! let’s get indie” *toss*

16 WEBSITE DOWNLOAD LAGU SECARA LEGAL DAN GRATIS

 TRANSFORMASI OLAH DATA ORDINAL MENJADI INTERVAL
Data yang dikumpulkan mahasiwa ketika akan membuat tugas akhir, selain data sekunder diantaranya adalah data primer. Data sekunder adalah data yang diperoleh dari catatan-catatan atau informasi tertulis dari perusahaan, serta data-data lain yang terdokumentasi dengan baik dan valid. Sedangkan data primer adalah data yang direspon langsung oleh responden berdasarkan wawancara ataupun daftar pertanyaan yang dirancang, disusun, dan disajikan dalam bentuk skala, baik nominal, ordinal, interval maupun ratio oleh mahasiswa ketika membutuhkan data demi kepentingan penelitian.

Teknik pengumpulan data seperti ini lazim digunakan karena selain bisa langsung menentukan skala pengukuranya, akan tetapi juga bisa melengkapi hasil wawancara yang dilakukan dengan responden.

Skala pengukuran yang dibuat oleh mahasiswa sebaiknya dibuat sedemikian rupa, mengikuti kaidah, sehingga akan memudahkan pemilihan teknik analisis yang akan digunakan ketika pengumpulan datanya sudah selesai.

Catatan: Artikel ini membahas bagaimana transformasi dari data ordinal ke interval, sedangkan untuk transformasi data dalam keperluan untuk memenuhi asumsi klasik, baca artikel kami yang berjudul "Transformasi Data"

Dalam studi empiris, misalnya saja mahasiswa ingin menggunakan statistika parametrik dengan analisis regresi untuk menganalisis dan mengkaji masalah-masalah penelitian. Pemilihan analisis model ini ini hanya lazim digunakan bila skala pengukuran yang yang dilakukan adalah minimal interval. Sedangkan teknik pengumpulan data yang dilakukan oleh mahasiswa sudah dilakukan dengan menggunakan skala pengukuran nominal (atau ordinal).

Menghadapi situasi demikian, salah satu cara yang dilakukan adalah menaikkan tingkat pengukuran skalanya dari ordinal menjadi interval. Melakukan manipulasi data dengan cara menaikkan skala dari ordinal menjadi interval ini, selain bertujuan untuk tidak melanggar kelaziman, juga untuk mengubah agar syarat distribusi normal bisa dipenuhi ketika menggunakan statistika parametrik.

Menurut Sambas Ali Muhidin dan Maman Abdurahman, “salah satu metode transformasi yang sering digunakan adalah metode succesive interval (MSI)”. Meskipun banyak perdebatan tentang metode ini, diharapkan pemikiran ini bisa melengkapi wacana mahasiswa ketika akan melakukan analisis data berkenaan dengan tugas-tugas kuliah.

Sebelum melanjutkan pembahasan tentang bagaimana transformasi data ordinal dilakukan, tulisan ini sedikit membahas tentang dua perbedaan pendapat tentang bagimana skor-skor yang diberikan terhadap alternatif jawaban pada skala pengukuran Likert yang sudah kita kenal. Pendapat pertama mengatakan bahwa skor 1, 2, 3, 4, dan 5 adalah data interval. Sedangkan pendapat yang kedua, menyatakan bahwa jenis skala pengukuran Likert adalah ordinal. Alasannya skala Likert merupakan Skala Interval adalah karena skala sikap merupakan dan menempatkan kedudukan sikap seseorang pada kesatuan perasaan kontinum yang berkisar dari sikap “sangat positif”, artinya mendukung terhadap suatu objek psikologis terhadap objek penelitian, dan sikap “sangat negatif”, yang tidak mendukung sama sekali terhadap objek psikologis terhadap objek penelitian.

Berkenaan dengan perbedaan pendapat terhadap skor-skor yang diberikan dalam alternatif jawaban dalam skala Likert itu, apakah termasuk dalam skala pengukuran ordinal atau data interval, berikut ini kami mneyampaikan pemikiran yang bisa dijadikan pertimbangan: Ciri spesifik yang dimiliki oleh data yang diperoleh dengan skala pengukuran ordinal, adalah bahwa, data ordinal merupakan jenis data kualitatif, bukan numerik, berupa kata-kata atau kalimat, seperti misalnya sangat setuju, kurang setuju, dan tidak setuju, jika pertanyaannya ditujukan terhadap persetujuan tentang suatu event. Atau bisa juga respon terhadap keberadaan suatu Bank “PQR” dalam suatu daerah yang bisa dimulai dari sangat tidak setuju, tidak setuju, ragu-ragu, Setuju, dan sangat setuju.

