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- Haji adalah salah satu rukun Islam yang lima. Menunaikan ibadah haji adalah bentuk ritual tahunan bagi kaum muslim yang mampu secara material, fisik, maupun keilmuan dengan berkunjung ke beberapa tempat di Arab Saudi dan melaksanakan beberapa kegiatan pada satu waktu yang telah ditentukan yaitu pada bulan Dzulhijjah.

Secara estimologi (bahasa), Haji berarti niat (Al Qasdu), sedangkan menurut syara’ berarti Niat menuju Baitul Haram dengan amal-amal yang khusus.Temat-tempat tertentu yang dimaksud dalam definisi diatas adalah selain Ka’bah dan Mas’a (tempat sa’i), juga Padang Arafah (tempat wukuf), Muzdalifah (tempat mabit), dan Mina (tempat melontar jumroh).

Sedangkan yang dimaksud dengan waktu tertentu adalah bulan-bulan haji yaitu dimulai dari Syawal sampai sepuluh hari pertama bulan Dzulhijjah. Amalan ibadah tertentu ialah thawaf, sa’i, wukuf, mazbit di Muzdalifah, melontar jumroh, dan mabit di Mina.

Pengertian Umroh

Umrah adalah berkunjung ke Ka’bah untuk melakukan serangkaian ibadah dengan syarat-syarat yang telah ditetapkan. Umroh disunahkan bagi muslim yang mampu. Umroh dapat dilakukan kapan saja, kecuali pada hari Arafah yaitu tgl 10 Zulhijah dan hari-hari Tasyrik yaitu tgl 11,12,13 Zulhijah. Melaksanakan Umroh pada bulan Ramadhan sama nilainya dengan melakukan Ibadah Haji (Hadits Muslim) [Kembali ke Menu]

Jenis-jenis Haji

Haji Ifrad, artinya menyendiri

Pelaksanaan ibadah haji disebut ifrad jika sesorang melaksanakan ibadah haji dan umroh dilaksanakan secara sendiri-sendiri, dengan mendahulukan ibadah haji. Artinya, ketika calon jamaah haji mengenakan pakaian ihram di miqat-nya, hanya berniat melaksanakan ibadah haji. Jika ibadah hajinya sudah selesai, maka orang tersebut mengenakan ihram kembali untuk melaksanakan ibadah umroh.

Haji Tamattu’, artinya bersenang-senang

Pelaksanaan ibadah haji disebut Tamattu’ jika seseorang melaksanakan ibadah umroh dan Haji di bulan haji yang sama dengan mendahulukan ibadah Umroh. Artinya, ketika seseorang mengenakan pakaian ihram di miqat-nya, hanya berniat melaksanakan ibadah Umroh. Jika ibadah Umrohnya sudah selesai, maka orang tersebut mengenakan ihram kembali untuk melaksanakan ibadah Haji.

Tamattu’ dapat juga berarti melaksanakan ibadah Umroh dan Haji didalam bulan-bulan serta didalam tahun yang sama, tanpa terlebih dahulu pulang ke negeri asal.

Haji Qiran, artinya menggabungkan

Pelaksanaan ibadah Haji disebut Qiran jika seseorang melaksanakan ibadah Haji dan Umroh disatukan atau menyekaliguskan berihram untuk melaksanakan ibadah haji dan umrah. Haji Qiran dilakukan dengan tetap berpakaian ihram sejak miqat makani dan melaksanakan semua rukun dan wajib haji sampai selesai, meskipun mungkin akan memakan waktu lama. [Kembali ke Menu]

Rukun dan Wajib Haji

Rukun haji :

    Ihram
    Thawaf Ziyarah (disebut juga dengan Thawaf Ifadhah)
    Sa’ie
    Wuquf di padang Arafah

Apabila salah satu rukun haji di atas tidak dilaksanakan maka hajinya batal. Sedangkan Abu Hanifah berpendapat bahwa rukun haji hanya ada 2 yaitu: Wuquf dan Thawaf. Ihram dan Sa’I tidak dimasukkan ke dalam rukun karena menurut beliau, ihram adalah syarat sah haji dan sa’I adalah yang wajib dilakukan dalam haji (wajib haji). Sementara Imam syafi’ie berpendapat bahwa rukun haji ada 6 yaitu: Ihram, Thawaf, Sa’ie, Wuquf, Mencukur rambut, dan Tertib berurutan).(Kitabul Fiqh Ala Madzhabil Arba’ah 1/578).

