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UMRAH DENGAN PAKAIAN BIASA

Oleh
Al-Lajnah Ad-Daimah Lil Ifta

Pertanyaan
Al-Lajnah Ad-Daimah Lil Ifta ditanya : Saya melaksanakan umrah pada awal Ramadhan tahun ini dan saya mukim di Mekkah selama 15 hari. Lalu saya melaksanakan umrah lagi dengan baju saya dan penutup kepala. Ketika saya pertama kali sampai di Masjidil Haram, saya shalat dua raka'at dengan niat shalat Tahiyatul Masjid, lalu saya thawaf di Ka'bah tujuh kali putaran kemudian shalat dua raka'at di maqam Ibrahim 'Alaihis Salam, lalu sa'i tujuh kali putaran dan kemudian memotong rambut. Apakah yang saya lakukan benar ?

Jawaban
Apa yang anda sebutkan dalam pertanyaan bahwa yang dilakukan dalam umrah adalah suatu yang wajib dari umrah dan anda tidak wajib mengeluarkan sesuatu jika ihram dari miqat yang wajib. Hanya saja shalat dua raka'at yang dilakukan ketika masuk Masjidil Haram adalah menyalahi sunnah bagi orang yang masuk Masjidil Haram (untuk melaksanakan umrah), yaitu memulai dengan thawaf.

Adapun yang anda sebutkan bahwa anda ihram dengan memakai baju, jika yang dimaksudkan itu baju ihram, yaitu kain dan selendang yang telah digunakan dalam umrah sebelum umrah, maka tiada mengapa dalam hal tersebut, karena boleh menggunakannya berulang kali dalam haji atau umrah atau memberikan kepada orang lain untuk digunakan haji dan umrah. Tapi jika yang anda maksudkan bahwa ihram dengan baju biasa yang dipakai selain ketika ihram, maka anda salah dalam hal itu dan anda telah melakukan dua larangan dalam umrah, yaitu memakai pakaian berjahit dan menutup kepala. Jika anda mengetahui bahwa demikian itu tidak boleh, maka wajib dua fidyah, yaitu karena pakaian dan menutup kepala. Dan untuk masing-masing anda boleh menyembelih kambing yang mencukupi syarat kurban, atau memberi makan enam orang miskin masing-masing orang setengah sha' berupa kurma atau yang lain dari makanan pokok suatu daerah, atau puasa tiga hari. Dan kedua kambing atau makanan untuk 12 orang miskin diberikan kepada orang-orang miskin Mekkah dan kamu tidak boleh makan sebagian dari keduanya dan juga tidak boleh anda hadiahkan. Sedangkan untuk berpuasa boleh dilakukan di tempat dan waktu kapanpun.

Namun jika yang anda lakukan tersebut karena tidak mengetahui hukum syar'i atau karena lupa, maka tidak wajib fidyah, hanya harus taubat dan mohon ampun kepada Allah atas dua hal tersebut serta tidak akan mengulangi pekerjaan yang menafikan kewajiban-kewajiban dalam ihram seperti kedua hal tersebut. Kepada Allah kita bermohon taufiq kepada kebenaran. Dan shalawat serta salam kepada Nabi kita Muhammad Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam.

MEMAKAI CELANA KETIKA IHRAM KARENA TIDAK TAHU

Oleh
Syaikh Abdullah bin Abdurrahman Al-Jibrin

Pertanyaan
Syaikh Abdullah bin Abdurrahman Al-Jibrin ditanya : Tahun lalu saya pergi umrah dan saya tidak mengetahui sebagian syarat-syaratnya. Ketika saya ihram dari miqat saya memakai celana pendek dan saya tidak mengetahui hukum masalah ini. Lalu setelah saya kembali, sebagian orang memberitahukan kepada saya bahwa yang saya lakukan tersebut tidak boleh. Dan tahun ini saya umrah lagi ketika saya mengetahui bahwa memakai pakaian berjahit tidak boleh ketika ihram. Apakah saya wajib membayar kifarat sebab masalah tersebut ?

Jawaban
Tidak wajib membayar fidyah karena anda tidak mengetahui hukum tersebut. Sebab seseorang dimaafkan ketika melakukan larangan tersebut karena ketidaktahuan tentang hukum. Sesungguhnya fidyah hanya wajib atas orang yang melakukan hal tersebut jika dia mengetahui dan sengaja melakukannya. Maka anda tidak wajib mengulangi umrah karena tidak melakukan apa yang merusakkan umrah. Jadi umrah anda yang kedua adalah umrah sunnah.

IHRAM DENGAN MEMAKAI CELANA KARENA SENGAJA

Oleh
Syaikh Abdullah bin Abdurrahman Al-Jibrin

Pertanyaan
Syaikh Abdullah bin Abdurrhman Al-JIbrin ditanya : Ketika di miqat saya niat ihram umrah tamattu' kepada haji, tapi saya tidak melepas celana dalam saja. Dan demikian itu disebabkan malu yang menyertai saya pada waktu itu. Sehingga saya melaksanakan umrah dengan memakai celana. Dan ketika saya ihram haji, saya mengerti bahwa saya salah ketika memakai celana dalam ihram. Maka saya melepas celana ketika ihram untuk melaksanakan haji.

Pertanyaannya, apakah saya wajib membayar kifarat karena tidak melepas celana ketika umrah saja, sebab saya melepasnya ketika melakukan haji ? Padahal saat itu saya mengetahui bahwa memakai pakaian berjahit membatalkan ihram, tapi saya melakukan itu karena sangat malu seperti saya sebutkan. Perlu diketahui bahwa umrah dan haji saya tersebut adalah yang pertama kali dan telah saya lakukan beberapa tahun lalu. Mohon penjelasan

Jawaban
Anda wajib membayar fidyah apabila sengaja tetap dalam pakaian tersebut. Sebab anda telah mengetahui bahwa demikian itu termasuk larangan dalam ihram, bukan yang membatalkannya. Adapun fidyahnya adalah puasa tiga hari, atau memberi makan enam orang miskin, atau memotong kambing. Mana saja yang anda lakukan diantara ketiga hal tersebut, maka telah cukup. Tapi menyembelih atau memberikan makan enam orang miskin tersebut harus di Mekkah dan untuk orang-orang miskin tanah haram. Sedangkan berpuasa dapat dilakukan di mana saja. Dan anda tidak berdosa karena terlambat melaksanakan kifarat, hanya saja anda lengah karena bertanya dalam tempo yang lama.

BATASAN PAKAIAN BERJAHIT DALAM IHRAM


Oleh
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz

Pertanyaan
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz ditanya : Apakah batasan pakaian berjahit dan apa hukum memakai celana yang digunakan sekarang ini ketika ihram ?

Jawaban
Tidak boleh bagi orang yang sedang ihram haji atau umrah memakai celana dan lainnya dari pakaian yang berjahit dalam bentuk badan seutuhnya, seperti qamis, atau bagian atas badan saja, seperti kaos dan lain-lain, atau badan bagian bawah seperti celana. Sebab ketika Nabi Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam ditanya tentang pakaian orang yang sedang berihram maka beliau bersabda.

"Artinya : Ia tidak boleh memakai qamis, surban, celana, tudung kepala dan khuf, kecuali orang yang tidak mendapatkan sandal, maka dia boleh memakai khuf (sepatu but). Dan hendaklah dia memotong khuf sampai bawah mata kaki" [Muttafaqun 'alaih dari hadits Ibnu Umar Radhiallahu 'anhu]

Dengan demikian penanya harus mengetahui pakaian berjahit yang dilarang bagi orang yang sedang ihram.

Dari hadits tersebut nampak jelas bahwa yang dimaksud pakaian berjahit adalah setiap pakaian yang dijahit dengan ukuran seluruh badan seperti qamis, atau setengah badan pada bagian atas seperti kaos, atau setengah badan bagian bawah seperti celana. Dari hal tersebut dapat disamakan pakaian yang dijahit atau disulam seukuran tangan seperti kaos tangan, atau seukuran kaki seperti khuf (sepatu but). Tapi orang ihram diperbolehkan memakai khuf jika tidak mendapatkan sandal. Sebab terdapat hadits shahih dari Ibnu Abbas Radhiallahu 'anhu, bahwa ketika Nabi Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam menyampaikan khutbah kepada manusia di Arafah beliau bersabda.

"Artinya : Barangsiapa yang tidak mendapatkan kain maka hendaklah dia memakai celana, dan siapa yang tidak mendapatkan sandal maka hendaklah dai memakai khuf" [Muttafaqun 'alaih]

Dalam hadits ini Nabi Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam tidak menyebutkan perintah memotong khuf, maka menunjukkan tidak wajib memotong khuf. Jadi perintah memotong khuf yang terdapat dalam hadits pertama yang juga diriwayatkan Ibnu Abbas Radhiallahu anhu dihapuskan (mansukh) dengan hadits tersebut.

