PAKET UMROH BULAN FEBRUARI MARET APRIL MEI 2017

TRAVEL UMROH RESMI KEMENAG RI

Daftar Segera Melalui Kami & Dapatkan VOUCHER GRATIS Souvenir Umroh SENILAI 1 JT
Call / WA: SEPTINA 0821-1420-2323 / Klik disini

 
Lihat Biaya Umroh 2018 Lihat Paket Umroh Desember 2017




Artikel lainnya »

Kali ini admin akan membagikan artikel mengenai Contoh Karya Ilmiah/Makalah tentang Efek Rumah Kaca. Semoga artikel ini, dapat di gunakan dengan sebaik-baiknya. Dan semoga artikel ini dapat membantu mengerjakan Tugas Sekolah atau Kuliah teman-teman semuanya.
 
 
BAB I
PENDAHULUAN
 
 
A.    Latar Belakang
       Sejak jaman purbakala sampai sekarang,manusia mengalami perubahan yang sangat pesat seiring berjalannya waktu,ilmu pengetahuan juga ikut berkembang.Manusia sebagai mahluk ciptaan Allah yang sangat sempurna mempunyai tugas untuk menjaga dan tetap melestarikan alam agar tidak punah.
        Keadaan permukaan bumi saat ini mengalami peningkatan suhu yang tidak seperti biasanya yang terjadi selama 100 tahun terakhir ini,salah satu penyebabnya adalah rumah kaca yang biasanya di gunakan untuk mengembangkan bunga,buah dan lain sebagainya,rumah kaca ini melindungi tanaman dari panas dan dingin secara berlebih sehingga banyak industri - industri menggunakan metode ini untuk meningkatkan penghasilannya.Tanpa mereka pikirkan seberapa besar dampak yang ditimbulkan dari perbuatannya itu.
       Pemanasan global atau lebih sering disebut Global Warming tengah jadi buah bibir masyarakat saat ini khususnya di Indonesia dikarenakan di Indonesia juga mengalami perubahan iklim yang tidak menentu akibat dari pemanasan global tersebut.Banyak  dampak yang akan ditimbulkan oleh terjadinya pemanasan global.
 
       Oleh karena itu dalam karya ilmiah ini akan dibahas lebih lanjut tentang adakah efek yang di berikan oleh rumah kaca terhadap pemanasan global ? Apakah dampak yang ditimbulkan dari terjadinya pemanasan global ? Hasil- hasil penelitian yang dilakukan para ilmuwan tentang efek rumah kaca terhadap pemanasan global? Dan upaya apa yang sebaiknya dilakukan untuk mengurangi terjadinya pemanasan global ini.Dengan mencari Informasi dan data-data yang dapat dipercaya melalui media seperti buku dan inernet.
                                                                                        
B.Rumusan Masalah
 
        Adapun rumasan masalah dalam penelitian ini yaitu :
1.      Adakah efek dari rumah kaca terhadap pemanasan global ?
2.      Apa penyebab rumah kaca dapat mengakibatkan pemanasan global?
3.      Upaya apa yang dapat di lakukan untuk mengurangi terjadinya pemanasan global di Bumi ?
 
C. Tujuan Penelitian
       Tujuan penelitian yang dilakukan yaitu mencakup :
1.        Untuk mengetahui apakah ada efek dari rumah kaca terhadap pemanasan global.
2.        Untuk mengetahui penyebab dari efek rumah kaca sehingga mengakibatkan pamanasan global.
3.        Untuk mengetahui upaya apa yang dapat di lakukan untuk mengurangi terjadinya pemasan global di Bumi.
 
D. Manfaat Penelitian
 
1.        Bagi penulis,penelitian ini dapat memberikan pemahaman yang lebih luas mengenai semua yang berhubungan dengan efek rumah kaca terhadap pemanasan global.
2.        Bagi Pembaca,penelitian ini dapat memberikan pengetahuan mengenai efek rumah kaca terhadap pemananasan global.
3.         Bagi Para Ilmuwan yang meneliti,Penelitian ini dapat memberikan tambahan data-data atau pernyataan-pernyataan mengenai efek rumah kaca terhadap pemanasan global.
 
 
BAB II
LANDASAN TEORI
 
A. Pengertian-pengertian
     1. Efek Rumah Kaca
       Efek rumah kaca adalah proses penghangatan bumi karena adanya penyerapan sinar infra merah.Tanpa adanya efek ini suhu bumi akan turun sekitar 30° C.Sinar yang datang ke bumi sebanya 30 % dipantulkan dan sisanya digunakan untuk menghangatkan daratan,lautan dan atmosfer.efek rumah kaca terjadi karena bumi relatif transparan terhadap sinar tampak,namun sangat menyerap sinar infra merah sehingga bumi akan menghangat karena adanya penyerapan energi tersebut. Efek rumah kaca juga merupakan efek alamiah untuk menjaga temperature  permukaan Bumi pada suhu normal sekitar 30°C,atau kalau tidak ada ,maka tentu saja tidak akan ada kehidupan dimuka Bumi ini.
        