Sementara data interval adalah termasuk data kuantitatif, berbentuk numerik, berupa angka, bukan terdiri dari kata-kata, atau kalimat. Mahasiswa yang melakukan penelitian dengan menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif, termasuk di dalamnya adalah data interval, data yang diperoleh dari hasil pengumpulan data bisa langsung diolah dengan menggunakan model statistika. Akan tetapi data yang diperoleh dengan pengukuran skala ordinal, berbentuk kata-kata, kalimat, penyataan, sebelum diolah, perlu memberikan kode numerik, atau simbol berupa angka dalam setiap jawaban.

Misalnya saja alternatif jawaban pada skala Likert, alternatif jawaban “sangat tidak setuju” diberi skor 1; “ tidak setuju diberi skor 2; “ragu-ragu” diberi skor 3; “setuju” diberi kode 4; dan “sangat setuju” diberi skor 5. angka-angka (numerik) inilah yang kemudian diolah, sehingga menghasilkan skor tertentu. Tetapi, sesuai dengan sifat dan cirinya, angka 1, 2, 3, 4, dan 5 atau skor yang sudah diperoleh tidak memberikan arti apa-apa terhadap objek yang diukur. Dengan kata lain, skor yang lebih tinggi lebih tidak berarti lebih baik dari skor yang lebih rendah. Skor 1 hanya menunjukkan sikap “sangat tidak setuju”, skor 2 menunjukkan sikap “tidak setuju, skor 3 menunjukkan sikap “ragu-ragu’, skor 4 menunjukkan sikap “setuju”, dan skor 5 menunjukkan sikap “sangat setuju”. Kita tidak bisa mengatakan bahwa skor 4 atau “setuju” dua kali lebih baik dari skor 2 atau “tidak setuju”.

Fenomena ini berbeda sekali dengan sifat/ciri yang dimiliki oleh data interval, dimana angka-angka atau skor-skor numerik yang diperoleh dari hasil pengukuran data langsung dapat dibandingkan antara satu dengan lainnya, dikurangkan, dijumlahkan, dibagi dan dikalikan. Misalnya saja penelitian yang dilakukan mahasiswa tentang suhu udara beberapa kelas, dan diperoleh data misalnya suhu ruangan kelas A 15 derajat Cls, suhu ruang kelas B 20 derajat Cls, dan suhu ruang kelas C 25 derajat Cls. Berarti bahwa suhu ruang kelas A adalah 75 % lebih dingin dari suhu ruang kelas B. Suhu ruang kelas A 60 % lebih dingin dari suhu ruang kelas C. Suhu ruang kelas A lebih dingin dari suhu ruang kelas B dan C. Atau suhu ruangan kelas B lebih panas dari suhu ruang kelas A, tetapi lebih dingin dibandingkan dengan suhu ruangan kelas C. Contoh lain misalnya prestasi mahasiswa yang diukur dengan skala indek prestasi mahasiswa.

TRANSFORMASI DATA ORDINAL MENJADI INTERVAL
Joseph Lechleider

Mr. Lechleider helped invent DSL technology, which enabled phone companies to offer high-speed web access over their infrastructure of copper wires.

Joseph Lechleider, a Father of the DSL Internet Technology, Dies at 82

Late in April, after Native American actors walked off in disgust from the set of Adam Sandler’s latest film, a western sendup that its distributor, Netflix, has defended as being equally offensive to all, a glow of pride spread through several Native American communities.

Tantoo Cardinal, a Canadian indigenous actress who played Black Shawl in “Dances With Wolves,” recalled thinking to herself, “It’s come.” Larry Sellers, who starred as Cloud Dancing in the 1990s television show “Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman,” thought, “It’s about time.” Jesse Wente, who is Ojibwe and directs film programming at the TIFF Bell Lightbox in Toronto, found himself encouraged and surprised. There are so few film roles for indigenous actors, he said, that walking off the set of a major production showed real mettle.

But what didn’t surprise Mr. Wente was the content of the script. According to the actors who walked off the set, the film, titled “The Ridiculous Six,” included a Native American woman who passes out and is revived after white men douse her with alcohol, and another woman squatting to urinate while lighting a peace pipe. “There’s enough history at this point to have set some expectations around these sort of Hollywood depictions,” Mr. Wente said.