Demikian itu berkaitan dengan laki-laki. Sedangkan bagi wanita yang ihram, baik ihram haji maupun ihram umrah maka dia boleh memakai celana dan sepatu secara mutlak, tapi dialarang memakai cadar dan kaos tangan. Sebab Nabi Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam melarang dari kedua hal tersebut dalam hadits yang diriwayatkan Ibnu Umar Radhiallahu 'anhu. Namun wanita boleh menutup mukanya dengan selain cadar dan menutup kedua tanganya dengan selain kaos tangan ketika dia di hadapan laki-laki yang bukan mahramnya, seperti dengan kerudung dan lain-lain. Dan Allah adalah Dzat yang memberikan pertolongan kepada kebenaran.

MENCUKUR RAMBUT SETELAH IHRAM KARENA TIDAK TAHU

Oleh
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz

Pertanyaan
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz ditanya : Seseorang telah melakukan ihram umrah. Setelah itu dia ingat bahwa mencukur rambut ketiak wajib ketika ihram lalu dia mencukurnya setelah ihram, kemudian pergi umrah. Mohon penjelasan hukum tentang hal tersebut ?

Jawaban
Mencukur rambut ketiak tidak wajib dalam ihram, demikian pula mencabutnya. Namun menurut sunnah adalah mencabut atau membersihkan rambut ketiak dengan sesuatu yang dapat menghilangkan dari bahan yang suci ketika sebelum ihram. Sebagaimana disunnahkannya memotong kumis, memotong kuku, dan mencukur rambut kemaluan ketika masing-masing telah siap untuk itu ketika sebelum ihram, seperti ketika di rumahnya. Dan demikian itu sudah cukup. Sebab hal-hal tersebut tidak wajib dilakukan ketika ihram, dan bagi orang yang kamu sebutkan itu tidak wajib membayar fidyah karena mencukur rambut ketiaknya disebabkan dia tidak tahu tentang hukum syar'i. Seperti itu juga jika seseorang melakukan sesuatu yang telah kami sebutkan setelah dia ihram karena lupa. Sebab Allah berfirman tentang do'a orang-orang mukmin.

"Artinya : Ya Rabb kami, janganlah Engkau hukum kami jika kami lupa atau kami bersalah" [Al-Baqarah : 286]

Dan dalam hadits hahih disebutkan bahwa Allah mengabulkan do'a tersebut seraya berfirman : "Sunnguh telah Aku lakukan".

MEMOTONG RAMBUT SEBELUM NIAT IHRAM

Oleh
Syaikh Abdullah bin Abdurrahman Al-Jibrin

Pertanyaan
Syaikh Abdullah bin Abdurrahman Al-Jibrin ditanya : Istri saya berihram untuk umrah. Dan sebelum keluar dari kamar mandi dan memakai bajunya dia menggunting rambutnya sedikit. Apa yang wajib dia lakukan ?

Jawaban
Tiada dosa atas dia dalam hal tersebut dan juga tidak wajib membayar fidyah. Sebab yang dilarang memotong rambut adalah setelah niat ihram sedangkan dia belum niat dan belum memakai bajunya. Bahkan seandainya dia melakukan seperti itu ketika dia telah ihram tapi karena tidak tahu atau lupa maka dia tidak wajib membayar fidyah. Wallahu a'lam.

JENIS PAKAIAN WANITA KETIKA IHRAM

Oleh
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz

Pertanyaan
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz ditanya : Apakah wanita boleh ihram dengan pakaian apa saja yang dia kehendaki ?

Jawaban
Ya, wanita berihram dengan pakaian yang dia mau. Sebab bagi wanita tidak ada pakaian khusus ketika ihram sebagai mana anggapan orang-orang awam. Tapi yang utama adalah dia ihram dengan pakaian yang tidak menarik pandangan laki-laki sebab dia bercampur dengan banyak manusia. Maka seyogianya bila wanita ketika ihram memakai pakaian yang wajar dan tidak mengundang fitnah. Adapun bagi laki-laki maka yang utama adalah ihram dengan baju ihram putih, yakni selendang dan kain. Tapi jika tidak ada berwarna putih maka tidak apa-apa. Sebab terdapat riwayat dari Rasulullah Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam bahwa beliau ihram dengan baju hijau. Kesimpulannya, tidak mengapa jika laki-laki ihram dengan pakaian yang tidak berwarna putih.


MASIH DALAM PAKAIAN IHRAM DALAM TEMPO YANG LAMA

Oleh
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz

Pertanyaan
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz ditanya : Saya pergi umrah pada bulan Ramadhan bersama ibu saya. Kami berdua ihram di kapal terbang ketika di atas Bi'r Ali dan turun di Jeddah lalu istirahat. Dan setelah kami berbuka puasa maka kami pergi pada sore harinya ke Mekkah untuk melaksanakan umrah dan kami tidak melepas pakaian ihram hingga selesai umrah. Apakah kami terkena sangsi sebab kami istirahat di Jeddah dalam keadaan berpakaian ihram. Mohon penjelasan, semoga Allah memberikan kepada Anda balasan kebaikan.

Jawaban
Jika kondisi seperti yang anda sebutkan, maka tidak ada kewajiban membayar dam atas anda dan juga ibu. Sebab kalian berdua muqim di Jeddah masih dalam keadaan ihram, dan orang yang sedang ihram tidak wajib menyambung perjalanannya hingga melaksanakan umrah. Bahkan dia boleh istirahat di jalan dan muqim di mana saja yang dia kehendaki untuk melaksanakan kebutuhannya dan dia sedang ihram. Semoga Allah memberikan taufiq kepada semua kaum muslimin.

IHRAM MEMAKAI KAOS KAKI DAN KAOS TANGAN

Oleh
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz

Pertanyaan
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz ditanya : Apa hukum ihram dengan memakai kaos kaki dan kaos tangan ? Dan apa dalilnya tentang hal tersebut ?

Jawaban
Bagi laki-laki ketika ihram tidak boleh memakai kaos kaki dan khuf (sepatu slop) kecuali jika tidak mendapatkan sandal berdasarkan sabda Nabi Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam.

"Artinya : Dan barangsiapa yang tidak mendapatkan sandal, maka dia boleh memakai khuf, dan siapa yang tidak mendapatkan kain, maka dia memakai celana panjang" [Muttafaqun 'Alaih]

Adapun bagi wanita, maka diperbolehkan memakai kaos kaki dan sepatu khuf, karena kaki wanita adalah aurat. Dan jika seorang wanita menjulurkan bajunya hingga menutup kedua kakinya maka cukup baginya dari kaos kaki dan khuf dalam shalat dan yang lainnya. Adapaun kaos tangan maka bagi laki-laki mupun perempuan tidak diperbolehkan memakainya ketika sedang ihram. Sebab Nabi Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam bersabda tentang wanita yang sedang ihram.

"Artinya : Janganlah wanita bercadar, dan janganlah dia memakai kaos tangan" [Hadits Riwayat Bukhari dalam shahihnya]

Jika memakai kaos tangan, maka haram bagi perempuan, lebih-lebih lagi bagi laki-laki. Karena itu Nabi Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam bersabda tentang laki-laki yang meninggal ketika dia sedang ihram.

"Artinya : Mandikanlah dia dengan air dan bidara, kafankan dia dengan dua baju (ihram)nya, jangan kamu berikan dia parfum, dan jangan kamu tutup kepala dan mukanya, sebab dia akan dibangkitkan pada hari kiamat dalam keadaan berihram" [Muttafaqun 'alaih dan redaksinya bagi Muslim]

Adapun sebagai ganti cadar bagi wanita ketika sedang ihram adalah dia dapat menutup wajahnya dengan kerudung dan yang sepertinya ketika dia berhadapan laki-laki. Demikian ini berdasarkan riwayat dari Aisyah Radhiallahu 'anha, ia berkata.

"Artinya : Adalah rombongan laki-laki melewati kami dan kami bersama Rasulullah Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam. Ketika mereka berpapasan dengan kami. setiap orang diantara kami mejulurkan jilbabnya dari kepala ke mukanya, dan jika mereka telah melewati kami, maka kami membukanya" [Hadits Riwayat Abu Dawud dan Ibnu Majah]

CARA MEMAKAI BAJU IHRAM

Oleh
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz

Pertanyaan
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz ditanya : Apakah yang utama bagi orang yang sedang ihram menutup kedua pundaknya ataukah membuka salah satunya ?