2.Pemanasan Global
        Pemanasan global yaitu bertambah panasnya atmosfer Bumi serta samudra selama beberapa dekade terakhir.Menurut penelitian suhu bumidi ketahui meningkat 0,6 kurang lebih 0,2 °C selama 20 Abad terakhir.
(Nur Farida 2009 :53) Mengatakan, bahwa pemanasan global yaitu disebut juga global warming ,istilah tersebut digunakan untuk menggambarkan fenomena peningkatan suhu rata – rata atmosfer Bumi.Peningkatan suhu Bumi ini dianggap akan secara permanen mengubah iklim Bumi selamanya.
 
B. Dampak dari terjadinya Pemanasan Global
 
 
Editor by : OSHIMURA

- See more at: http://pbsstainmetro.blogspot.com/2014/02/contoh-karya-ilmiah-tentang-bahaya-efek.html#sthash.8nHxf7N3.dpuf

CONTOH KARYA ILMIAH TENTANG EFEK RUMAH KACA

Saco-Indonesia.com Ukuran alat kelamin tak dimungkiri masih menjadi salah satu parameter penting dalam seksualitas pria. Hal itu pula yang membuat sebagian kaum Adam merasa "tak puas" selalu berupaya mencari cara untuk memperbaiki ukuran kelaminnya.

Meski demikian, minimnya pengetahuan tentang kesehatan reproduksi menyebabkan banyak pria terjebak pada prosedur pembesaran yang sembarangan terhadap alat kelamin. Tak semua prosedur pembesaran dapat memberikan hasil yang diharapkan, terutama pelayanan sembarangan yang tidak berdasarkan pada ilmu kedokteran. Alih-alih mendapat ukuran sesuai keinginan, layanan ini justru akan menyebabkan kerusakan permanen pada alat vital.

Spesialis urologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia (FKUI) Rumah Sakit dr Cipto Mangunkusumo (FKUI/RSCM) dr Nur Rasyid mengingatkan, kaum pria sebaiknya tidak mencari upaya untuk membesarkan alat kelaminnya. Pasalnya, alat kelamin pria dewasa sebenarnya sudah mencapai ukuran yang maksimal sehingga tidak mungkin dapat diperbesar lagi.

Kecuali pada anak dalam usia prepubertal atau sebelum memasuki usia puber, alat kelamin pria masih dapat bertumbuh sehingga masih dapat dilakukan upaya pembesaran.

"Umumnya pria setelah berusia 21 tahun, organ vitalnya sudah mengalami pematangan sempurna," ujar Nur dalam seminar media bertajuk "Disfungsi Ereksi (DE): Mengapa Pria Enggan Membicarakan serta Mengonsultasikannya ke Dokter?" di Jakarta, Rabu (22/5/2013).

Hanya saja, ukuran organ vital pria dapat bertambah besar saat mengalami ereksi. Nur mengatakan, hal ini terjadi karena peningkatan suplai darah di pembuluh darah penis. Volume darah pada penis saat ereksi dapat mencapai empat kali volume darah saat penis tidak ereksi.

"Maka, jika ereksinya lancar, ukuran penis seharusnya tidak menjadi masalah karena akan membesar sendiri," kata Nur.

Sayangnya, imbuh Nur, tidak semua pria mengetahui ukuran penis yang normal. Masih banyak yang merasa ukuran yang dimilikinya kecil, padahal sebenarnya normal.

Kata Nur, ukuran penis rata-rata orang Indonesia yang dianggap cukup untuk memenuhi fungsi organ seksual mencapai 9 sentimeter saat ereksi. Maka dari itulah, pentingnya artinya kaum pria untuk mendapatkan informasi tentang kesehatan reproduksi yang tepat.

Berbahaya

Nur mengingatkan masyarakat akan bahaya prosedur pembesaran alat kelamin yang masih banyak ditemukan.  Upaya pembesaran penis yang berbahaya di antaranya adalah dengan melakukan penyuntikan penambahan volume di bawah kulit penis. Penambahan volume dapat dilakukan dengan menyuntikkan silikon, bahkan hingga minyak tradisional.

Nur mengatakan, pengisian volume dengan bahan berbahaya mungkin terlihat baik pada awalnya. Namun, efeknya tidak akan lama. Paling lama sekitar enam sampai dua belas bulan. Setelahnya, bentuk dan kulit penis bisa mengalami kerusakan.

"Mungkin mirip dengan penyuntikan silikon di dada atau wajah. Jika sembarangan, tentu akan buruk hasilnya. Melakukannya pada organ vital akan berakibat kerusakan fungsi dari alat vital," paparnya.