The walkout prompted a rhetorical “What do you expect from an Adam Sandler film?,” and a Netflix spokesman said that in the movie, blacks, Mexicans and whites were lampooned as well. But Native American actors and critics said a broader issue was at stake. While mainstream portrayals of native peoples have, Mr. Wente said, become “incrementally better” over the decades, he and others say, they remain far from accurate and reflect a lack of opportunities for Native American performers. What’s more, as Native Americans hunger for representation on screen, critics say the absence of three-dimensional portrayals has very real off-screen consequences.

“Our people are still healing from historical trauma,” said Loren Anthony, one of the actors who walked out. “Our youth are still trying to figure out who they are, where they fit in this society. Kids are killing themselves. They’re not proud of who they are.” They also don’t, he added, see themselves on prime time television or the big screen. Netflix noted while about five people walked off the “The Ridiculous Six” set, 100 or so Native American actors and extras stayed.

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But in interviews, nearly a dozen Native American actors and film industry experts said that Mr. Sandler’s humor perpetuated decades-old negative stereotypes. Mr. Anthony said such depictions helped feed the despondency many Native Americans feel, with deadly results: Native Americans have the highest suicide rate out of all the country’s ethnicities.

The on-screen problem is twofold, Mr. Anthony and others said: There’s a paucity of roles for Native Americans — according to the Screen Actors Guild in 2008 they accounted for 0.3 percent of all on-screen parts (those figures have yet to be updated), compared to about 2 percent of the general population — and Native American actors are often perceived in a narrow way.

In his Peabody Award-winning documentary “Reel Injun,” the Cree filmmaker Neil Diamond explored Hollywood depictions of Native Americans over the years, and found they fell into a few stereotypical categories: the Noble Savage, the Drunk Indian, the Mystic, the Indian Princess, the backward tribal people futilely fighting John Wayne and manifest destiny. While the 1990 film “Dances With Wolves” won praise for depicting Native Americans as fully fleshed out human beings, not all indigenous people embraced it. It was still told, critics said, from the colonialists’ point of view. In an interview, John Trudell, a Santee Sioux writer, actor (“Thunderheart”) and the former chairman of the American Indian Movement, described the film as “a story of two white people.”

“God bless ‘Dances with Wolves,’ ” Michael Horse, who played Deputy Hawk in “Twin Peaks,” said sarcastically. “Even ‘Avatar.’ Someone’s got to come save the tribal people.”

Dan Spilo, a partner at Industry Entertainment who represents Adam Beach, one of today’s most prominent Native American actors, said while typecasting dogs many minorities, it is especially intractable when it comes to Native Americans. Casting directors, he said, rarely cast them as police officers, doctors or lawyers. “There’s the belief that the Native American character should be on reservations or riding a horse,” he said.

“We don’t see ourselves,” Mr. Horse said. “We’re still an antiquated culture to them, and to the rest of the world.”

Ms. Cardinal said she was once turned down for the role of the wife of a child-abusing cop because the filmmakers felt that casting her would somehow be “too political.”

Another sore point is the long run of white actors playing American Indians, among them Burt Lancaster, Rock Hudson, Audrey Hepburn and, more recently, Johnny Depp, whose depiction of Tonto in the 2013 film “Lone Ranger,” was viewed as racist by detractors. There are, of course, exceptions. The former A&E series “Longmire,” which, as it happens, will now be on Netflix, was roundly praised for its depiction of life on a Northern Cheyenne reservation, with Lou Diamond Phillips, who is of Cherokee descent, playing a Northern Cheyenne man.

Others also point to the success of Mr. Beach, who played a Mohawk detective in “Law & Order: Special Victims Unit” and landed a starring role in the forthcoming D C Comics picture “Suicide Squad.” Mr. Beach said he had come across insulting scripts backed by people who don’t see anything wrong with them.

“I’d rather starve than do something that is offensive to my ancestral roots,” Mr. Beach said. “But I think there will always be attempts to drawn on the weakness of native people’s struggles. The savage Indian will always be the savage Indian. The white man will always be smarter and more cunning. The cavalry will always win.”

The solution, Mr. Wente, Mr. Trudell and others said, lies in getting more stories written by and starring Native Americans. But Mr. Wente noted that while independent indigenous film has blossomed in the last two decades, mainstream depictions have yet to catch up. “You have to stop expecting for Hollywood to correct it, because there seems to be no ability or desire to correct it,” Mr. Wente said.

There have been calls to boycott Netflix but, writing for Indian Country Today Media Network, which first broke news of the walk off, the filmmaker Brian Young noted that the distributor also offered a number of films by or about Native Americans.