Wajib Haji

    Iharam dimulai dari miqat yang telah ditentukan
    Wuquf di Arafah sampai matahari tenggelam
    Mabit di Mina
    Mabit di Muzdalifah hingga lewat setengah malam
    Melempar jumrah
    Mencukur rambut
    Tawaf Wada’

Syarat-syarat Wajib Haji

    Islam
    Berakal
    Baligh
    Mampu

[Kembali ke Menu]

Mewakilkan Seseorang Untuk Berhaji

Tidak boleh bagi seseorang berhaji untuk orang lain kecuali setelah ia berhaji untuk dirinya sendiri. Rasulullah bersabda: Berhajilah untuk dirimu sendiri, kemudian engkau berhaji untuknya. [Kembali ke Menu]

Haji Bagi Anak-anak yang belum Baligh

Tidaklah wajib bagi anak-anak untuk berhaji kecuali ia telah baligh. Namun jika ia telah berhaji maka hajinya sah sebagaimana yang telah diriwayatkan Ibnu Abbas ra bahwa Rasulullah r berjumpa dengan seorang berkendaraan dikawasan Ar-Rauha beliau bersabda: Siapakah kalian? Mereka menjawab: Kami orang-orang muslim, mereka balik bertanya: Siapa anda? Beliau menjawab: Saya Rasul Allah. Lalu ada seorang anak gadis yang masih kecil bertanya: Apakh ini yang disebut haji? Beliau menjawab: Ya dan bagimu pahala (HR. Ahmad, Muslim, Abu Daud, dan An Nasa dishahihkan oleh At Tirmidzi). [Kembali ke Menu]

Rangkaian Ibadah Haji dan Umroh:

Rangkaian kegiatan ibadah Haji

    Sebelum tanggal 8 Dzulhijjah, calon jamaah haji mulai berbondong untuk melaksanakan Tawaf Haji di Masjid Al Haram, Makkah.
    Calon jamaah haji memakai pakaian Ihram (dua lembar kain tanpa jahitan sebagai pakaian haji), sesuai miqatnya, kemudian berniat haji, dan membaca bacaan Talbiyah, yaitu mengucapkan Labbaikallahumma labbaik labbaika laa syarika laka labbaik. Innal hamda wan ni’mata laka wal mulk laa syarika laka..
    Tanggal 9 Dzulhijjah, pagi harinya semua calon jamaah haji menuju ke padang Arafah untuk menjalankan ibadah wukuf. Kemudian jamaah melaksanakan ibadah Wukuf, yaitu berdiam diri dan berdoa di padang Arafah hingga Maghrib datang.
    Tanggal 9 Dzulhijjah malam, jamaah menuju ke Muzdalifah untuk mabbit (bermalam) dan mengambil batu untuk melontar jumroh secukupnya.
    Tanggal 9 Dzulhijjah tengah malam (setelah mabbit) jamaah meneruskan perjalanan ke Mina untuk melaksanakan ibadah melontar Jumroh
    Tanggal 10 Dzulhijjah, jamaah melaksanakan ibadah melempar Jumroh sebanyak tujuh kali ke Jumroh Aqobah sebagai simbolisasi mengusir setan. Dilanjutkan dengan tahalul yaitu mencukur rambut atau sebagian rambut.
    Jika jamaah mengambil nafar awal maka dapat dilanjutkan perjalanan ke Masjidil Haram untuk Tawaf Haji (menyelesaikan Haji)
    Sedangkan jika mengambil nafar akhir jamaah tetap tinggal di Mina dan dilanjutkan dengan melontar jumroh sambungan (Ula dan Wustha).
    Tanggal 11 Dzulhijjah, melempar jumrah sambungan (Ula) di tugu pertama, tugu kedua, dan tugu ketiga.
    Tanggal 12 Dzulhijjah, melempar jumrah sambungan (Ula) di tugu pertama, tugu kedua, dan tugu ketiga.
    Jamaah haji kembali ke Makkah untuk melaksanakan Thawaf Wada’ (Thawaf perpisahan) sebelum pulang ke negara masing-masing

[Kembali ke Menu]