 

Editor :Liwon Maulana
Sumber:http://health.kompas.com/read/2013/05/23/11365825/Hati- hati.dengan.Layanan.Pembesar.Alat.Kelamin
Hati-hati Pada Layanan Pembesar Alat Kelamin

50 website gratis untuk daerah bekasi.

Dapatkan website gratis hanya bagi warga yang berdomisili di wilayah bekasi dan sekitarnya. website ini sangatlah bagus dan menarik.

Kesempatan ini sangatlah terbatas, siapa yang cepat pastinya dia yang akan dapat. maka jangan tunda tunda lagi kesempatan menarik ini.

Website gratis ini kami berikan dengan cuma cuma dan tanpa biaya,,, namanya juga gratis tis tis.....he he .

Bagi yang berminat silahkan kirim email ke gratis@morosakato.com
 

Dimana website gratis ini bisa di dapatkan silahkan kunjungi www.morosakato.com

MAU WEBSITE GRATIS

Besi beton yang telah mempunyai kualitas terbaik terdapat beberapa ciri didalamnya. Kita dapat mengidentifikasi besi beton yang imitasi atau yang asli dan aman. Banyak cara untuk dapat menentukannya. Jika anda mau belajar dan terus belajar, banyak bertanya, sering membaca artikel tentang bangunan ataupun sering bergabung dalam forum-forum kontraktor maka ini sering juga menjadi topic bahasan yang menarik. Ada beberapa tips dalam memilih besi beton yang berkualitas. Pertama adalah, cek pada bentuknya, apakah bentuknya tidak rapi atau rapi. Besi beton yang baik akan tercetak dengan baik semasa dia berada dipabrik. Kedua, pilih yang tidak mengandung banyak karbon, atau jika anda pegang tidak terlalu hitam tangan anda. Dan yang ketiga adalah belilah besi beton pada perusahaan yang sudah jelas dan berpengalaman. Ini juga merupakan hal yang sangat penting, karena perusahaan yang sudah mempunyai reputasi baik, tidak mungkin menjual barang-barang yang tidak layak pakai.

BESI BETON KUALITAS TERBAIK

Saco-Indonesia.com - Selama berada di Indonesia, Miss Universe 2013 Gabriela Isler mengaku tertarik dengan berbagai makanan dan minuman khas negeri ini. Kepada Menteri Pariwisata dan Ekonomi Kreatif Mari Elka Pangestu ia sempat bertanya mengenai makanan penutup yang khas dari Indonesia dan direkomendasikan mencoba cendol.

"Indonesia punya banyak makanan penutup yang sangat enak dan manis. Salah satunya itu cendol. Kamu harus mencoba cendol nanti ya," kata Mari Elka dalam sebuah kesempatan kepada Molly, sapaan akrab Gabriela.

Perempuan asli Venezuela ini benar-benar dibuat penasaran dengan deskripsi Mari tentang cendol. Menurut keterangan yang diberikan Putri Kuswisnu Wardhani, Ketua Yayasan Puteri Indonesia kepada Kompas Female, Molly akhirnya mencoba minuman dengan bahan dasar  tepung beras berwarna hijau dengan tambahan gula merah ini.

"Iya saya sudah mencoba cendol dan itu rasanya enak sekali. Saya juga suka bakpia cokelat," ungkap Molly saat melakukan kunjungan ke kantor Mustika Ratu, Rabu (5/2/2014) lalu. Selain mencoba cendol, ia juga sudah menyantap aneka buah-buahan seperti rambutan, salak, dan juga buah naga.

Molly memang mengaku bahwa ia sangat menyukai aneka makanan pencuci mulut, buah-buahan dan makanan manis lainnya. Hanya saja ia tidak suka menyantap makanan yang pedas-pedas.

Putri menambahkan bahwa Molly juga menyukai hidangan Nasi Bali yang gurih. "Pada dasarnya dia suka semua makanan tradisional Indonesia, asalkan enggak pedas. Dia orangnya tidak pilih-pilih makanan," puji Putri.

Sumber :kompas.com

Editor : Maulana Lee

Wauuu, Miss Universe 2013 Menyukai Minuman Cendol

Under Mr. Michelin’s leadership, which ended when he left the company in 2002, the Michelin Group became the world’s biggest tire maker, establishing a big presence in the United States and other major markets overseas.

François Michelin, Head of Tire Company, Dies at 88

Mr. Pfaff was an international affairs columnist and author who found Washington’s intervention in world affairs often misguided.

William Pfaff, Critic of American Foreign Policy, Dies at 86

Ms. Turner and her twin sister founded the Love Kitchen in 1986 in a church basement in Knoxville, Tenn., and it continues to provide clothing and meals.