Jawaban
Adapun yang sunnah bagi orang yang ihram adalah menjadikan selendang pada kedua pundak dan kedua ujungnya di dada. Ini adalah yang sunnah dan yang dilakukan Nabi Shallahu 'alaihi wa sallam. Maka jika seseorang berihram ingin thawaf qudum, ia menjadikan tengah selendangnya di bawa ketiak kanan dan kedua ujung selendang pada pundaknya yang kiri dan membuka pundaknya yang kanan. Tapi ini khusus dalam thawaf Qudum. Maksudnya ketika pertama datang ke Mekkah untuk haji atau umrah. Lalu ketika telah rampung thawaf Qudum memindahkan selendangnya dan dijadikannya pada kedua pundaknya lalu shalat dua raka'at thawaf. Maka orang yang selalu membuka salah satu pundaknya adalah menyalahi Sunnah Nabi Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam. Demikian pula orang yang membuka dua pundaknya. Sesungguhnya yang sesuai Sunnah Nabi Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam adalah menutupi kedua pundak dengan selendang ketika sedang ihram kecuali dalam thawaf qudum seperti telah disebutkan. Dan jika seseorang meletakkan selendangnya tidak menutup kedua pundaknya pada waktu dia duduk atau ketika makan atau ketika berbincang-bincang bersama kawan-kawannya maka tidak mengapa. Tapi yang sesuai sunnah jika dia memakai selendang maka dengan menutup kedua pundak dan ujung-ujung selendang berada pada dadanya.

MEMAKAI SABUK KETIKA SEDANG IHRAM


Oleh
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz

Pertanyaan
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz ditanya : Apa hukum memakai ikat pinggang bagi orang yang sedang berihram karena untuk menjaga uangnya ? Apakah demikian itu diperbolehkan baginya, ataukah dinilai pakaian yang berjahit yang tidak boleh dipakai ?

Jawaban
Memakai ikat pinggang dan yang sepertinya tidak dilarang bagi orang yang sedang ihram. Demikian pula sapu tangan untuk mengikat kainnya atau untuk menjaga uang dan lain-lain.

GANTI PAKAIAN IHRAM

Oleh
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz

Pertanyaan
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz ditanya : Apakah boleh berganti baju ihram karena di cuci ?

Jawaban
Tidak mengapa bila pakaian ihram di cuci, dan tidak mengapa juga bila berganti pakaian ihram dengan baju ihram yang baru atau baju yang telah di cuci.


MENGOLESKAN PARFUM KE PAKAIAN IHRAM


Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz

Pertanyaan
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz ditanya : Apa hukum mengoleskan parfum kepada baju ihram sebelum niat dan talbiyah ?

Jawaban
Tidak seyogianya mengoleskan parfum pada selendang dan kain ihram, tetapi yang sunnah adalah mengoleskan parfum ke anggota badan, seperti kepala, jenggot, ketiak, dan lain-lain. Adapun pakaian maka tidak boleh diberikan parfum ketika berihram. Sebab Nabi Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam bersabda : "Janganlah (orang yang ihram) memakai baju yang tersentuh za'faran dan kasturi".

Jadi menurut sunnah adalah mengoleskan parfum ke badan saja, sedangkan pakaian ihram tidak boleh diberikan parfum, dan jika diberikan parfum maka tidak boleh dipakai hingga di cuci atau dibersihkan.


TIDAK MAMPU MEMAKAI BAJU IHRAM


Oleh
Syaikh Muhammad bin Shalih Al-Utsaimin

Pertanyaan
Syaikh Muhammad bin Shalih Al-Utsaimin ditanya : Seseorang ingin umrah pada bulan Ramadhan, tapi dia tidak mampu berpakaian ihram sebab dia sakit dan jimpe. Apakah dia dapat umrah dengan bajunya biasa dan wajib membayar kifarat ?

Jawaban
Jika seseorang tidak mampu berpakaian ihram maka dia memakai pakaian lain yang sesuai dan dia wajib membayar kifarat, boleh memotong seekor kambing yang dibagikan kepada orang-orang miskin, atau memberi makan enam orang miskin masing-masing orang miskin setengah sha', atau puasa tiga hari. Demikianlah yang dikatakan ulama karena mengqiyaskan terhadap ketentuan mencukur rambut yang dijelaskan dalam firman Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala.

"Artinya : Dan jangan kamu mencukur kepalamu, sebelum kurban sampai di tempat penyembelihannya. Jika ada di antaramu sakit atau ada ganguan di kepalanya (lalu dia bercukur), maka wajiblah atasnya berfidyah, yaitu ; berpuasa, atau bersedekah, atau berkurban" [ Al-Baqarah : 196]

Nabi Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam menjelaskan, bahwa berpuasa adalah tiga hari, dan sedekah adalah memberi makan enam orang miskin masing-masing orang miskin setengah sha', dan berkurban adalah menyembelih kambing.


[Disalin dari buku Fatwa-Fatwa Haji dan Umrah oleh Ulama-Ulama Besar Saudi Arabia, penysusun Muhammad bin Abdul Aziz Al-Musnad, terbitan Pustaka Imam Asy-Syafi'i, hal. 123-130, penerjemah H.Asmuni Solihan Zamaksyari Lc.]

Baca Artikel Lainnya : BERSENGGAMA DALAM HAJI, BOLEH KAH?

BAJU UNTUK UMRAH

saco-indonesia.com, Jelang akhir tahun 2013, Real Madrid ternyata telah berhasil meraih satu lagi catatan yang cukup membanggakan. Klub yang berjuluk Los Blancos itu resmi telah memiliki duet tertajam di antara kontestan La Liga lainnya di 12 bulan belakangan.

Karin Benzema dan Cristiano Ronaldo, dua ujung tombak utama si putih, telah menyumbangkan 53 gol untuk klubnya atau jadi yang paling produktif di sepanjang tahun 2013. Tentu saja nama yang disebut kedua telah memiliki kontribusi yang sangat dominan di angka tersebut. Ronaldo mengkreasikan tak kurang dari 38 gol. Sementara itu Benzema telah menyumbangkan 15 gol.

Duet lainnya, Lionel Messi dan Alexis Sanchez, hanya mampu menutup akun gol mereka berdua di tahun 2013 dengan jumlah 44 atau berselisih sembilan gol dari duet Ronaldo-Benzema. La Pulga telah mencetak 28 gol sementara Sacnchez membukukan tak kurang dari 16 gol.

Berada di tempat ketiga, adalah duet milik Atletico Madrid. David Villa dan Diego Costa hingga saat ini sudah memiliki 40 gol. Eks Barca telah menyumbang 13 di antaranya, sementara itu 27 sisanya dibuat atas nama Costa.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

RONALDO KANGKANGI MESSI

JAKARTA, Saco-Indonesia.com — Pengerukan waduk alias normalisasi kali di bantaran sebelah barat Waduk Pluit, Penjaringan, Jakarta Utara, tengah dilakukan. Sejauh ini, Pemerintah Provinsi DKI Jakarta mengerahkan 10 ekskavator untuk mengerjakan proyek tersebut.

Ditemui, Jumat (31/5), Kepala Proyek Normalisasi Waduk Pluit Herianto mengatakan, kini pemfokusan normalisasi Waduk Pluit adalah pembuatan jalan inspeksi. "Yang penting bangunan yang sudah ditertibkan tidak akan dibangun lagi," kata Herianto.

Herianto menjelaskan, pihaknya tidak berencana menggusur warga yang berada di sisi timur bantaran Waduk Pluit, tanpa lebih dulu menyiapkan rumah susun untuk merelokasi warga. "Belum ada rusun sehingga belum ada penertiban bangunan," kata Herianto.

Kemudian, Herianto menambahkan, kini pihaknya tengah fokus mengeruk agar Waduk Pluit kelihatan sebagai tempat penampungan air. Untuk mengantisipasi bahaya keamanan, akan dipasang lampu penerangan di beberapa jalan inspeksi.

"Sekarang difokuskan pengerukan dan lampu penerangan agar kalau malam jadi tidak gelap," tuntasnya.

Sumber : Warta Kota/Kompas.com

Editor :Liwon Maulana

"Tidak Ada Rusun, Maupun Penggusuran"

saco-indonesia.com, Real Madrid telah berhasil memenangkan delapan pertandingan terakhir mereka tanpa kemasukan gol satu pun. Ini berarti, klub yang berjuluk Los Blancos itu resmi menjalani Januari terbaik mereka di sepanjang sejarah. Total delapan kemenangan yang telah mereka raih, empat di antaranya terjadi di La Liga dan sisanya di Copa Del Rey.