Rangkaian Kegiatan Ibadah Umrah

    Diawali dengan mandi besar (janabah) sebelum ihram untuk umrah.
    mengenakan pakaian ihram. Untuk lelaki 2 kain yang dijadikan sarung dan selendang, sedangkan untuk wanita memakai pakaian apa saja yang menutup aurat tanpa ada hiasannya dan tidak memakai cadar atau sarung tangan.
    Niat umrah dalam hati dan mengucapkan Labbaika ‘umrotan atau Labbaikallahumma bi’umrotin. Kemudian bertalbiyah dengan dikeraskan suaranya bagi laki-laki dan cukup dengan suara yang didengar orang yang ada di sampingnya bagi wanita, yaitu mengucapkan Labbaikallahumma labbaik labbaika laa syarika laka labbaik. Innal hamda wan ni’mata laka wal mulk laa syarika laka.
    Sesampai Masjidil Haram menuju ka’bah, lakukan thawaf sebanyak 7 kali putaran.3 putaran pertama jalan cepat dan sisanya jalan biasa. Thowaf diawali dan diakhiri di hajar aswad dan ka’bah dijadikan berada di sebelah kiri. Setiap putaran menuju hajar aswad sambil menyentuhnya dengan tangan kanan dan menciumnya jika mampu dan mengucapkan Bismillahi wallahu akbar. Jika tidak bisa menyentuh dan menciumya, maka cukup memberi isyarat dan berkata Allahu akbar.
    Shalat 2 raka’at di belakang maqam Ibrahim jika bisa atau di tempat lainnya di masjidil haram dengan membaca surat Al-Kafirun pada raka’at pertama dan Al-Ikhlas pada raka’at kedua.
    Selanjutnya Sa’i dengan naik ke bukit Shofa dan menghadap kiblat sambil mengangkat kedua tangan dan mengucapkan Innash shofa wal marwata min sya’aairillah. Abda’u bima bada’allahu bihi (Aku memulai dengan apa yang Allah memulainya). Kemudian bertakbir 3 kali tanpa memberi isyarat dan mengucapkan Laa ilaha illallahu wahdahu laa syarika lahu. Lahul mulku wa lahul hamdu wahuwa ‘alaa kulli syai’in qodiir. Laa ilaha illallahu wahdahu anjaza wa’dahu wa shodaqo ‘abdahu wa hazamal ahzaaba wahdahu 3x. Kemudian berdoa sekehendaknya. Sa’i dilakukan sebanyak 7 kali dengan hitungan berangkat satu kali dan kembalinya dihitung satu kali, diawali di bukit Shofa dan diakhiri di bukit Marwah.
    Mencukur rambut kepala bagi lelaki dan memotongnya sebatas ujung jari bagi wanita.
    Ibadah Umroh selesai

[Kembali ke Menu]

Persiapan Ibadah Haji

Beberapa hal yang perlu dipersiapkan sebelum menunaikan ibadah Haji

    Membersihkan diri dari dosa dan kesalahan baik langsung kepada Allah SWT. maupun kepada sesama manusia.
    Karena ibadah Haji adalah ibadah fisik, maka perlu mempersiapkan mental untuk mengikuti seluruh rangkaian ibadah haji yang memerlukan stamina tinggi, keikhlasan dan kepasrahan kepada Allah SWT.
    Mempersiapkan biaya, baik selama dalam perjalanan haji, maupun untuk nafkah keluarg yang ditinggalkan.
    Melaksanakan kewajiban-kewajiban yang berhubungan dengan harta kekayaan, seperti zakat, nadzar, hutang, infaq dan shadaqah.
    Melaksanakan janji yang pernah diucapkan.
    Menyelesaikan segala urusan yang berhubungan dengan keluarga yang akan ditinggalkan.7. Memohon do’a restu kepada kedua orang tua (jika masih hidup)
    Mempersiapkan ilmu dan pengetahuan agama, dan mengikuti kegiatan manasik haji.
    Mempersiapkan obat-obatan pribadi selama menjalankan ibadah haji.
    Mempersiapkan beberapa perlengkapan untuk keperluan selama perjalanan ibadah Haji:

Perlengkapan Pria

    Kain Ihram dua stel
    Baju sehari-hari secukupnya
    Ikat pinggang
    Keperluan mandi

Perlengkapan Wanita

    Mukena minimal 2 buah
    Pakaian ihram (rok putih dan mukena atas putih) 2 set
    Pakaian sehari-hari secukupnya
    Kaos kaki secukupnya

Perlengkapan untuk Pria dan Wanita

    Pakaian penghangat
    Selimut
    Sandal jepit
    Sepatu sandal atau sendal gunung
    Obat-obatan pribadi
    Gunting kecil utk Tahallul
    Payung
    Senter kecil (untuk penerangan saat mengambil batu di Musdalifah)
    Kantong kecil untuk menyimpan batu kerikil persiapan melempar jumroh
    Kantong sandal untuk tempat sandal saat di Masjid
    Pelembab atau cream, gunakan untuk tangan dan kaki
    Biaya untuk dam, kurban dsb.

[Kembali ke Menu]

Lokasi Utama Ibadah Haji dan Umroh

Makkah Al Mukaromah

Di kota Makkah Al-Mukaromah inilah terdapat Masjidil Haram yang didalamnya terdapat Ka’bah yang merupakan kiblat ibadah umat Islam sedunia. Dalam rangkaian perjalanan ibadah haji, Makkah menjadi tempat pembuka dan penutup ibadah haji.

Padang Arafah

Padang Arafah terdapat di sebelah timur Kota Makkah. Padang Arafah dikenal sebagai tempat pusatnya haji, sebagai tempat pelaksanaan ibadah wukuf yang merupakan rukun haji. Di Padang Arafah juga terdapat Jabal Rahmah tempat pertama kali pertemuan Nabi Adam dan Hawa. Di luar musim haji, daerah ini tidak dipakai.

Kota Muzdalifah

Kota ini tidak jauh dari kota Mina dan Arafah Mota Muzdalifah merupakan tempat jamaah calon haji melakukan Mabit (bermalam) dan mengambil batu untuk melontar Jumroh di Kota Mina.