The furor around “The Ridiculous Six” may drive more people to see it. Then one of the questions that Mr. Trudell, echoing others, had about the film will be answered: “Who the hell laughs at this stuff?”

Native American Actors Work to Overcome a Long-Documented Bias

Mr. Miller, of the firm Weil, Gotshal & Manges, represented companies including Lehman Brothers, General Motors and American Airlines, and mentored many of the top Chapter 11 practitioners today.

Harvey R. Miller, Renowned Bankruptcy Lawyer, Dies at 82

Pronovost, who played for the Red Wings, was not a prolific scorer, but he was a consummate team player with bruising checks and fearless bursts up the ice that could puncture a defense.

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Mr. Napoleon was a self-taught musician whose career began in earnest with the orchestra led by Chico Marx of the Marx Brothers.

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The magical quality Mr. Lesnie created in shooting the “Babe” films caught the eye of the director Peter Jackson, who chose him to film the fantasy epic.

Andrew Lesnie, Cinematographer of ‘Lord of the Rings,’ Dies at 59
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Many bodies prepared for cremation last week in Kathmandu were of young men from Gongabu, a common stopover for Nepali migrant workers headed overseas. Credit Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

KATHMANDU, Nepal — When the dense pillar of smoke from cremations by the Bagmati River was thinning late last week, the bodies were all coming from Gongabu, a common stopover for Nepali migrant workers headed overseas, and they were all of young men.

Hindu custom dictates that funeral pyres should be lighted by the oldest son of the deceased, but these men were too young to have sons, so they were burned by their brothers or fathers. Sukla Lal, a maize farmer, made a 14-hour journey by bus to retrieve the body of his 19-year-old son, who had been on his way to the Persian Gulf to work as a laborer.

“He wanted to live in the countryside, but he was compelled to leave by poverty,” Mr. Lal said, gazing ahead steadily as his son’s remains smoldered. “He told me, ‘You can live on your land, and I will come up with money, and we will have a happy family.’ ”

Weeks will pass before the authorities can give a complete accounting of who died in the April 25 earthquake, but it is already clear that Nepal cannot afford the losses. The countryside was largely stripped of its healthy young men even before the quake, as they migrated in great waves — 1,500 a day by some estimates — to work as laborers in India, Malaysia or one of the gulf nations, leaving many small communities populated only by elderly parents, women and children. Economists say that at some times of the year, one-quarter of Nepal’s population is working outside the country.

Nepal’s Young Men, Lost to Migration, Then a Quake

“It was really nice to play with other women and not have this underlying tone of being at each other’s throats.”

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Mr. Haroche was a founder of Liberty Travel, which grew from a two-man operation to the largest leisure travel operation in the United States.

Gilbert Haroche, Builder of an Economy Travel Empire, Dies at 87

Ms. Crough played the youngest daughter on the hit ’70s sitcom starring David Cassidy and Shirley Jones.

Suzanne Crough, Actress in ‘The Partridge Family,’ Dies at 52

A 2-minute-42-second demo recording captured in one take turned out to be a one-hit wonder for Mr. Ely, who was 19 when he sang the garage-band classic.

Jack Ely, Who Sang the Kingsmen’s ‘Louie Louie’, Dies at 71

Over the last five years or so, it seemed there was little that Dean G. Skelos, the majority leader of the New York Senate, would not do for his son.

He pressed a powerful real estate executive to provide commissions to his son, a 32-year-old title insurance salesman, according to a federal criminal complaint. He helped get him a job at an environmental company and employed his influence to help the company get government work. He used his office to push natural gas drilling regulations that would have increased his son’s commissions.

He even tried to direct part of a $5.4 billion state budget windfall to fund government contracts that the company was seeking. And when the company was close to securing a storm-water contract from Nassau County, the senator, through an intermediary, pressured the company to pay his son more — or risk having the senator subvert the bid.

The criminal complaint, unsealed on Monday, lays out corruption charges against Senator Skelos and his son, Adam B. Skelos, the latest scandal to seize Albany, and potentially alter its power structure.

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Preet Bharara, the United States attorney in Manhattan, discussed the case involving Dean G. Skelos and his son, Adam. Credit Eduardo Munoz/Reuters

The repeated and diverse efforts by Senator Skelos, a Long Island Republican, to use what prosecutors said was his political influence to find work, or at least income, for his son could send both men to federal prison. If they are convicted of all six charges against them, they face up to 20 years in prison for each of four of the six counts and up to 10 years for the remaining two.