Catatan statistik telah menunjukkan bahwa El Real tidak pernah sekalipun untuk memenangkan begitu banyak laga secara beruntun di bulan Januari sebelumnya. Kali terakhir tim hanya bisa menang di lima laga berurutan dan itu telah terjadi di tahun 1961, 1964, dan 2009.

Delapan kemenangan tersebut juga dihiasi dengan kesolidan lini belakang klub, yang telah membuat gawang mereka terus perawan, tak peduli siapapun lawannya. Rataan gol Madrid pun cukup mengagumkan, 2,1 per laga selama tahun 2014, yang kemudian membuat mereka telah berhasil mencetak total 17 gol. Cristiano Ronaldo dan Karim Benzema menjadi penyumbang terbesar dengan masing-masing 5 gol.

Patut jadi catatan bahwa di dua laga terakhir Desember 2013, Madrid juga telah meraih kemenangan. Ini artinya tim sudah menang di 10 laga beruntun dan sudah tak terkalahkan di 20 pertandingan terakhir. Madrid kini sudah memastikan diri lolos ke babak semifinal Copa Del Rey dan hanya terpaut satu angka dari pimpinan klasemen La Liga.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

PERFORMA MADRID PALING MAKSI

MALANG, Saco- Indoensia.com — Menjelang Sea Games 2013, Timnas U-23 akan menggelar uji coba melawan timnas Singapura dan Malaysia pada Juni hingga Juli mendatang. Terkait rencana itu, latihan tim pun mulai dilakukan secara rutin, fokus, dan serius.

"Pemain akan mulai melakukan latihan pada Rabu (5/6/2013) besok di Yogyakarta, lalu pada Jumat (7/6/2013) pemain akan berangkat ke Solo dalam rangka persiapan uji coba dengan Timnas Singapura U-23 di Stadion Manahan Solo," kata pelatih Timnas U-23, Rahmad Darmawan kepada wartawan, di Malang, Selasa (4/6/2013).

Uji coba dengan timnas Singapura akan digelar pada 8 Juni mendatang. Untuk latihan tim, akan dilakukan selama empat hari. Tujuannya, agar latihan tidak mengganggu kompetisi yang dihadapi masing-masing klub.

Setelah itu, para pemain akan kembali latihan pada Juli mendatang dengan materi yang sama. Setelah matang, pemain melakukan persiapan tim, timnas merah putih akan menjalani uji coba pada 15 Juli mendatang dengan bertandang ke Singapura.

"Setelah itu langsung ke Malaysia pada 19 Juli. Agenda uji coba itu memang digelar dengan lawan yang bagus untuk melihat perkembangan dan potensi para pemain kita," katanya. "Makanya, kita agendakan uji coba," katanya.

Editor :Liwon Maulana
Sumber:Kompas.com
Timnas U-23 Akan Uji Coba Lawan Singapura dan Malaysia

The bottle Mr. Sokolin famously broke was a 1787 Château Margaux, which was said to have belonged to Thomas Jefferson. Mr. Sokolin had been hoping to sell it for $519,750.

William Sokolin, Wine Seller Who Broke Famed Bottle, Dies at 85

Ms. Pryor, who served more than two decades in the State Department, was the author of well-regarded biographies of the founder of the American Red Cross and the Confederate commander.

Elizabeth Brown Pryor, Biographer of Clara Barton and Robert E. Lee, Dies at 64

Mr. Mankiewicz, an Oscar-nominated screenwriter for “I Want to Live!,” also wrote episodes of television shows such as “Star Trek” and “Marcus Welby, M.D.”

Don Mankiewicz, Screenwriter in a Family Film Tradition, Dies at 93

The 6-foot-10 Phillips played alongside the 6-11 Rick Robey on the Wildcats team that won the 1978 N.C.A.A. men’s basketball title.

Mike Phillips, Half of Kentucky’s ‘Twin Towers’ of Basketball, Dies at 59

The magical quality Mr. Lesnie created in shooting the “Babe” films caught the eye of the director Peter Jackson, who chose him to film the fantasy epic.

Andrew Lesnie, Cinematographer of ‘Lord of the Rings,’ Dies at 59

Mr. Bartoszewski was given honorary Israeli citizenship for his work to save Jews during World War II and later surprised even himself by being instrumental in reconciling Poland and Germany.

Wladyslaw Bartoszewski, 93, Dies; Polish Auschwitz Survivor Aided Jews

The 2015 Met Gala has only officially begun, but there's a clear leader in the race for best couple, no small feat at an event that threatens to sap Hollywood of every celebrity it has for the duration of an East Coast evening.

That would be Marc Jacobs and his surprise guest (who, by some miracle, remained under wraps until their red carpet debut), Cher.

“This has been a dream of mine for a very, very long time,” Mr. Jacobs said.

It is Cher's first appearance at the Met Gala since 1997, when she arrived on the arm of Donatella Versace.

– MATTHEW SCHNEIER

Cher and Marc Jacobs

Ms. Plisetskaya, renowned for her fluidity of movement, expressive acting and willful personality, danced on the Bolshoi stage well into her 60s, but her life was shadowed by Stalinism.

Maya Plisetskaya, Ballerina Who Embodied Bolshoi, Dies at 89
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United’s first-class and business fliers get Rhapsody, its high-minded in-flight magazine, seen here at its office in Brooklyn. Credit Sam Hodgson for The New York Times

Last summer at a writers’ workshop in Oregon, the novelists Anthony Doerr, Karen Russell and Elissa Schappell were chatting over cocktails when they realized they had all published work in the same magazine. It wasn’t one of the usual literary outlets, like Tin House, The Paris Review or The New Yorker. It was Rhapsody, an in-flight magazine for United Airlines.

It seemed like a weird coincidence. Then again, considering Rhapsody’s growing roster of A-list fiction writers, maybe not. Since its first issue hit plane cabins a year and a half ago, Rhapsody has published original works by literary stars like Joyce Carol Oates, Rick Moody, Amy Bloom, Emma Straub and Mr. Doerr, who won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction two weeks ago.

As airlines try to distinguish their high-end service with luxuries like private sleeping chambers, showers, butler service and meals from five-star chefs, United Airlines is offering a loftier, more cerebral amenity to its first-class and business-class passengers: elegant prose by prominent novelists. There are no airport maps or disheartening lists of in-flight meal and entertainment options in Rhapsody. Instead, the magazine has published ruminative first-person travel accounts, cultural dispatches and probing essays about flight by more than 30 literary fiction writers.

 

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Sean Manning, executive editor of Rhapsody, which publishes works by the likes of Joyce Carol Oates, Amy Bloom and Anthony Doerr, who won a Pulitzer Prize. Credit Sam Hodgson for The New York Times

 

An airline might seem like an odd literary patron. But as publishers and writers look for new ways to reach readers in a shaky retail climate, many have formed corporate alliances with transit companies, including American Airlines, JetBlue and Amtrak, that provide a captive audience.

Mark Krolick, United Airlines’ managing director of marketing and product development, said the quality of the writing in Rhapsody brings a patina of sophistication to its first-class service, along with other opulent touches like mood lighting, soft music and a branded scent.

“The high-end leisure or business-class traveler has higher expectations, even in the entertainment we provide,” he said.

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Some of Rhapsody’s contributing writers say they were lured by the promise of free airfare and luxury accommodations provided by United, as well as exposure to an elite audience of some two million first-class and business-class travelers.

“It’s not your normal Park Slope Community Bookstore types who read Rhapsody,” Mr. Moody, author of the 1994 novel “The Ice Storm,” who wrote an introspective, philosophical piece about traveling to the Aran Islands of Ireland for Rhapsody, said in an email. “I’m not sure I myself am in that Rhapsody demographic, but I would like them to buy my books one day.”

In addition to offering travel perks, the magazine pays well and gives writers freedom, within reason, to choose their subject matter and write with style. Certain genres of flight stories are off limits, naturally: no plane crashes or woeful tales of lost luggage or rude flight attendants, and nothing too risqué.

“We’re not going to have someone write about joining the mile-high club,” said Jordan Heller, the editor in chief of Rhapsody. “Despite those restrictions, we’ve managed to come up with a lot of high-minded literary content.”

Guiding writers toward the right idea occasionally requires some gentle prodding. When Rhapsody’s executive editor asked Ms. Russell to contribute an essay about a memorable flight experience, she first pitched a story about the time she was chaperoning a group of teenagers on a trip to Europe, and their delayed plane sat at the airport in New York for several hours while other passengers got progressively drunker.