Kota Mina
Kota Mina merupakan tempat berdirinya tugu (jumrah), yaitu tempat pelaksanaan melontarkan batu ke tugu (jumrah) sebagai simbolisasi tindakan nabi Ibrahim ketika mengusir setan. Disana terdapat tiga jumrah yaitu jumrah Aqabah, Jumrah Ula, dan Jumrah Wustha.

Sumber : http://berumrah-berhaji.blogspot.com

Baca Artikel Lainnya : IBADAH HAJI ADALAH IBADAH YANG MULTI DIMENSI

MAKNA IBADAH HAJI DAN UMRAH

Terletak di Timur Tengah, Mesir merupakan negara dengan dinasti tertua di dunia. Sebelum ada bangsa China dan bangsa lainnya. Peradaban Mesir telah dimulai sejak 7.000 tahun yang lalu sehingga banyak orang yang mengatakan bahwa setiap jengkal tanah di Mesir menyimpan peristiwa sejarah tersendiri.

"Mesir adalah negara yang sangat penting bagi tiga agama yakni Islam, Kristen dan Yahudi karena memiliki sejarah ketiga agama tersebut sehingga banyak umatnya yang melakukan wisata rohani ke Mesir," ucap Alaa Elkasaas, seorang pemandu tur dari agen perjalanan Sito Tours Egypt yang ditemui VIVAlife di kantor ANTV, Jumat, 27 September 2013.

Pria kelahiran Mesir yang kala itu sedang mengunjungi Jakarta untuk pertama kalinya bercerita mengenai beberapa objek wisata rohani di Mesir yang populer dikunjungi umat muslim. Elkasaas yang mahir berbahasa Indonesia karena sering memandu pelancong asal Tanah Air yang berkunjung ke Mesir juga mengatakan mayoritas objek wisata tersebut adalah masjid serta makam tokoh-tokoh Islam. Berikut lima di antaranya.

1. Masjid Imam Syafi'i
Menurut Alaa Elkasaas, masjid yang satu ini banyak dikunjungi umat Islam di dunia terutama dari Indonesia karena banyak muslim Indonesia yang menganut Islam aliran Syafi'i. Masjid dengan kubah besar yang terbuat dari kayu tersebut merupakan salah satu masjid tua di Kairo. Di dalamnya terdapat makam Imam Syafi'i.

2. Benteng Salahuddin Ayyubi
Di benteng ini tersimpan banyak peninggalan sejarah seperti Masjid Alabaster, Masjid Sulaiman Pasha dan Dinding Yosep. Benteng tersebut dibangun pada tahun 1183 M oleh Shalahuddin Ayubi untuk mengawasi kota Kairo dari bukit Mukattam.

3. Masjid Mohamed Ali
Masjid ini sering disebut sebagai masjid pualam karena dindingnya yang memang dilapisi dengan pualam. Terletak di Benteng Salahuddin Ayyubi, masjid ini dibangun pada tahun 1830 M mengadaptasi model Ottoman dengan kubah megan setinggi 52 meter. Dua menara yang takl kalah tinggi yaitu 82 meter terletak di halamannya pun menghiasi masjid tersebut. Dari tempat ini, Anda dapat menikmati keindahan kota Kairo, Sungai Nil, bahkan piramida.

4. Masjid Al-Azhar
Terletak di tengah-tengah kota Kairo, masjid yang berada di depan Universitas Al-Azhar ini adalah masjid pertama yang dibangun oleh Dinasti Fathimiyyah. Kesan pertama saat melihat Masjid Al-Azhar pastilah megah karena bangunan dan menaranya yang indah. Di sini banyak terdapat benda-benda kuno berusia ratusan tahun.

5. Masjid Al-Hussein
Masjid terluas di Kairo ini juga merupakan monumen Islam sehingga banyak umat Islam dari seluruh penjuru dunia menyempatkan datang ke sini saat berkunjung ke Mesir. Masjid Al-Hussein sejak lama telah dinobatkan sebagai masjid negara.

Sumber : http://life.viva.co.id

Baca Artikel Lainnya : MENJELAJAHI MASJID AGUNG BRUSSEL DI BELGIA

WISATA ROHANI ISLAM KE LIMA DESTINASI

saco-indonesia.com, Baru ditinggal masuk ke dalam rumah untuk menaruh makanan, seorang mahasiswi telah kehilangan motor yang baru terparkir di pelataran teras rumah di Jalan Adikarya, RT 3/15, No.11, Pancoran Mas Kota Depok, Rabu (29/1) kemarin malam.

Peristiwa tersebut telah terjadi pukul 20:30 malam , tepatnya saat Puput yang berusia 20 tahun , Mahasiswi BSI Margonda semester 3 jurusan Komputerisasi Akutansi, telah mengetahui bahwa motor Honda Revo hitam lis biru, B 6973 ZCN, yang telah terpakir dalam teras rumah sudah hilang.