Senator Kenneth P. LaValle, of Long Island, who serves as chairman of the Republican conference, emerged from a closed-door meeting Monday night to say that conference members agreed that Mr. Skelos should be benefited the “presumption of innocence,” and would stay in his leadership role.

“The leader has indicated he would like to remain as leader,” said Mr. LaValle, “and he has the support of the conference.” The case against Mr. Skelos and his son grew out of a broader inquiry into political corruption by the United States attorney for the Southern District of New York, Preet Bharara, that has already changed the face of the state capital. It is based in part, according to the six-count complaint, on conversations secretly recorded by one of two cooperating witnesses, and wiretaps on the cellphones of the senator and his son. Those recordings revealed that both men were concerned about electronic surveillance, and illustrated the son’s unsuccessful efforts to thwart it.

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Adam Skelos took to using a “burner” phone, the complaint says, and told his father he wanted them to speak through a FaceTime video call in an apparent effort to avoid detection. They also used coded language at times.

At one point, Adam Skelos was recorded telling a Senate staff member of his frustration in not being able to speak openly to his father on the phone, noting that he could not “just send smoke signals or a little pigeon” carrying a message.

The 43-page complaint, sworn out by Paul M. Takla, a special agent for the Federal Bureau of Investigation, outlines a five-year scheme to “monetize” the senator’s official position; it also lays bare the extent to which a father sought to use his position to help his son.

The charges accuse the two men of extorting payments through a real estate developer, Glenwood Management, based on Long Island, and the environmental company, AbTech Industries, in Scottsdale, Ariz., with the expectation that the money paid to Adam Skelos — nearly $220,000 in total — would influence his father’s actions.

Glenwood, one of the state’s most prolific campaign donors, had ties to AbTech through investments in the environmental firm’s parent company by Glenwood’s founding family and a senior executive.

The accusations in the complaint portray Senator Skelos as a man who, when it came to his son, was not shy about twisting arms, even in situations that might give other arm-twisters pause.

Seeking to help his son, Senator Skelos turned to the executive at Glenwood, which develops rental apartments in New York City and has much at stake when it comes to real estate legislation in Albany. The senator urged him to direct business to his son, who sold title insurance.

After much prodding, the executive, Charles C. Dorego, engineered a $20,000 payment to Adam Skelos from a title insurance company even though he did no work for the money. But far more lucrative was a consultant position that Mr. Dorego arranged for Adam Skelos at AbTech, which seeks government contracts to treat storm water. (Mr. Dorego is not identified by name in the complaint, but referred to only as CW-1, for Cooperating Witness 1.)

Senator Skelos appeared to take an active interest in his son’s new line of work. Adam Skelos sent him several drafts of his consulting agreement with AbTech, the complaint says, as well as the final deal that was struck.

“Mazel tov,” his father replied.

Senator Skelos sent relevant news articles to his son, including one about a sewage leak near Albany. When AbTech wanted to seek government contracts after Hurricane Sandy, the senator got on a conference call with his son and an AbTech executive, Bjornulf White, and offered advice. (Like Mr. Dorego, Mr. White is not named in the complaint, but referred to as CW-2.)

The assistance paid off: With the senator’s help, AbTech secured a contract worth up to $12 million from Nassau County, a big break for a struggling small business.

But the money was slow to materialize. The senator expressed impatience with county officials.

Adam Skelos, in a phone call with Mr. White in late December, suggested that his father would seek to punish the county. “I tell you this, the state is not going to do a [expletive] thing for the county,” he said.

Three days later, Senator Skelos pressed his case with the Nassau County executive, Edward P. Mangano, a fellow Republican. “Somebody feels like they’re just getting jerked around the last two years,” the senator said, referring to his son in what the complaint described as “coded language.”

The next day, the senator pursued the matter, as he and Mr. Mangano attended a wake for a slain New York City police officer. Senator Skelos then reassured his son, who called him while he was still at the wake. “All claims that are in will be taken care of,” the senator said.

AbTech’s fortunes appeared to weigh on his son. At one point in January, Adam Skelos told his father that if the company did not succeed, he would “lose the ability to pay for things.”

Making matters worse, in recent months, Senator Skelos and his son appeared to grow wary about who was watching them. In addition to making calls on the burner phone, Adam Skelos said he used the FaceTime video calling “because that doesn’t show up on the phone bill,” as he told Mr. White.