“He pointed out that disaster flights are not what people want to read about when they’re in transit, and very diplomatically suggested that maybe people want to read something that casts air travel in a more positive light,” said Ms. Russell, whose novel “Swamplandia!” was a finalist for the 2012 Pulitzer Prize.

She turned in a nostalgia-tinged essay about her first flight on a trip to Disney World when she was 6. “The Magic Kingdom was an anticlimax,” she wrote. “What ride could compare to that first flight?”

Ms. Oates also wrote about her first flight, in a tiny yellow propeller plane piloted by her father. The novelist Joyce Maynard told of the constant disappointment of never seeing her books in airport bookstores and the thrill of finally spotting a fellow plane passenger reading her novel “Labor Day.” Emily St. John Mandel, who was a finalist for the National Book Award in fiction last year, wrote about agonizing over which books to bring on a long flight.

“There’s nobody that’s looked down their noses at us as an in-flight magazine,” said Sean Manning, the magazine’s executive editor. “As big as these people are in the literary world, there’s still this untapped audience for them of luxury travelers.”

United is one of a handful of companies showcasing work by literary writers as a way to elevate their brands and engage customers. Chipotle has printed original work from writers like Toni Morrison, Jeffrey Eugenides and Barbara Kingsolver on its disposable cups and paper bags. The eyeglass company Warby Parker hosts parties for authors and sells books from 14 independent publishers in its stores.

JetBlue offers around 40 e-books from HarperCollins and Penguin Random House on its free wireless network, allowing passengers to read free samples and buy and download books. JetBlue will start offering 11 digital titles from Simon & Schuster soon. Amtrak recently forged an alliance with Penguin Random House to provide free digital samples from 28 popular titles, which passengers can buy and download over Amtrak’s admittedly spotty wireless service.

Amtrak is becoming an incubator for literary talent in its own right. Last year, it started a residency program, offering writers a free long-distance train trip and complimentary food. More than 16,000 writers applied and 24 made the cut.

Like Amtrak, Rhapsody has found that writers are eager to get onboard. On a rainy spring afternoon, Rhapsody’s editorial staff sat around a conference table discussing the June issue, which will feature an essay by the novelist Hannah Pittard and an unpublished short story by the late Elmore Leonard.

“Do you have that photo of Elmore Leonard? Can I see it?” Mr. Heller, the editor in chief, asked Rhapsody’s design director, Christos Hannides. Mr. Hannides slid it across the table and noted that they also had a photograph of cowboy spurs. “It’s very simple; it won’t take away from the literature,” he said.

Rhapsody’s office, an open space with exposed pipes and a vaulted brick ceiling, sits in Dumbo at the epicenter of literary Brooklyn, in the same converted tea warehouse as the literary journal N+1 and the digital publisher Atavist. Two of the magazine’s seven staff members hold graduate degrees in creative writing. Mr. Manning, the executive editor, has published a memoir and edited five literary anthologies.

Mr. Manning said Rhapsody was conceived from the start as a place for literary novelists to write with voice and style, and nobody had been put off that their work would live in plane cabins and airport lounges.

Still, some contributors say they wish the magazine were more widely circulated.

“I would love it if I could read it,” said Ms. Schappell, a Brooklyn-based novelist who wrote a feature story for Rhapsody’s inaugural issue. “But I never fly first class.”

Rhapsody, a Lofty Literary Journal, Perused at 39,000 Feet

WASHINGTON — The former deputy director of the C.I.A. asserts in a forthcoming book that Republicans, in their eagerness to politicize the killing of the American ambassador to Libya, repeatedly distorted the agency’s analysis of events. But he also argues that the C.I.A. should get out of the business of providing “talking points” for administration officials in national security events that quickly become partisan, as happened after the Benghazi attack in 2012.

The official, Michael J. Morell, dismisses the allegation that the United States military and C.I.A. officers “were ordered to stand down and not come to the rescue of their comrades,” and he says there is “no evidence” to support the charge that “there was a conspiracy between C.I.A. and the White House to spin the Benghazi story in a way that would protect the political interests of the president and Secretary Clinton,” referring to the secretary of state at the time, Hillary Rodham Clinton.

But he also concludes that the White House itself embellished some of the talking points provided by the Central Intelligence Agency and had blocked him from sending an internal study of agency conclusions to Congress.

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Michael J. Morell Credit Mark Wilson/Getty Images

“I finally did so without asking,” just before leaving government, he writes, and after the White House released internal emails to a committee investigating the State Department’s handling of the issue.

A lengthy congressional investigation remains underway, one that many Republicans hope to use against Mrs. Clinton in the 2016 election cycle.

In parts of the book, “The Great War of Our Time” (Twelve), Mr. Morell praises his C.I.A. colleagues for many successes in stopping terrorist attacks, but he is surprisingly critical of other C.I.A. failings — and those of the National Security Agency.

Soon after Mr. Morell retired in 2013 after 33 years in the agency, President Obama appointed him to a commission reviewing the actions of the National Security Agency after the disclosures of Edward J. Snowden, a former intelligence contractor who released classified documents about the government’s eavesdropping abilities. Mr. Morell writes that he was surprised by what he found.

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“You would have thought that of all the government entities on the planet, the one least vulnerable to such grand theft would have been the N.S.A.,” he writes. “But it turned out that the N.S.A. had left itself vulnerable.”

He concludes that most Wall Street firms had better cybersecurity than the N.S.A. had when Mr. Snowden swept information from its systems in 2013. While he said he found himself “chagrined by how well the N.S.A. was doing” compared with the C.I.A. in stepping up its collection of data on intelligence targets, he also sensed that the N.S.A., which specializes in electronic spying, was operating without considering the implications of its methods.

“The N.S.A. had largely been collecting information because it could, not necessarily in all cases because it should,” he says.

The book is to be released next week.

Mr. Morell was a career analyst who rose through the ranks of the agency, and he ended up in the No. 2 post. He served as President George W. Bush’s personal intelligence briefer in the first months of his presidency — in those days, he could often be spotted at the Starbucks in Waco, Tex., catching up on his reading — and was with him in the schoolhouse in Florida on the morning of Sept. 11, 2001, when the Bush presidency changed in an instant.

Mr. Morell twice took over as acting C.I.A. director, first when Leon E. Panetta was appointed secretary of defense and then when retired Gen. David H. Petraeus resigned over an extramarital affair with his biographer, a relationship that included his handing her classified notes of his time as America’s best-known military commander.

Mr. Morell says he first learned of the affair from Mr. Petraeus only the night before he resigned, and just as the Benghazi events were turning into a political firestorm. While praising Mr. Petraeus, who had told his deputy “I am very lucky” to run the C.I.A., Mr. Morell writes that “the organization did not feel the same way about him.” The former general “created the impression through the tone of his voice and his body language that he did not want people to disagree with him (which was not true in my own interaction with him),” he says.

But it is his account of the Benghazi attacks — and how the C.I.A. was drawn into the debate over whether the Obama White House deliberately distorted its account of the death of Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens — that is bound to attract attention, at least partly because of its relevance to the coming presidential election. The initial assessments that the C.I.A. gave to the White House said demonstrations had preceded the attack. By the time analysts reversed their opinion, Susan E. Rice, now the national security adviser, had made a series of statements on Sunday talk shows describing the initial assessment. The controversy and other comments Ms. Rice made derailed Mr. Obama’s plan to appoint her as secretary of state.

The experience prompted Mr. Morell to write that the C.I.A. should stay out of the business of preparing talking points — especially on issues that are being seized upon for “political purposes.” He is critical of the State Department for not beefing up security in Libya for its diplomats, as the C.I.A., he said, did for its employees.

But he concludes that the assault in which the ambassador was killed took place “with little or no advance planning” and “was not well organized.” He says the attackers “did not appear to be looking for Americans to harm. They appeared intent on looting and conducting some vandalism,” setting fires that killed Mr. Stevens and a security official, Sean Smith.

Mr. Morell paints a picture of an agency that was struggling, largely unsuccessfully, to understand dynamics in the Middle East and North Africa when the Arab Spring broke out in late 2011 in Tunisia. The agency’s analysts failed to see the forces of revolution coming — and then failed again, he writes, when they told Mr. Obama that the uprisings would undercut Al Qaeda by showing there was a democratic pathway to change.

“There is no good explanation for our not being able to see the pressures growing to dangerous levels across the region,” he writes. The agency had again relied too heavily “on a handful of strong leaders in the countries of concern to help us understand what was going on in the Arab street,” he says, and those leaders themselves were clueless.