“Saya berdua sama teman kuliah Gani Lienardo yang berusia 23 tahun , baru menaruh makanan yang baru dibeli dari minimarket ke dalam rumah. Tidak ada dua menit motor yang terkunci sudah hilang dibawa pelaku,”ujar Puput kepada Pos Kota yang telah didampingi oleh teman prianya tersebut kepada Pos Kota saat membuat laporan di SPKT Polsek Pancoran Mas, Kamis (29/1) sekitar pukul 21:00.

Saat kejadian tersebut korban juga sempat meneriaki pelaku yang mengambil motornya. Pelaku yang berjumlah dua orang, seorang pelaku telah membawa motor korban dan seorang lagi dengan menggunakan motor suzuki Satria F150 kabur ke arah jalan jembatan Siliwangi.

“Pelaku juga sempat ditendang sama tukang ojek namun hanya oleng. Setelah itu langsung berhasil kabur dan tidak diketahui lagi jejaknya,”ungkap wanita berhijab ini.

Ciri-ciri pelaku yang telah diketahui korban adalah berbadan kurus. “Kejadiannya begitu sangat cepat sehingga tidak begitu memperhatikan ciri-ciri pelaku karena gelap. Yang telah diketahui hanya berbadan kurus saja,”demikian.

Sementara itu Kapolsek Pancoran Mas, Kompol Purwadi juga mengatakan anggotanya telah memintai keterangan korban dan melakukan olah TKP.

“Masih kita dalami, sejumlah keterangan saksi sudah kita mintai keterangan,”ungkapnya.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

BARU DITINGGAL MASUK RUMAH, MAHASISWI HILANG MOTOR

saco-indonesia.com, Baru bekerja satu hari, seorang Pembantu Rumah Tangga (PRT) telah berhasil gasak harta majikan senilai Puluhan juta rupiah di Komplek Gudang Peluru Blok N, Kel. Kebon Baru, Kec. Tebet, Jakarta Selatan.

Pelaku yang mengaku bernama Siti yang berusia 20 tahun , yang baru saja bekerja di rumah milik Rita yang berusia 41 tahun , Ibu Rumah Tangga ini juga telah berhasil menguras harta seluruh harta korban.

Kasie Humas Polsek Tebet, Aiptu Recky Kansil, juga mengatakan peristiwa tersebut telah terjadi saat majikannya meninggalkan ke rumah untuk keluar, sang pelaku mulai beraksi dan berhasil membawa kabur harta isi rumah.

“Setelah kembali ke rumah ternyata pembantunya kabur melarikan diri dan hartanya pun telah berhasil dibawa kabur,” kata Kasie Humas. Peristiwa tersebut telah terjadi sekira pk. 19:15 malam.

Menurut keterangan korban, kondisi rumah yang dalam berantakan pelaku mennggondol harta benda majikannya yang baru bekerja sehari ini, dua buah Kamera SLR merk Canon, 5 buah Arloji Asli bermerk, perhiasan sekira 30 gram, 1 Smartphone Galaxy S3 dan uang tunai Rp. 20 juta. “Saya kehilangannya seluruhnya Rp. 60 juta,” kata korban saat melaporkan ke Mapolsek Tebet.

Kapolsek Tebet, Kompol, I Ketut Sudarma, masih harus menyelidiki kasus tersebut. “Kami juga masih mintai keterangan saksi-saksi, untuk para rumah tangga yang ingin menggunakan jasa pembantu agar berhati-hati lagi dan mintalah identitasnya sebagai jaminan bekerja,” kata Kapolsek.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

PEMBANTU TELAH BERHASIL GASAK HARTA MAJIKAN

Saco-Indonesia.com - Tren operasi plastik memang sudah ada sejak dulu dan bertahan hingga sekarang. Bedanya, bagian yang menjadi target operasi kini lebih bervariasi.

"Kalau dulu operasi hidung, kantung mata, payudara, dagu banyak diminati, saat ini banyak juga yang minta dioperasi kelompak mata hingga alis," papar Guru Besar bidang bedah plastik rekonstruksi dan estetik dari FK UNAIR/RSUD Dr Soetomo, David Perdanakusuma saat ditemui Jumat (24/1/2014) di Surabaya.

Namun David mengakui, operasi hidung dan kantung mata tetap paling diminati. Operasi hidung, lanjut dia, kebanyakan diminati oleh orang-orang yang usianya relatif muda, sementara kantung mata umumnya diminati oleh orang-orang dengan usia relatif tua.

"Hidung orang Indonesia memang kebanyakan tidak terlalu mancung, tetapi justru itu khasnya. Jadi untuk diagnosis pasien operasi hidung, saya jadi menulis "hidung Indonesia" daripada "hidung kurang mancung"," jelas David, sedikit berseloroh.