In late February, Adam Skelos arranged a pair of meetings between Mr. White and state senators; AbTech needed to win state legislation that would allow its contract to move beyond its initial stages. But Senator Skelos deemed the plan too risky and caused one of the meetings to be canceled.

In another recorded call, Adam Skelos, promising to be “very, very vague” on the phone, urged his father to allow the meeting. The senator offered a warning. “Right now we are in dangerous times, Adam,” he told him.

A month later, in another phone call that was recorded by the authorities, Adam Skelos complained that his father could not give him “real advice” about AbTech while the two men were speaking over the telephone.

“You can’t talk normally,” he told his father, “because it’s like [expletive] Preet Bharara is listening to every [expletive] phone call. It’s just [expletive] frustrating.”

“It is,” his father agreed.

Dean Skelos, Albany Senate Leader, Aided Son at All Costs, U.S. Says

Public perceptions of race relations in America have grown substantially more negative in the aftermath of the death of a young black man who was injured while in police custody in Baltimore and the subsequent unrest, far eclipsing the sentiment recorded in the wake of turmoil in Ferguson, Mo., last summer.

Americans are also increasingly likely to say that the police are more apt to use deadly force against a black person, the latest New York Times/CBS News poll finds.

The poll findings highlight the challenges for local leaders and police officials in trying to maintain order while sustaining faith in the criminal justice system in a racially polarized nation.

Sixty-one percent of Americans now say race relations in this country are generally bad. That figure is up sharply from 44 percent after the fatal police shooting of Michael Brown and the unrest that followed in Ferguson in August, and 43 percent in December. In a CBS News poll just two months ago, 38 percent said race relations were generally bad. Current views are by far the worst of Barack Obama’s presidency.

The negative sentiment is echoed by broad majorities of blacks and whites alike, a stark change from earlier this year, when 58 percent of blacks thought race relations were bad, but just 35 percent of whites agreed. In August, 48 percent of blacks and 41 percent of whites said they felt that way.

Looking ahead, 44 percent of Americans think race relations are worsening, up from 36 percent in December. Forty-one percent of blacks and 46 percent of whites think so. Pessimism among whites has increased 10 points since December.

Continue reading the main story
Do you think race relations in the United States are generally good or generally bad?
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Do you think race relations in the United States are getting better, getting worse or staying about the same?
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The poll finds that profound racial divisions in views of how the police use deadly force remain. Blacks are more than twice as likely to say police in most communities are more apt to use deadly force against a black person — 79 percent of blacks say so compared with 37 percent of whites. A slim majority of whites say race is not a factor in a police officer’s decision to use deadly force.

Overall, 44 percent of Americans say deadly force is more likely to be used against a black person, up from 37 percent in August and 40 percent in December.

Blacks also remain far more likely than whites to say they feel mostly anxious about the police in their community. Forty-two percent say so, while 51 percent feel mostly safe. Among whites, 8 in 10 feel mostly safe.

One proposal to address the matter — having on-duty police officers wear body cameras — receives overwhelming support. More than 9 in 10 whites and blacks alike favor it.

Continue reading the main story
How would you describe your feelings about the police in your community? Would you say they make you feel mostly safe or mostly anxious?
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21
3
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Continue reading the main story
In general, do you think the police in most communities are more likely to use deadly force against a black person, or more likely to use it against a white person, or don’t you think race affects police use of deadly force?
Police more likely to use deadly force against a black person
Police more likely to use deadly force against a white person
Race DOES NOT affect police use of deadly force
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Asked specifically about the situation in Baltimore, most Americans expressed at least some confidence that the investigation by local authorities would be conducted fairly. But while nearly two-thirds of whites think so, fewer than half of blacks agree. Still, more blacks are confident now than were in August regarding the investigation in Ferguson. On Friday, six members of the police force involved in the arrest of Mr. Gray were charged with serious offenses, including manslaughter. The poll was conducted Thursday through Sunday; results from before charges were announced are similar to those from after.

Reaction to the recent turmoil in Baltimore, however, is similar among blacks and whites. Most Americans, 61 percent, say the unrest after Mr. Gray’s death was not justified. That includes 64 percent of whites and 57 percent of blacks.

Continue reading the main story
As you may know, a Baltimore man, Freddie Gray, recently died after being in the custody of the Baltimore police. How much confidence do you have that the investigation by local authorities into this matter will be conducted fairly?
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6

Negative View of U.S. Race Relations Grows, Poll Finds

Even as a high school student, Dave Goldberg was urging female classmates to speak up. As a young dot-com executive, he had one girlfriend after another, but fell hard for a driven friend named Sheryl Sandberg, pining after her for years. After they wed, Mr. Goldberg pushed her to negotiate hard for high compensation and arranged his schedule so that he could be home with their children when she was traveling for work.