Moreover, an agency that has always overvalued secretly gathered intelligence and undervalued “open source” material “was not doing enough to mine the wealth of information available through social media,” he writes. “We thought and told policy makers that this outburst of popular revolt would damage Al Qaeda by undermining the group’s narrative,” he writes.

Instead, weak governments in Egypt, and the absence of governance from Libya to Yemen, were “a boon to Islamic extremists across both the Middle East and North Africa.”

Mr. Morell is gentle about most of the politicians he dealt with — he expresses admiration for both Mr. Bush and Mr. Obama, though he accuses former Vice President Dick Cheney of deliberately implying a connection between Al Qaeda and Iraq that the C.I.A. had concluded probably did not exist. But when it comes to the events leading up to the Bush administration’s decision to go to war in Iraq, he is critical of his own agency.

Mr. Morell concludes that the Bush White House did not have to twist intelligence on Saddam Hussein’s alleged effort to rekindle the country’s work on weapons of mass destruction.

“The view that hard-liners in the Bush administration forced the intelligence community into its position on W.M.D. is just flat wrong,” he writes. “No one pushed. The analysts were already there and they had been there for years, long before Bush came to office.”

Ex-C.I.A. Official Rebuts Republican Claims on Benghazi Attack in ‘The Great War of Our Time’
Joseph Lechleider

Mr. Lechleider helped invent DSL technology, which enabled phone companies to offer high-speed web access over their infrastructure of copper wires.

Joseph Lechleider, a Father of the DSL Internet Technology, Dies at 82

As he reflected on the festering wounds deepened by race and grievance that have been on painful display in America’s cities lately, President Obama on Monday found himself thinking about a young man he had just met named Malachi.

A few minutes before, in a closed-door round-table discussion at Lehman College in the Bronx, Mr. Obama had asked a group of black and Hispanic students from disadvantaged backgrounds what could be done to help them reach their goals. Several talked about counseling and guidance programs.

“Malachi, he just talked about — we should talk about love,” Mr. Obama told a crowd afterward, drifting away from his prepared remarks. “Because Malachi and I shared the fact that our dad wasn’t around and that sometimes we wondered why he wasn’t around and what had happened. But really, that’s what this comes down to is: Do we love these kids?”

Many presidents have governed during times of racial tension, but Mr. Obama is the first to see in the mirror a face that looks like those on the other side of history’s ledger. While his first term was consumed with the economy, war and health care, his second keeps coming back to the societal divide that was not bridged by his election. A president who eschewed focusing on race now seems to have found his voice again as he thinks about how to use his remaining time in office and beyond.

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Obama Speaks of a ‘Sense of Unfairness’

Obama Speaks of a ‘Sense of Unfairness’

At an event announcing the creation of a nonprofit focusing on young minority men, President Obama talked about the underlying reasons for recent protests in Baltimore and other cities.

By Associated Press on Publish Date May 4, 2015. Photo by Stephen Crowley/The New York Times.

In the aftermath of racially charged unrest in places like Baltimore, Ferguson, Mo., and New York, Mr. Obama came to the Bronx on Monday for the announcement of a new nonprofit organization that is being spun off from his White House initiative called My Brother’s Keeper. Staked by more than $80 million in commitments from corporations and other donors, the new group, My Brother’s Keeper Alliance, will in effect provide the nucleus for Mr. Obama’s post-presidency, which will begin in January 2017.

“This will remain a mission for me and for Michelle not just for the rest of my presidency but for the rest of my life,” Mr. Obama said. “And the reason is simple,” he added. Referring to some of the youths he had just met, he said: “We see ourselves in these young men. I grew up without a dad. I grew up lost sometimes and adrift, not having a sense of a clear path. The only difference between me and a lot of other young men in this neighborhood and all across the country is that I grew up in an environment that was a little more forgiving.”

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Organizers said the new alliance already had financial pledges from companies like American Express, Deloitte, Discovery Communications and News Corporation. The money will be used to help companies address obstacles facing young black and Hispanic men, provide grants to programs for disadvantaged youths, and help communities aid their populations.

Joe Echevarria, a former chief executive of Deloitte, the accounting and consulting firm, will lead the alliance, and among those on its leadership team or advisory group are executives at PepsiCo, News Corporation, Sprint, BET and Prudential Group Insurance; former Secretary of State Colin L. Powell; Senator Cory Booker, Democrat of New Jersey; former Attorney General Eric H. Holder Jr.; the music star John Legend; the retired athletes Alonzo Mourning, Jerome Bettis and Shaquille O’Neal; and the mayors of Indianapolis, Sacramento and Philadelphia.

The alliance, while nominally independent of the White House, may face some of the same questions confronting former Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton as she begins another presidential campaign. Some of those donating to the alliance may have interests in government action, and skeptics may wonder whether they are trying to curry favor with the president by contributing.

“The Obama administration will have no role in deciding how donations are screened and what criteria they’ll set at the alliance for donor policies, because it’s an entirely separate entity,” Josh Earnest, the White House press secretary, told reporters on Air Force One en route to New York. But he added, “I’m confident that the members of the board are well aware of the president’s commitment to transparency.”

The alliance was in the works before the disturbances last week after the death of Freddie Gray, the black man who suffered fatal injuries while in police custody in Baltimore, but it reflected the evolution of Mr. Obama’s presidency. For him, in a way, it is coming back to issues that animated him as a young community organizer and politician. It was his own struggle with race and identity, captured in his youthful memoir, “Dreams From My Father,” that stood him apart from other presidential aspirants.

But that was a side of him that he kept largely to himself through the first years of his presidency while he focused on other priorities like turning the economy around, expanding government-subsidized health care and avoiding electoral land mines en route to re-election.

After securing a second term, Mr. Obama appeared more emboldened. Just a month after his 2013 inauguration, he talked passionately about opportunity and race with a group of teenage boys in Chicago, a moment aides point to as perhaps the first time he had spoken about these issues in such a personal, powerful way as president. A few months later, he publicly lamented the death of Trayvon Martin, a black Florida teenager, saying that “could have been me 35 years ago.”

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President Obama on Monday with Darinel Montero, a student at Bronx International High School who introduced him before remarks at Lehman College in the Bronx. Credit Stephen Crowley/The New York Times

That case, along with public ruptures of anger over police shootings in Ferguson and elsewhere, have pushed the issue of race and law enforcement onto the public agenda. Aides said they imagined that with his presidency in its final stages, Mr. Obama might be thinking more about what comes next and causes he can advance as a private citizen.

That is not to say that his public discussion of these issues has been universally welcomed. Some conservatives said he had made matters worse by seeming in their view to blame police officers in some of the disputed cases.

“President Obama, when he was elected, could have been a unifying leader,” Senator Ted Cruz of Texas, a Republican candidate for president, said at a forum last week. “He has made decisions that I think have inflamed racial tensions.”

On the other side of the ideological spectrum, some liberal African-American activists have complained that Mr. Obama has not done enough to help downtrodden communities. While he is speaking out more, these critics argue, he has hardly used the power of the presidency to make the sort of radical change they say is necessary.

The line Mr. Obama has tried to straddle has been a serrated one. He condemns police brutality as he defends most officers as honorable. He condemns “criminals and thugs” who looted in Baltimore while expressing empathy with those trapped in a cycle of poverty and hopelessness.

In the Bronx on Monday, Mr. Obama bemoaned the death of Brian Moore, a plainclothes New York police officer who had died earlier in the day after being shot in the head Saturday on a Queens street. Most police officers are “good and honest and fair and care deeply about their communities,” even as they put their lives on the line, Mr. Obama said.

“Which is why in addressing the issues in Baltimore or Ferguson or New York, the point I made was that if we’re just looking at policing, we’re looking at it too narrowly,” he added. “If we ask the police to simply contain and control problems that we ourselves have been unwilling to invest and solve, that’s not fair to the communities, it’s not fair to the police.”

Moreover, if society writes off some people, he said, “that’s not the kind of country I want to live in; that’s not what America is about.”

His message to young men like Malachi Hernandez, who attends Boston Latin Academy in Massachusetts, is not to give up.

“I want you to know you matter,” he said. “You matter to us.”

Obama Finds a Bolder Voice on Race Issues

Mr. Tepper was not a musical child and had no formal training, but he grew up to write both lyrics and tunes, trading off duties with the other member of the team, Roy C. Bennett.

Sid Tepper Dies at 96; Delivered ‘Red Roses for a Blue Lady’ and Other Songs

Under Mr. Michelin’s leadership, which ended when he left the company in 2002, the Michelin Group became the world’s biggest tire maker, establishing a big presence in the United States and other major markets overseas.