Ellen Turner Dies at 87; Opened Kitchen to Feed the Needy of Knoxville

Pronovost, who played for the Red Wings, was not a prolific scorer, but he was a consummate team player with bruising checks and fearless bursts up the ice that could puncture a defense.

Marcel Pronovost, 84, Dies; Hall of Famer Shared in Five N.H.L. Titles
Photo
 
Many bodies prepared for cremation last week in Kathmandu were of young men from Gongabu, a common stopover for Nepali migrant workers headed overseas. Credit Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

KATHMANDU, Nepal — When the dense pillar of smoke from cremations by the Bagmati River was thinning late last week, the bodies were all coming from Gongabu, a common stopover for Nepali migrant workers headed overseas, and they were all of young men.

Hindu custom dictates that funeral pyres should be lighted by the oldest son of the deceased, but these men were too young to have sons, so they were burned by their brothers or fathers. Sukla Lal, a maize farmer, made a 14-hour journey by bus to retrieve the body of his 19-year-old son, who had been on his way to the Persian Gulf to work as a laborer.

“He wanted to live in the countryside, but he was compelled to leave by poverty,” Mr. Lal said, gazing ahead steadily as his son’s remains smoldered. “He told me, ‘You can live on your land, and I will come up with money, and we will have a happy family.’ ”

Weeks will pass before the authorities can give a complete accounting of who died in the April 25 earthquake, but it is already clear that Nepal cannot afford the losses. The countryside was largely stripped of its healthy young men even before the quake, as they migrated in great waves — 1,500 a day by some estimates — to work as laborers in India, Malaysia or one of the gulf nations, leaving many small communities populated only by elderly parents, women and children. Economists say that at some times of the year, one-quarter of Nepal’s population is working outside the country.

Nepal’s Young Men, Lost to Migration, Then a Quake

BEIJING (AP) — The head of Taiwan's Nationalists reaffirmed the party's support for eventual unification with the mainland when he met Monday with Chinese President Xi Jinping as part of continuing rapprochement between the former bitter enemies.

Nationalist Party Chairman Eric Chu, a likely presidential candidate next year, also affirmed Taiwan's desire to join the proposed Chinese-led Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank during the meeting in Beijing. China claims Taiwan as its own territory and doesn't want the island to join using a name that might imply it is an independent country.

Chu's comments during his meeting with Xi were carried live on Hong Kong-based broadcaster Phoenix Television.

The Nationalists were driven to Taiwan by Mao Zedong's Communists during the Chinese civil war in 1949, leading to decades of hostility between the sides. Chu, who took over as party leader in January, is the third Nationalist chairman to visit the mainland and the first since 2009.

Relations between the communist-ruled mainland and the self-governing democratic island of Taiwan began to warm in the 1990s, partly out of their common opposition to Taiwan's formal independence from China, a position advocated by the island's Democratic Progressive Party.

Despite increasingly close economic ties, the prospect of political unification has grown increasingly unpopular on Taiwan, especially with younger voters. Opposition to the Nationalists' pro-China policies was seen as a driver behind heavy local electoral defeats for the party last year that led to Taiwanese President Ma Ying-jeou resigning as party chairman.

Taiwan party leader affirms eventual reunion with China

Mr. Haroche was a founder of Liberty Travel, which grew from a two-man operation to the largest leisure travel operation in the United States.

Gilbert Haroche, Builder of an Economy Travel Empire, Dies at 87

Public perceptions of race relations in America have grown substantially more negative in the aftermath of the death of a young black man who was injured while in police custody in Baltimore and the subsequent unrest, far eclipsing the sentiment recorded in the wake of turmoil in Ferguson, Mo., last summer.

Americans are also increasingly likely to say that the police are more apt to use deadly force against a black person, the latest New York Times/CBS News poll finds.

The poll findings highlight the challenges for local leaders and police officials in trying to maintain order while sustaining faith in the criminal justice system in a racially polarized nation.

Sixty-one percent of Americans now say race relations in this country are generally bad. That figure is up sharply from 44 percent after the fatal police shooting of Michael Brown and the unrest that followed in Ferguson in August, and 43 percent in December. In a CBS News poll just two months ago, 38 percent said race relations were generally bad. Current views are by far the worst of Barack Obama’s presidency.

The negative sentiment is echoed by broad majorities of blacks and whites alike, a stark change from earlier this year, when 58 percent of blacks thought race relations were bad, but just 35 percent of whites agreed. In August, 48 percent of blacks and 41 percent of whites said they felt that way.

Looking ahead, 44 percent of Americans think race relations are worsening, up from 36 percent in December. Forty-one percent of blacks and 46 percent of whites think so. Pessimism among whites has increased 10 points since December.