Mr. Goldberg, who died unexpectedly on Friday, was a genial, 47-year-old Silicon Valley entrepreneur who built his latest company, SurveyMonkey, from a modest enterprise to one recently valued by investors at $2 billion. But he was also perhaps the signature male feminist of his era: the first major chief executive in memory to spur his wife to become as successful in business as he was, and an essential figure in “Lean In,” Ms. Sandberg’s blockbuster guide to female achievement.

Over the weekend, even strangers were shocked at his death, both because of his relatively young age and because they knew of him as the living, breathing, car-pooling center of a new philosophy of two-career marriage.

“They were very much the role models for what this next generation wants to grapple with,” said Debora L. Spar, the president of Barnard College. In a 2011 commencement speech there, Ms. Sandberg told the graduates that whom they married would be their most important career decision.

In the play “The Heidi Chronicles,” revived on Broadway this spring, a male character who is the founder of a media company says that “I don’t want to come home to an A-plus,” explaining that his ambitions require him to marry an unthreatening helpmeet. Mr. Goldberg grew up to hold the opposite view, starting with his upbringing in progressive Minneapolis circles where “there was woman power in every aspect of our lives,” Jeffrey Dachis, a childhood friend, said in an interview.

The Goldberg parents read “The Feminine Mystique” together — in fact, Mr. Goldberg’s father introduced it to his wife, according to Ms. Sandberg’s book. In 1976, Paula Goldberg helped found a nonprofit to aid children with disabilities. Her husband, Mel, a law professor who taught at night, made the family breakfast at home.

Later, when Dave Goldberg was in high school and his prom date, Jill Chessen, stayed silent in a politics class, he chastised her afterward. He said, “You need to speak up,” Ms. Chessen recalled in an interview. “They need to hear your voice.”

Years later, when Karin Gilford, an early employee at Launch Media, Mr. Goldberg’s digital music company, became a mother, he knew exactly what to do. He kept giving her challenging assignments, she recalled, but also let her work from home one day a week. After Yahoo acquired Launch, Mr. Goldberg became known for distributing roses to all the women in the office on Valentine’s Day.

Ms. Sandberg, who often describes herself as bossy-in-a-good-way, enchanted him when they became friendly in the mid-1990s. He “was smitten with her,” Ms. Chessen remembered. Ms. Sandberg was dating someone else, but Mr. Goldberg still hung around, even helping her and her then-boyfriend move, recalled Bob Roback, a friend and co-founder of Launch. When they finally married in 2004, friends remember thinking how similar the two were, and that the qualities that might have made Ms. Sandberg intimidating to some men drew Mr. Goldberg to her even more.

Over the next decade, Mr. Goldberg and Ms. Sandberg pioneered new ways of capturing information online, had a son and then a daughter, became immensely wealthy, and hashed out their who-does-what-in-this-marriage issues. Mr. Goldberg’s commute from the Bay Area to Los Angeles became a strain, so he relocated, later joking that he “lost the coin flip” of where they would live. He paid the bills, she planned the birthday parties, and both often left their offices at 5:30 so they could eat dinner with their children before resuming work afterward.

Friends in Silicon Valley say they were careful to conduct their careers separately, politely refusing when outsiders would ask one about the other’s work: Ms. Sandberg’s role building Facebook into an information and advertising powerhouse, and Mr. Goldberg at SurveyMonkey, which made polling faster and cheaper. But privately, their work was intertwined. He often began statements to his team with the phrase “Well, Sheryl said” sharing her business advice. He counseled her, too, starting with her salary negotiations with Mark Zuckerberg.

“I wanted Mark to really feel he stretched to get Sheryl, because she was worth it,” Mr. Goldberg explained in a 2013 “60 Minutes” interview, his Minnesota accent and his smile intact as he offered a rare peek of the intersection of marriage and money at the top of corporate life.

 

 

While his wife grew increasingly outspoken about women’s advancement, Mr. Goldberg quietly advised the men in the office on family and partnership matters, an associate said. Six out of 16 members of SurveyMonkey’s management team are female, an almost unheard-of ratio among Silicon Valley “unicorns,” or companies valued at over $1 billion.