François Michelin, Head of Tire Company, Dies at 88

THE WRITERS ASHLEY AND JAQUAVIS COLEMAN know the value of a good curtain-raiser. The couple have co-authored dozens of novels, and they like to start them with a bang: a headlong action sequence, a blast of violence or sex that rocks readers back on their heels. But the Colemans concede they would be hard-pressed to dream up anything more gripping than their own real-life opening scene.

In the summer of 2001, JaQuavis Coleman was a 16-year-old foster child in Flint, Mich., the former auto-manufacturing mecca that had devolved, in the wake of General Motors’ plant closures, into one of the country’s most dangerous cities, with a decimated economy and a violent crime rate more than three times the national average. When JaQuavis was 8, social services had removed him from his mother’s home. He spent years bouncing between foster families. At 16, JaQuavis was also a businessman: a crack dealer with a network of street-corner peddlers in his employ.

One day that summer, JaQuavis met a fellow dealer in a parking lot on Flint’s west side. He was there to make a bulk sale of a quarter-brick, or “nine-piece” — a nine-ounce parcel of cocaine, with a street value of about $11,000. In the middle of the transaction, JaQuavis heard the telltale chirp of a walkie-talkie. His customer, he now realized, was an undercover policeman. JaQuavis jumped into his car and spun out onto the road, with two unmarked police cars in pursuit. He didn’t want to get into a high-speed chase, so he whipped his car into a church parking lot and made a run for it, darting into an alleyway behind a row of small houses, where he tossed the quarter-brick into some bushes. When JaQuavis reached the small residential street on the other side of the houses, he was greeted by the police, who handcuffed him and went to search behind the houses where, they told him, they were certain he had ditched the drugs. JaQuavis had been dealing since he was 12, had amassed more than $100,000 and had never been arrested. Now, he thought: It’s over.

But when the police looked in the bushes, they couldn’t find any cocaine. They interrogated JaQuavis, who denied having ever possessed or sold drugs. They combed the backyard alley some more. After an hour of fruitless efforts, the police were forced to unlock the handcuffs and release their suspect.

JaQuavis was baffled by the turn of events until the next day, when he received a phone call. The previous afternoon, a 15-year-old girl had been sitting in her home on the west side of Flint when she heard sirens. She looked out of the window of her bedroom, and watched a young man throw a package in the bushes behind her house. She recognized him. He was a high school classmate — a handsome, charismatic boy whom she had admired from afar. The girl crept outside and grabbed the bundle, which she hid in her basement. “I have something that belongs to you,” Ashley Snell told JaQuavis Coleman when she reached him by phone. “You wanna come over here and pick it up?”

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Three of the nearly 50 works of urban fiction published by the Colemans over the last decade, often featuring drug deals, violence, sex and a brash kind of feminism.Credit Marko Metzinger

In the Colemans’ first novel, “Dirty Money” (2005), they told a version of this story. The outline was the same: the drug deal gone bad, the dope chucked in the bushes, the fateful phone call. To the extent that the authors took poetic license, it was to tone down the meet-cute improbability of the true-life events. In “Dirty Money,” the girl, Anari, and the crack dealer, Maurice, circle each other warily for a year or so before coupling up. But the facts of Ashley and JaQuavis’s romance outstripped pulp fiction. They fell in love more or less at first sight, moved into their own apartment while still in high school and were married in 2008. “We were together from the day we met,” Ashley says. “I don’t think we’ve spent more than a week apart in total over the past 14 years.”

That partnership turned out to be creative and entrepreneurial as well as romantic. Over the past decade, the Colemans have published nearly 50 books, sometimes as solo writers, sometimes under pseudonyms, but usually as collaborators with a byline that has become a trusted brand: “Ashley & JaQuavis.” They are marquee stars of urban fiction, or street lit, a genre whose inner-city settings and lurid mix of crime, sex and sensationalism have earned it comparisons to gangsta rap. The emergence of street lit is one of the big stories in recent American publishing, a juggernaut that has generated huge sales by catering to a readership — young, black and, for the most part, female — that historically has been ill-served by the book business. But the genre is also widely maligned. Street lit is subject to a kind of triple snobbery: scorned by literati who look down on genre fiction generally, ignored by a white publishing establishment that remains largely indifferent to black books and disparaged by African-American intellectuals for poor writing, coarse values and trafficking in racial stereotypes.

But if a certain kind of cultural prestige is shut off to the Colemans, they have reaped other rewards. They’ve built a large and loyal fan base, which gobbles up the new Ashley & JaQuavis titles that arrive every few months. Many of those books are sold at street-corner stands and other off-the-grid venues in African-American neighborhoods, a literary gray market that doesn’t register a blip on best-seller tallies. Yet the Colemans’ most popular series now regularly crack the trade fiction best-seller lists of The New York Times and Publishers Weekly. For years, the pair had no literary agent; they sold hundreds of thousands of books without banking a penny in royalties. Still, they have earned millions of dollars, almost exclusively from cash-for-manuscript deals negotiated directly with independent publishing houses. In short, though little known outside of the world of urban fiction, the Colemans are one of America’s most successful literary couples, a distinction they’ve achieved, they insist, because of their work’s gritty authenticity and their devotion to a primal literary virtue: the power of the ripping yarn.

“When you read our books, you’re gonna realize: ‘Ashley & JaQuavis are storytellers,’ ” says Ashley. “Our tales will get your heart pounding.”

THE COLEMANS’ HOME BASE — the cottage from which they operate their cottage industry — is a spacious four-bedroom house in a genteel suburb about 35 miles north of downtown Detroit. The house is plush, but when I visited this past winter, it was sparsely appointed. The couple had just recently moved in, and had only had time to fully furnish the bedroom of their 4-year-old son, Quaye.

In conversation, Ashley and JaQuavis exude both modesty and bravado: gratitude for their good fortune and bootstrappers’ pride in having made their own luck. They talk a lot about their time in the trenches, the years they spent as a drug dealer and “ride-or-die girl” tandem. In Flint they learned to “grind hard.” Writing, they say, is merely a more elevated kind of grind.

“Instead of hitting the block like we used to, we hit the laptops,” says Ashley. “I know what every word is worth. So while I’m writing, I’m like: ‘Okay, there’s a hundred dollars. There’s a thousand dollars. There’s five thousand dollars.’ ”

They maintain a rigorous regimen. They each try to write 5,000 words per day, five days a week. The writers stagger their shifts: JaQuavis goes to bed at 7 p.m. and wakes up early, around 3 or 4 in the morning, to work while his wife and child sleep. Ashley writes during the day, often in libraries or at Starbucks.

They divide the labor in other ways. Chapters are divvied up more or less equally, with tasks assigned according to individual strengths. (JaQuavis typically handles character development. Ashley loves writing murder scenes.) The results are stitched together, with no editorial interference from one author in the other’s text. The real work, they contend, is the brainstorming. The Colemans spend weeks mapping out their plot-driven books — long conversations that turn into elaborate diagrams on dry-erase boards. “JaQuavis and I are so close, it makes the process real easy,” says Ashley. “Sometimes when I’m thinking of something, a plot point, he’ll say it out loud, and I’m like: ‘Wait — did I say that?’ ”

Their collaboration developed by accident, and on the fly. Both were bookish teenagers. Ashley read lots of Judy Blume and John Grisham; JaQuavis liked Shakespeare, Richard Wright and “Atlas Shrugged.” (Their first official date was at a Borders bookstore, where Ashley bought “The Coldest Winter Ever,” the Sister Souljah novel often credited with kick-starting the contemporary street-lit movement.) In 2003, Ashley, then 17, was forced to terminate an ectopic pregnancy. She was bedridden for three weeks, and to provide distraction and boost her spirits, JaQuavis challenged his girlfriend to a writing contest. “She just wasn’t talking. She was laying in bed. I said, ‘You know what? I bet you I could write a better book than you.’ My wife is real competitive. So I said, ‘Yo, all right, $500 bet.’ And I saw her eyes spark, like, ‘What?! You can’t write no better book than me!’ So I wrote about three chapters. She wrote about three chapters. Two days later, we switched.”

The result, hammered out in a few days, would become “Dirty Money.” Two years later, when Ashley and JaQuavis were students at Ferris State University in Western Michigan, they sold the manuscript to Urban Books, a street-lit imprint founded by the best-selling author Carl Weber. At the time, JaQuavis was still making his living selling drugs. When Ashley got the phone call informing her that their book had been bought, she assumed they’d hit it big, and flushed more than $10,000 worth of cocaine down the toilet. Their advance was a mere $4,000.