Continue reading the main story
Do you think race relations in the United States are generally good or generally bad?
60
40
20
0
White
Black
May '14
May '15
Generally bad
Continue reading the main story
Do you think race relations in the United States are getting better, getting worse or staying about the same?
Getting worse
Staying the same
Getting better
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
44%
37
17
46
36
16
41
42
15

The poll finds that profound racial divisions in views of how the police use deadly force remain. Blacks are more than twice as likely to say police in most communities are more apt to use deadly force against a black person — 79 percent of blacks say so compared with 37 percent of whites. A slim majority of whites say race is not a factor in a police officer’s decision to use deadly force.

Overall, 44 percent of Americans say deadly force is more likely to be used against a black person, up from 37 percent in August and 40 percent in December.

Blacks also remain far more likely than whites to say they feel mostly anxious about the police in their community. Forty-two percent say so, while 51 percent feel mostly safe. Among whites, 8 in 10 feel mostly safe.

One proposal to address the matter — having on-duty police officers wear body cameras — receives overwhelming support. More than 9 in 10 whites and blacks alike favor it.

Continue reading the main story
How would you describe your feelings about the police in your community? Would you say they make you feel mostly safe or mostly anxious?
Mostly safe
Mostly anxious
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
75%
21
3
81
16
3
51
42
7
Continue reading the main story
In general, do you think the police in most communities are more likely to use deadly force against a black person, or more likely to use it against a white person, or don’t you think race affects police use of deadly force?
Police more likely to use deadly force against a black person
Police more likely to use deadly force against a white person
Race DOES NOT affect police use of deadly force
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
44%
37%
79%
2%
2%
1%
46%
53%
16%
9%
8%
4%
Continue reading the main story
Do you favor or oppose on-duty police officers wearing video cameras that would record events and actions as they occur?
Favor
Oppose
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
92%
93%
93%
6%
5%
5%
2%
2%
2%

Asked specifically about the situation in Baltimore, most Americans expressed at least some confidence that the investigation by local authorities would be conducted fairly. But while nearly two-thirds of whites think so, fewer than half of blacks agree. Still, more blacks are confident now than were in August regarding the investigation in Ferguson. On Friday, six members of the police force involved in the arrest of Mr. Gray were charged with serious offenses, including manslaughter. The poll was conducted Thursday through Sunday; results from before charges were announced are similar to those from after.

Reaction to the recent turmoil in Baltimore, however, is similar among blacks and whites. Most Americans, 61 percent, say the unrest after Mr. Gray’s death was not justified. That includes 64 percent of whites and 57 percent of blacks.

Continue reading the main story
As you may know, a Baltimore man, Freddie Gray, recently died after being in the custody of the Baltimore police. How much confidence do you have that the investigation by local authorities into this matter will be conducted fairly?
A lot
Some
Not much
None at all
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
29%
31
22
14
5
31
33
20
11
5
20
26
30
22
In general, do you think the unrest in Baltimore after the death of Freddie Gray was justified, or do you think the unrest was not justified?
Justified
Not justified
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
28%
61
11
26
64
11
37
57
6

Negative View of U.S. Race Relations Grows, Poll Finds

Mr. Mankiewicz, an Oscar-nominated screenwriter for “I Want to Live!,” also wrote episodes of television shows such as “Star Trek” and “Marcus Welby, M.D.”

Don Mankiewicz, Screenwriter in a Family Film Tradition, Dies at 93
Frontline  An installment of this PBS program looks at the effects of Ebola on Liberia and other countries, as well as the origins of the outbreak.
Frontline

Frontline An installment of this PBS program looks at the effects of Ebola on Liberia and other countries, as well as the origins of the outbreak.

The program traces the outbreak to its origin, thought to be a tree full of bats in Guinea.

Review: ‘9-Man’ Is More Than a Game for Chinese-Americans

A variation of volleyball with nine men on each side is profiled Tuesday night on the World Channel in an absorbing documentary called “9-Man.”

Television

‘Hard Earned’ Documents the Plight of the Working Poor

“Hard Earned,” an Al Jazeera America series, follows five working-class families scrambling to stay ahead on limited incomes.

Review: ‘Frontline’ Looks at Missteps During the Ebola Outbreak

Though Robin and Joan Rolfs owned two rare talking dolls manufactured by Thomas Edison’s phonograph company in 1890, they did not dare play the wax cylinder records tucked inside each one.

The Rolfses, longtime collectors of Edison phonographs, knew that if they turned the cranks on the dolls’ backs, the steel phonograph needle might damage or destroy the grooves of the hollow, ring-shaped cylinder. And so for years, the dolls sat side by side inside a display cabinet, bearers of a message from the dawn of sound recording that nobody could hear.

In 1890, Edison’s dolls were a flop; production lasted only six weeks. Children found them difficult to operate and more scary than cuddly. The recordings inside, which featured snippets of nursery rhymes, wore out quickly.