Sementara itu, operasi kantung mata banyak diminati oleh orang-orang usia relatif tua karena biasanya problem kantung mata mulai timbul di atas usia 45 tahun. Kantung mata mereka biasanya mengendur dan operasi dapat mengencangkannya kembali.

Hak pasien

Menurut David, operasi bedah plastik, khususnya estetik adalah hak dari setiap pasien. Untuk terlihat lebih baik dari segi penampilan diputuskan sendiri oleh pasien, meskipun sebelumnya dokter juga tetap melakukan wawancara tentang alasannya.

"Jika pasien sudah dewasa dan sehat sebenarnya operasi bedah plastik estetik adalah hak pasien," katanya.

David menjelaskan, bedah plastik estetik adalah untuk membuat yang sudah normal menjadi lebih baik. Sedangkan ada pula bedah plastik rekonstruksi yaitu untuk membuat yang cacat mendekati normal.

 

Editor : Maulana Lee
Sumber : Kompas.com
 

 

Bagian "Favorit" Target Operasi Plastik adalah HiduKOMPAS.com - Tren operasi plastik memang sudah ada sejak dulu dan bertahan hingga sekarang. Bedanya, bagian yang menjadi target operasi kini lebih bervariasi. "Kalau dulu operasi ng dan Kantung Mata

The career criminals in genre novels don’t have money problems. If they need some, they just go out and steal it. But such financial transactions can backfire, which is what happened back in 2004 when the Texas gang in Michael

Take the Money and Run

WASHINGTON — During a training course on defending against knife attacks, a young Salt Lake City police officer asked a question: “How close can somebody get to me before I’m justified in using deadly force?”

Dennis Tueller, the instructor in that class more than three decades ago, decided to find out. In the fall of 1982, he performed a rudimentary series of tests and concluded that an armed attacker who bolted toward an officer could clear 21 feet in the time it took most officers to draw, aim and fire their weapon.

The next spring, Mr. Tueller published his findings in SWAT magazine and transformed police training in the United States. The “21-foot rule” became dogma. It has been taught in police academies around the country, accepted by courts and cited by officers to justify countless shootings, including recent episodes involving a homeless woodcarver in Seattle and a schizophrenic woman in San Francisco.

Now, amid the largest national debate over policing since the 1991 beating of Rodney King in Los Angeles, a small but vocal set of law enforcement officials are calling for a rethinking of the 21-foot rule and other axioms that have emphasized how to use force, not how to avoid it. Several big-city police departments are already re-examining when officers should chase people or draw their guns and when they should back away, wait or try to defuse the situation

Police Rethink Long Tradition on Using Force

BEIJING (AP) — The head of Taiwan's Nationalists reaffirmed the party's support for eventual unification with the mainland when he met Monday with Chinese President Xi Jinping as part of continuing rapprochement between the former bitter enemies.

Nationalist Party Chairman Eric Chu, a likely presidential candidate next year, also affirmed Taiwan's desire to join the proposed Chinese-led Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank during the meeting in Beijing. China claims Taiwan as its own territory and doesn't want the island to join using a name that might imply it is an independent country.

Chu's comments during his meeting with Xi were carried live on Hong Kong-based broadcaster Phoenix Television.

The Nationalists were driven to Taiwan by Mao Zedong's Communists during the Chinese civil war in 1949, leading to decades of hostility between the sides. Chu, who took over as party leader in January, is the third Nationalist chairman to visit the mainland and the first since 2009.

Relations between the communist-ruled mainland and the self-governing democratic island of Taiwan began to warm in the 1990s, partly out of their common opposition to Taiwan's formal independence from China, a position advocated by the island's Democratic Progressive Party.

Despite increasingly close economic ties, the prospect of political unification has grown increasingly unpopular on Taiwan, especially with younger voters. Opposition to the Nationalists' pro-China policies was seen as a driver behind heavy local electoral defeats for the party last year that led to Taiwanese President Ma Ying-jeou resigning as party chairman.

Taiwan party leader affirms eventual reunion with China

Public perceptions of race relations in America have grown substantially more negative in the aftermath of the death of a young black man who was injured while in police custody in Baltimore and the subsequent unrest, far eclipsing the sentiment recorded in the wake of turmoil in Ferguson, Mo., last summer.

Americans are also increasingly likely to say that the police are more apt to use deadly force against a black person, the latest New York Times/CBS News poll finds.

The poll findings highlight the challenges for local leaders and police officials in trying to maintain order while sustaining faith in the criminal justice system in a racially polarized nation.

Sixty-one percent of Americans now say race relations in this country are generally bad. That figure is up sharply from 44 percent after the fatal police shooting of Michael Brown and the unrest that followed in Ferguson in August, and 43 percent in December. In a CBS News poll just two months ago, 38 percent said race relations were generally bad. Current views are by far the worst of Barack Obama’s presidency.