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The roots of street lit, found in the midcentury detective novels of Chester Himes and the ‘60s and ‘70s “ghetto fiction” of Iceberg Slim and Donald Goines.Credit Marko Metzinger

Those advances would soon increase, eventually reaching five and six figures. The Colemans built their career, JaQuavis says, in a manner that made sense to him as a veteran dope peddler: by flooding the street with product. From the start, they were prolific, churning out books at a rate of four or five a year. Their novels made their way into stores; the now-defunct chain Waldenbooks, which had stores in urban areas typically bypassed by booksellers, was a major engine of the street-lit market. But Ashley and JaQuavis took advantage of distribution channels established by pioneering urban fiction authors such as Teri Woods and Vickie Stringer, and a network of street-corner tables, magazine stands, corner shops and bodegas. Like rappers who establish their bona fides with gray-market mixtapes, street-lit authors use this system to circumnavigate industry gatekeepers, bringing their work straight to the genre’s core readership. But urban fiction has other aficionados, in less likely places. “Our books are so popular in the prison system,” JaQuavis says. “We’re banned in certain penitentiaries. Inmates fight over the books — there are incidents, you know? I have loved ones in jail, and they’re like: ‘Yo, your books can’t come in here. It’s against the rules.’ ”

The appeal of the Colemans’ work is not hard to fathom. The books are formulaic and taut; they deliver the expected goods efficiently and exuberantly. The titles telegraph the contents: “Diary of a Street Diva,” “Kiss Kiss, Bang Bang,” “Murderville.” The novels serve up a stream of explicit sex and violence in a slangy, tangy, profane voice. In Ashley & JaQuavis’s books people don’t get killed: they get “popped,” “laid out,” get their “cap twisted back.” The smut is constant, with emphasis on the earthy, sticky, olfactory particulars. Romance novel clichés — shuddering orgasms, heroic carnal feats, superlative sexual skill sets — are rendered in the Colemans’ punchy patois.

Subtlety, in other words, isn’t Ashley & JaQuavis’s forte. But their books do have a grainy specificity. In “The Cartel” (2008), the first novel in the Colemans’ best-selling saga of a Miami drug syndicate, they catch the sights and smells of a crack workshop in a housing project: the nostril-stinging scent of cocaine and baking soda bubbling on stovetops; the teams of women, stripped naked except for hospital masks so they can’t pilfer the merchandise, “cutting up the cooked coke on the round wood table.” The subject matter is dark, but the Colemans’ tone is not quite noir. Even in the grimmest scenes, the mood is high-spirited, with the writers palpably relishing the lewd and gory details: the bodies writhing in boudoirs and crumpling under volleys of bullets, the geysers of blood and other bodily fluids.

The luridness of street lit has made it a flashpoint, inciting controversy reminiscent of the hip-hop culture wars of the 1980s and ’90s. But the street-lit debate touches deeper historical roots, reviving decades-old arguments in black literary circles about the mandate to uplift the race and present wholesome images of African-Americans. In 1928, W. E. B. Du Bois slammed the “licentiousness” of “Home to Harlem,” Claude McKay’s rollicking novel of Harlem nightlife. McKay’s book, Du Bois wrote, “for the most part nauseates me, and after the dirtier parts of its filth I feel distinctly like taking a bath.” Similar sentiments have greeted 21st-century street lit. In a 2006 New York Times Op-Ed essay, the journalist and author Nick Chiles decried “the sexualization and degradation of black fiction.” African-American bookstores, Chiles complained, are “overrun with novels that . . . appeal exclusively to our most prurient natures — as if these nasty books were pairing off back in the stockrooms like little paperback rabbits and churning out even more graphic offspring that make Ralph Ellison books cringe into a dusty corner.”

Copulating paperbacks aside, it’s clear that the street-lit debate is about more than literature, touching on questions of paternalism versus populism, and on middle-class anxieties about the black underclass. “It’s part and parcel of black elites’ efforts to define not only a literary tradition, but a racial politics,” said Kinohi Nishikawa, an assistant professor of English and African-American Studies at Princeton University. “There has always been a sense that because African-Americans’ opportunities to represent themselves are so limited in the first place, any hint of criminality or salaciousness would necessarily be a knock on the entire racial politics. One of the pressing debates about African-American literature today is: If we can’t include writers like Ashley & JaQuavis, to what extent is the foundation of our thinking about black literature faulty? Is it just a literature for elites? Or can it be inclusive, bringing urban fiction under the purview of our umbrella term ‘African-American literature’?”

Defenders of street lit note that the genre has a pedigree: a tradition of black pulp fiction that stretches from Chester Himes, the midcentury author of hardboiled Harlem detective stories, to the 1960s and ’70s “ghetto fiction” of Iceberg Slim and Donald Goines, to the current wave of urban fiction authors. Others argue for street lit as a social good, noting that it attracts a large audience that might otherwise never read at all. Scholars like Nishikawa link street lit to recent studies showing increased reading among African-Americans. A 2014 Pew Research Center report found that a greater percentage of black Americans are book readers than whites or Latinos.

For their part, the Colemans place their work in the broader black literary tradition. “You have Maya Angelou, Alice Walker, James Baldwin — all of these traditional black writers, who wrote about the struggles of racism, injustice, inequality,” says Ashley. “We’re writing about the struggle as it happens now. It’s just a different struggle. I’m telling my story. I’m telling the struggle of a black girl from Flint, Michigan, who grew up on welfare.”

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The Colemans in their new four-bedroom house in the northern suburbs of Detroit.Credit Courtesy of Ashley and JaQuavis Coleman

Perhaps there is a high-minded case to be made for street lit. But the virtues of Ashley & JaQuavis’s work are more basic. Their novels do lack literary polish. The writing is not graceful; there are passages of clunky exposition and sex scenes that induce guffaws and eye rolls. But the pleasure quotient is high. The books flaunt a garish brand of feminism, with women characters cast not just as vixens, but also as gangsters — cold-blooded killers, “murder mamas.” The stories are exceptionally well-plotted. “The Cartel” opens by introducing its hero, the crime boss Carter Diamond; on page 9, a gunshot spatters Diamond’s brain across the interior of a police cruiser. The book then flashes back seven years and begins to hurtle forward again — a bullet train, whizzing readers through shifting alliances, romantic entanglements and betrayals, kidnappings, shootouts with Haitian and Dominican gangsters, and a cliffhanger closing scene that leaves the novel’s heroine tied to a chair in a basement, gruesomely tortured to the edge of death. Ashley & JaQuavis’s books are not Ralph Ellison, certainly, but they build up quite a head of steam. They move.

The Colemans are moving themselves these days. They recently signed a deal with St. Martin’s Press, which will bring out the next installment in the “Cartel” series as well as new solo series by both writers. The St. Martin’s deal is both lucrative and legitimizing — a validation of Ashley and JaQuavis’s work by one of publishing’s most venerable houses. The Colemans’ ambitions have grown, as well. A recent trilogy, “Murderville,” tackles human trafficking and the blood-diamond industry in West Africa, with storylines that sweep from Sierra Leone to Mexico to Los Angeles. Increasingly, Ashley & JaQuavis are leaning on research — traveling to far-flung settings and hitting the books in the libraries — and spending less time mining their own rough-and-tumble past.

But Flint remains a source of inspiration. One evening not long ago, JaQuavis led me on a tour of his hometown: a popular roadside bar; the parking lot where he met the undercover cop for the ill-fated drug deal; Ashley’s old house, the site of his almost-arrest. He took me to a ramshackle vehicle repair shop on Flint’s west side, where he worked as a kid, washing cars. He showed me a bathroom at the rear of the garage, where, at age 12, he sneaked away to inspect the first “boulder” of crack that he ever sold. A spray-painted sign on the garage wall, which JaQuavis remembered from his time at the car wash, offered words of warning:

WHAT EVERY YOUNG MAN SHOULD KNOW
ABOUT USING A GUN:
MURDER . . . 30 Years
ARMED ROBBERY . . . 15 Years
ASSAULT . . . 15 Years
RAPE . . . 20 Years
POSSESSION . . . 5 Years
JACKING . . . 20 YEARS

“We still love Flint, Michigan,” JaQuavis says. “It’s so seedy, so treacherous. But there’s some heart in this city. This is where it all started, selling books out the box. In the days when we would get those little $40,000 advances, they’d send us a couple boxes of books for free. We would hit the streets to sell our books, right out of the car trunk. It was a hustle. It still is.”

One old neighborhood asset that the Colemans have not shaken off is swagger. “My wife is the best female writer in the game,” JaQuavis told me. “I believe I’m the best male writer in the game. I’m sleeping next to the best writer in the world. And she’s doing the same.”

 
From T Magazine: Street Lit’s Power Couple
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