Yet sound historians say the cylinders were the first entertainment records ever made, and the young girls hired to recite the rhymes were the world’s first recording artists.

Year after year, the Rolfses asked experts if there might be a safe way to play the recordings. Then a government laboratory developed a method to play fragile records without touching them.

Audio

The technique relies on a microscope to create images of the grooves in exquisite detail. A computer approximates — with great accuracy — the sounds that would have been created by a needle moving through those grooves.

In 2014, the technology was made available for the first time outside the laboratory.

“The fear all along is that we don’t want to damage these records. We don’t want to put a stylus on them,” said Jerry Fabris, the curator of the Thomas Edison Historical Park in West Orange, N.J. “Now we have the technology to play them safely.”

Last month, the Historical Park posted online three never-before-heard Edison doll recordings, including the two from the Rolfses’ collection. “There are probably more out there, and we’re hoping people will now get them digitized,” Mr. Fabris said.

The technology, which is known as Irene (Image, Reconstruct, Erase Noise, Etc.), was developed by the particle physicist Carl Haber and the engineer Earl Cornell at Lawrence Berkeley. Irene extracts sound from cylinder and disk records. It can also reconstruct audio from recordings so badly damaged they were deemed unplayable.

“We are now hearing sounds from history that I did not expect to hear in my lifetime,” Mr. Fabris said.

The Rolfses said they were not sure what to expect in August when they carefully packed their two Edison doll cylinders, still attached to their motors, and drove from their home in Hortonville, Wis., to the National Document Conservation Center in Andover, Mass. The center had recently acquired Irene technology.

Audio

Cylinders carry sound in a spiral groove cut by a phonograph recording needle that vibrates up and down, creating a surface made of tiny hills and valleys. In the Irene set-up, a microscope perched above the shaft takes thousands of high-resolution images of small sections of the grooves.

Stitched together, the images provide a topographic map of the cylinder’s surface, charting changes in depth as small as one five-hundredth the thickness of a human hair. Pitch, volume and timbre are all encoded in the hills and valleys and the speed at which the record is played.

At the conservation center, the preservation specialist Mason Vander Lugt attached one of the cylinders to the end of a rotating shaft. Huddled around a computer screen, the Rolfses first saw the wiggly waveform generated by Irene. Then came the digital audio. The words were at first indistinct, but as Mr. Lugt filtered out more of the noise, the rhyme became clearer.

“That was the Eureka moment,” Mr. Rolfs said.

In 1890, a girl in Edison’s laboratory had recited:

There was a little girl,

And she had a little curl

Audio

Right in the middle of her forehead.

When she was good,

She was very, very good.

But when she was bad, she was horrid.

Recently, the conservation center turned up another surprise.

In 2010, the Woody Guthrie Foundation received 18 oversize phonograph disks from an anonymous donor. No one knew if any of the dirt-stained recordings featured Guthrie, but Tiffany Colannino, then the foundation’s archivist, had stored them unplayed until she heard about Irene.

Last fall, the center extracted audio from one of the records, labeled “Jam Session 9” and emailed the digital file to Ms. Colannino.

“I was just sitting in my dining room, and the next thing I know, I’m hearing Woody,” she said. In between solo performances of “Ladies Auxiliary,” “Jesus Christ,” and “Dead or Alive,” Guthrie tells jokes, offers some back story, and makes the audience laugh. “It is quintessential Guthrie,” Ms. Colannino said.

The Rolfses’ dolls are back in the display cabinet in Wisconsin. But with audio stored on several computers, they now have a permanent voice.

Ghostly Voices From Thomas Edison’s Dolls Can Now Be Heard

Ms. von Furstenberg made her debut in the movies and on the Broadway stage in the early 1950s as a teenager and later reinvented herself as a television actress, writer and philanthropist.

Betsy von Furstenberg, Baroness and Versatile Actress, Dies at 83

With 12 tournament victories in his career, Mr. Peete was the most successful black professional golfer before Tiger Woods.

Calvin Peete, 71, a Racial Pioneer on the PGA Tour, Is Dead

Mr. Alger, who served five terms from Texas, led Republican women in a confrontation with Lyndon B. Johnson that may have cost Richard M. Nixon the 1960 presidential election.

Bruce Alger, 96, Dies; Led ‘Mink Coat’ Protest Against Lyndon Johnson

Imagine an elite professional services firm with a high-performing, workaholic culture. Everyone is expected to turn on a dime to serve a client, travel at a moment’s notice, and be available pretty much every evening and weekend. It can make for a grueling work life, but at the highest levels of accounting, law, investment banking and consulting firms, it is just the way things are.

Except for one dirty little secret: Some of the people ostensibly turning in those 80- or 90-hour workweeks, particularly men, may just be faking it.