When Mellody Hobson, a friend and finance executive, wrote a chapter of “Lean In” about women of color for the college edition of the book, Mr. Goldberg gave her feedback on the draft, a clue to his deep involvement. He joked with Ms. Hobson that she was too long-winded, like Ms. Sandberg, but aside from that, he said he loved the chapter, she said in an interview.

By then, Mr. Goldberg was a figure of fascination who inspired a “where can I get one of those?” reaction among many of the women who had read the best seller “Lean In.” Some lamented that Ms. Sandberg’s advice hinged too much on marrying a Dave Goldberg, who was humble enough to plan around his wife, attentive enough to worry about which shoes his young daughter would wear, and rich enough to help pay for the help that made the family’s balancing act manageable.

Now that he is gone, and Ms. Sandberg goes from being half of a celebrated partnership to perhaps the business world’s most prominent single mother, the pages of “Lean In” carry a new sting of loss.

“We are never at 50-50 at any given moment — perfect equality is hard to define or sustain — but we allow the pendulum to swing back and forth between us,” she wrote in 2013, adding that they were looking forward to raising teenagers together.

“Fortunately, I have Dave to figure it out with me,” she wrote.

Dave Goldberg Was Lifelong Women’s Advocate

The bottle Mr. Sokolin famously broke was a 1787 Château Margaux, which was said to have belonged to Thomas Jefferson. Mr. Sokolin had been hoping to sell it for $519,750.

William Sokolin, Wine Seller Who Broke Famed Bottle, Dies at 85
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paket promo berangkat umrah april di Kebon Manggis jakarta
harga paket umrah awal tahun di Pondok Bambu jakarta
biaya berangkat umrah ramadhan di Pisangan Timur jakarta
harga berangkat umrah januari di Cipinang Melayu jakarta
harga berangkat umrah awal tahun di Lubang Buaya jakarta
biaya paket berangkat umroh februari di Lubang Buaya jakarta
biaya paket berangkat umroh ramadhan di Pal Meriam jakarta
biaya paket umroh akhir tahun di Jatinegara jakarta
harga paket umroh juni di Ciracas jakarta
paket umrah akhir tahun di Jati jakarta
paket promo berangkat umrah januari di Cakung Barat jakarta
harga berangkat umrah ramadhan di Cipinang Besar Utara jakarta
biaya paket umroh april di Pondok Bambu jakarta
paket umrah desember di Pulo Gadung jakarta
paket umrah april di Bali Mester jakarta
promo umroh ramadhan di Bali Mester jakarta
promo umroh april bekasi selatan
harga paket berangkat umrah mei bekasi timur
harga umroh januari di Penggilingan jakarta
paket umroh awal tahun di Cipinang Besar Selatan jakarta
paket promo umrah mei depok
paket umroh februari di Pulo Gadung jakarta
biaya umroh januari di Kramat Jati jakarta
harga paket berangkat umroh maret di Kampung Gedong,Cijantung jakarta
biaya paket umrah ramadhan depok
promo berangkat umrah juni di Duren Sawit jakarta
biaya paket berangkat umrah akhir tahun di Bidaracina jakarta
harga berangkat umroh maret tangerang
paket berangkat umrah akhir tahun di Cipinang Cempedak jakarta
harga berangkat umroh akhir tahun di Cakung Barat jakarta
paket promo berangkat umroh juni di Rawa Terate jakarta
biaya berangkat umrah ramadhan di Susukan jakarta
biaya paket umroh desember di Klender jakarta
harga umrah akhir tahun bekasi barat
biaya berangkat umroh juni di Kampung Tengah jakarta
biaya paket berangkat umroh maret bekasi barat
biaya berangkat umroh januari di Pal Meriam jakarta
paket promo umrah maret di Cipinang Melayu jakarta
biaya umrah mei bekasi selatan
harga paket umroh awal tahun di Kebon Manggis jakarta
paket promo umroh juni di Utan Kayu Utara jakarta
promo umroh mei di Cipinang jakarta
promo berangkat umrah juni di Cipinang Cempedak jakarta
harga paket berangkat umroh juni di Duren Sawit jakarta
paket umrah akhir tahun di Cipinang Besar Utara jakarta
promo berangkat umrah februari di Pisangan Baru jakarta
promo umrah januari di Munjul jakarta
harga umrah maret di Susukan jakarta
harga berangkat umrah awal tahun di Bidaracina jakarta
biaya paket umrah maret di Kramat Jati jakarta
paket umrah akhir tahun di Jatinegara Kaum jakarta
biaya paket berangkat umroh maret di Duren Sawit jakarta
paket umrah awal tahun di Munjul jakarta