The negative sentiment is echoed by broad majorities of blacks and whites alike, a stark change from earlier this year, when 58 percent of blacks thought race relations were bad, but just 35 percent of whites agreed. In August, 48 percent of blacks and 41 percent of whites said they felt that way.

Looking ahead, 44 percent of Americans think race relations are worsening, up from 36 percent in December. Forty-one percent of blacks and 46 percent of whites think so. Pessimism among whites has increased 10 points since December.

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Do you think race relations in the United States are generally good or generally bad?
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Do you think race relations in the United States are getting better, getting worse or staying about the same?
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The poll finds that profound racial divisions in views of how the police use deadly force remain. Blacks are more than twice as likely to say police in most communities are more apt to use deadly force against a black person — 79 percent of blacks say so compared with 37 percent of whites. A slim majority of whites say race is not a factor in a police officer’s decision to use deadly force.

Overall, 44 percent of Americans say deadly force is more likely to be used against a black person, up from 37 percent in August and 40 percent in December.

Blacks also remain far more likely than whites to say they feel mostly anxious about the police in their community. Forty-two percent say so, while 51 percent feel mostly safe. Among whites, 8 in 10 feel mostly safe.

One proposal to address the matter — having on-duty police officers wear body cameras — receives overwhelming support. More than 9 in 10 whites and blacks alike favor it.

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How would you describe your feelings about the police in your community? Would you say they make you feel mostly safe or mostly anxious?
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In general, do you think the police in most communities are more likely to use deadly force against a black person, or more likely to use it against a white person, or don’t you think race affects police use of deadly force?
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Asked specifically about the situation in Baltimore, most Americans expressed at least some confidence that the investigation by local authorities would be conducted fairly. But while nearly two-thirds of whites think so, fewer than half of blacks agree. Still, more blacks are confident now than were in August regarding the investigation in Ferguson. On Friday, six members of the police force involved in the arrest of Mr. Gray were charged with serious offenses, including manslaughter. The poll was conducted Thursday through Sunday; results from before charges were announced are similar to those from after.

Reaction to the recent turmoil in Baltimore, however, is similar among blacks and whites. Most Americans, 61 percent, say the unrest after Mr. Gray’s death was not justified. That includes 64 percent of whites and 57 percent of blacks.

Continue reading the main story
As you may know, a Baltimore man, Freddie Gray, recently died after being in the custody of the Baltimore police. How much confidence do you have that the investigation by local authorities into this matter will be conducted fairly?
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Negative View of U.S. Race Relations Grows, Poll Finds

HOBART, Tasmania — Few places seem out of reach for China’s leader, Xi Jinping, who has traveled from European capitals to obscure Pacific and Caribbean islands in pursuit of his nation’s strategic interests.

So perhaps it was not surprising when he turned up last fall in this city on the edge of the Southern Ocean to put down a long-distance marker in another faraway region, Antarctica, 2,000 miles south of this Australian port.

Standing on the deck of an icebreaker that ferries Chinese scientists from this last stop before the frozen continent, Mr. Xi pledged that China would continue to expand in one of the few places on earth that remain unexploited by humans.

He signed a five-year accord with the Australian government that allows Chinese vessels and, in the future, aircraft to resupply for fuel and food before heading south. That will help secure easier access to a region that is believed to have vast oil and mineral resources; huge quantities of high-protein sea life; and for times of possible future dire need, fresh water contained in icebergs.

It was not until 1985, about seven decades after Robert Scott and Roald Amundsen raced to the South Pole, that a team representing Beijing hoisted the Chinese flag over the nation’s first Antarctic research base, the Great Wall Station on King George Island.

But now China seems determined to catch up. As it has bolstered spending on Antarctic research, and as the early explorers, especially the United States and Australia, confront stagnant budgets, there is growing concern about its intentions.

China’s operations on the continent — it opened its fourth research station last year, chose a site for a fifth, and is investing in a second icebreaker and new ice-capable planes and helicopters — are already the fastest growing of the 52 signatories to the Antarctic Treaty. That gentlemen’s agreement reached in 1959 bans military activity on the continent and aims to preserve it as one of the world’s last wildernesses; a related pact prohibits mining.

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But Mr. Xi’s visit was another sign that China is positioning itself to take advantage of the continent’s resource potential when the treaty expires in 2048 — or in the event that it is ripped up before, Chinese and Australian experts say.

“So far, our research is natural-science based, but we know there is more and more concern about resource security,” said Yang Huigen, director general of the Polar Research Institute of China, who accompanied Mr. Xi last November on his visit to Hobart and stood with him on the icebreaker, Xue Long, or Snow Dragon.

With that in mind, the polar institute recently opened a new division devoted to the study of resources, law, geopolitics and governance in Antarctica and the Arctic, Mr. Yang said.

Australia, a strategic ally of the United States that has strong economic relations with China, is watching China’s buildup in the Antarctic with a mix of gratitude — China’s presence offers support for Australia’s Antarctic science program, which is short of cash — and wariness.