Many of them were, at least, at one elite consulting firm studied by Erin Reid, a professor at Boston University’s Questrom School of Business. It’s impossible to know if what she learned at that unidentified consulting firm applies across the world of work more broadly. But her research, published in the academic journal Organization Science, offers a way to understand how the professional world differs between men and women, and some of the ways a hard-charging culture that emphasizes long hours above all can make some companies worse off.

Photo
 
Credit Peter Arkle

Ms. Reid interviewed more than 100 people in the American offices of a global consulting firm and had access to performance reviews and internal human resources documents. At the firm there was a strong culture around long hours and responding to clients promptly.

“When the client needs me to be somewhere, I just have to be there,” said one of the consultants Ms. Reid interviewed. “And if you can’t be there, it’s probably because you’ve got another client meeting at the same time. You know it’s tough to say I can’t be there because my son had a Cub Scout meeting.”

Some people fully embraced this culture and put in the long hours, and they tended to be top performers. Others openly pushed back against it, insisting upon lighter and more flexible work hours, or less travel; they were punished in their performance reviews.

The third group is most interesting. Some 31 percent of the men and 11 percent of the women whose records Ms. Reid examined managed to achieve the benefits of a more moderate work schedule without explicitly asking for it.

They made an effort to line up clients who were local, reducing the need for travel. When they skipped work to spend time with their children or spouse, they didn’t call attention to it. One team on which several members had small children agreed among themselves to cover for one another so that everyone could have more flexible hours.

A male junior manager described working to have repeat consulting engagements with a company near enough to his home that he could take care of it with day trips. “I try to head out by 5, get home at 5:30, have dinner, play with my daughter,” he said, adding that he generally kept weekend work down to two hours of catching up on email.

Despite the limited hours, he said: “I know what clients are expecting. So I deliver above that.” He received a high performance review and a promotion.

What is fascinating about the firm Ms. Reid studied is that these people, who in her terminology were “passing” as workaholics, received performance reviews that were as strong as their hyper-ambitious colleagues. For people who were good at faking it, there was no real damage done by their lighter workloads.

It calls to mind the episode of “Seinfeld” in which George Costanza leaves his car in the parking lot at Yankee Stadium, where he works, and gets a promotion because his boss sees the car and thinks he is getting to work earlier and staying later than anyone else. (The strategy goes awry for him, and is not recommended for any aspiring partners in a consulting firm.)

A second finding is that women, particularly those with young children, were much more likely to request greater flexibility through more formal means, such as returning from maternity leave with an explicitly reduced schedule. Men who requested a paternity leave seemed to be punished come review time, and so may have felt more need to take time to spend with their families through those unofficial methods.

The result of this is easy to see: Those specifically requesting a lighter workload, who were disproportionately women, suffered in their performance reviews; those who took a lighter workload more discreetly didn’t suffer. The maxim of “ask forgiveness, not permission” seemed to apply.

It would be dangerous to extrapolate too much from a study at one firm, but Ms. Reid said in an interview that since publishing a summary of her research in Harvard Business Review she has heard from people in a variety of industries describing the same dynamic.

High-octane professional service firms are that way for a reason, and no one would doubt that insane hours and lots of travel can be necessary if you’re a lawyer on the verge of a big trial, an accountant right before tax day or an investment banker advising on a huge merger.

But the fact that the consultants who quietly lightened their workload did just as well in their performance reviews as those who were truly working 80 or more hours a week suggests that in normal times, heavy workloads may be more about signaling devotion to a firm than really being more productive. The person working 80 hours isn’t necessarily serving clients any better than the person working 50.

In other words, maybe the real problem isn’t men faking greater devotion to their jobs. Maybe it’s that too many companies reward the wrong things, favoring the illusion of extraordinary effort over actual productivity.

How Some Men Fake an 80-Hour Workweek, and Why It Matters
promo umroh ramadhan di Dukuh jakarta
biaya paket berangkat umroh februari tangerang
biaya paket umroh desember di Kampung Melayu jakarta
paket promo umroh awal tahun di Penggilingan jakarta
paket promo berangkat umrah desember di Kebon Manggis jakarta
harga umroh januari di Jatinegara jakarta
paket promo berangkat umroh januari di Pisangan Timur jakarta
harga berangkat umroh juni di Jatinegara jakarta
harga paket umroh januari di Duren Sawit jakarta
harga paket umroh mei di Kayu Manis jakarta
paket umroh februari bekasi timur
harga paket berangkat umrah desember di Cakung Barat jakarta
harga umrah januari di Munjul jakarta
biaya paket berangkat umrah april bekasi timur
promo berangkat umrah maret di Rawa Bunga jakarta
biaya umroh awal tahun di Jatinegara jakarta
biaya paket umroh januari tangerang
promo berangkat umrah januari di Ceger jakarta
harga paket umroh maret di Pondok Kelapa jakarta
paket berangkat umroh mei di Cipinang Muara jakarta
harga berangkat umrah februari di Bambu Apus jakarta
paket berangkat umroh mei bekasi utara
harga berangkat umrah juni di Cipinang Cempedak jakarta
paket berangkat umrah mei di Utan Kayu Selatan jakarta
paket berangkat umroh akhir tahun di Cipinang Besar Utara jakarta
paket berangkat umroh maret di Rawamangun jakarta
biaya paket berangkat umrah februari di Jatinegara jakarta
promo umrah akhir tahun di Pisangan Baru jakarta
harga berangkat umrah april di Kampung Melayu jakarta
paket promo berangkat umrah maret di Pasar Rebo jakarta
harga umrah juni tangerang
biaya berangkat umroh februari di Lubang Buaya jakarta
biaya paket umroh april di Jati jakarta
paket promo umroh mei di Rawamangun jakarta
harga berangkat umrah ramadhan di Pulogebang jakarta
biaya paket umroh awal tahun di Pisangan Timur jakarta
biaya berangkat umrah april di Matraman jakarta
harga berangkat umrah awal tahun di Cipayung jakarta
biaya berangkat umrah maret di Utan Kayu Utara jakarta
promo berangkat umroh akhir tahun di Makasar jakarta
paket promo umroh februari di Pisangan Baru jakarta
biaya berangkat umrah april di Ujung Menteng jakarta
paket promo berangkat umrah akhir tahun di Kampung Baru jakarta
paket umroh juni di Cawang jakarta
harga paket berangkat umrah ramadhan bogor
promo umroh desember bekasi barat
harga paket berangkat umrah maret di Kayu Manis jakarta
paket berangkat umroh april depok
harga paket umrah mei di Dukuh jakarta
paket promo umroh ramadhan di Pondok Ranggon jakarta
paket berangkat umroh ramadhan di Duren Sawit jakarta
biaya berangkat umroh april di Cipayung jakarta
biaya paket berangkat umroh juni di Balekambang jakarta
promo umroh desember bekasi selatan
biaya berangkat umroh maret di Pekayon jakarta
paket berangkat umrah januari di Kelapa Dua Wetan jakarta
paket promo berangkat umrah awal tahun di Malaka Sari jakarta
harga berangkat umrah januari depok
biaya paket berangkat umrah ramadhan di Klender jakarta
harga paket berangkat umrah februari di Makasar jakarta
paket promo umroh juni di Kampung Gedong,Cijantung jakarta
promo berangkat umroh juni di Rambutan jakarta
biaya paket umroh februari di Pasar Rebo jakarta
biaya paket umroh desember di Kramat Jati jakarta
harga berangkat umrah awal tahun tangerang
harga berangkat umrah februari di Cakung jakarta
promo berangkat umrah maret di Klender jakarta
biaya berangkat umroh maret di Cawang jakarta
harga umroh juni di Jatinegara Kaum jakarta
promo umroh awal tahun di Kampung Melayu jakarta
promo berangkat umrah awal tahun di Pondok Kelapa jakarta
promo umrah desember di Rawamangun jakarta
harga umroh ramadhan di Malaka Sari jakarta
paket promo umrah akhir tahun di Makasar jakarta
biaya paket berangkat umroh awal tahun di Pondok Ranggon jakarta
paket umrah mei di Cilangkap jakarta
paket promo umroh ramadhan di Pekayon jakarta
paket berangkat umroh awal tahun di Utan Kayu Utara jakarta
harga paket berangkat umroh ramadhan di Kayu Putih jakarta
paket promo umrah februari di Ceger jakarta
harga paket berangkat umrah ramadhan di Cawang jakarta
biaya umroh maret di Duren Sawit jakarta
paket promo berangkat umroh mei di Klender jakarta
harga paket berangkat umroh juni di Ceger jakarta
promo berangkat umroh maret di Ciracas jakarta
paket promo umrah ramadhan di Pulogebang jakarta
harga paket berangkat umrah awal tahun di Setu jakarta
biaya berangkat umroh februari di Susukan jakarta
biaya paket berangkat umroh april di Kebon Pala jakarta
biaya berangkat umroh februari di Cibubur jakarta
paket umroh maret di Rawamangun jakarta
biaya umroh juni di Rawa Bunga jakarta
promo berangkat umrah ramadhan di Kampung Melayu jakarta
harga umroh ramadhan di Cipayung jakarta
biaya umrah april di Makasar jakarta
promo umrah maret di Jati jakarta
paket umroh februari bekasi utara
paket berangkat umrah desember di Pisangan Timur jakarta
paket berangkat umroh juni di Cakung jakarta
biaya berangkat umrah awal tahun di Cipinang Melayu jakarta