“We should have no illusions about the deeper agenda — one that has not even been agreed to by Chinese scientists but is driven by Xi, and most likely his successors,” said Peter Jennings, executive director of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute and a former senior official in the Australian Department of Defense.

“This is part of a broader pattern of a mercantilist approach all around the world,” Mr. Jennings added. “A big driver of Chinese policy is to secure long-term energy supply and food supply.”

That approach was evident last month when a large Chinese agriculture enterprise announced an expansion of its fishing operations around Antarctica to catch more krill — small, protein-rich crustaceans that are abundant in Antarctic waters.

“The Antarctic is a treasure house for all human beings, and China should go there and share,” Liu Shenli, the chairman of the China National Agricultural Development Group, told China Daily, a state-owned newspaper. China would aim to fish up to two million tons of krill a year, he said, a substantial increase from what it currently harvests.

Because sovereignty over Antarctica is unclear, nations have sought to strengthen their claims over the ice-covered land by building research bases and naming geographic features. China’s fifth station will put it within reach of the six American facilities, and ahead of Australia’s three.

Chinese mappers have also given Chinese names to more than 300 sites, compared with the thousands of locations on the continent with English names.

In the unspoken competition for Antarctica’s future, scientific achievement can also translate into influence. Chinese scientists are driving to be the first to drill and recover an ice core containing tiny air bubbles that provide a record of climate change stretching as far back as 1.5 million years. It is an expensive and delicate effort at which others, including the European Union and Australia, have failed.

In a breakthrough a decade ago, European scientists extracted an ice core nearly two miles long that revealed 800,000 years of climate history. But finding an ice core going back further would allow scientists to examine a change in the earth’s climate cycles believed to have occurred 900,000 to 1.2 million years ago.

China is betting it has found the best location to drill, at an area called Dome A, or Dome Argus, the highest point on the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Though it is considered one of the coldest places on the planet, with temperatures of 130 degrees below zero Fahrenheit, a Chinese expedition explored the area in 2005 and established a research station in 2009.

“The international community has drilled in lots of places, but no luck so far,” said Xiao Cunde, a member of the first party to reach the site and the deputy director of the Institute for Climate Change at the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences. “We think at Dome A we will have a straight shot at the one-million-year ice core.”

Mr. Xiao said China had already begun drilling and hoped to find what scientists are looking for in four to five years.

To support its Antarctic aspirations, China is building a sophisticated $300 million icebreaker that is expected to be ready in a few years, said Xia Limin, deputy director of the Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Administration in Beijing. It has also bought a high-tech fixed-wing aircraft, outfitted in the United States, for taking sensitive scientific soundings from the ice.

China has chosen the site for its fifth research station at Inexpressible Island, named by a group of British explorers who were stranded at the desolate site in 1912 and survived the winter by excavating a small ice cave.

Mr. Xia said the inhospitable spot was ideal because China did not have a presence in that part of Antarctica, and because the rocky site did not have much snow, making it relatively cheap to build there.

Anne-Marie Brady, a professor of political science at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand and the author of a soon-to-be-released book, “China as a Polar Great Power,” said Chinese scientists also believed they had a good chance of finding mineral and energy resources near the site.

“China is playing a long game in Antarctica and keeping other states guessing about its true intentions and interests are part of its poker hand,” she said. But she noted that China’s interest in finding minerals was presented “loud and clear to domestic audiences” as the main reason it was investing in Antarctica.

Because commercial drilling is banned, estimates of energy and mineral resources in Antarctica rely on remote sensing data and comparisons with similar geological environments elsewhere, said Millard F. Coffin, executive director of the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies in Hobart.

But the difficulty of extraction in such severe conditions and uncertainty about future commodity prices make it unlikely that China or any country would defy the ban on mining anytime soon.

Tourism, however, is already booming. Travelers from China are still a relatively small contingent in the Antarctic compared with the more than 13,000 Americans who visited in 2013, and as yet there are no licensed Chinese tour operators.

But that is about to change, said Anthony Bergin, deputy director of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute. “I understand very soon there will be Chinese tourists on Chinese vessels with all-Chinese crew in the Antarctic,” he said.

 

Top News China’s Intents Are Questioned as It Builds in Antarctica

Ms. Rendell was a prolific writer of intricately plotted mystery novels that combined psychological insight, social conscience and teeth-chattering terror.

Ruth Rendell, Novelist Who Thrilled and Educated, Dies at 85

WASHINGTON — The last three men to win the Republican nomination have been the prosperous son of a president (George W. Bush), a senator who could not recall how many homes his family owned (John McCain of Arizona; it was seven) and a private equity executive worth an estimated $200 million (Mitt Romney).

The candidates hoping to be the party’s nominee in 2016 are trying to create a very different set of associations. On Sunday, Ben Carson, a retired neurosurgeon, joined the presidential field.

Senator Marco Rubio of Florida praises his parents, a bartender and a Kmart stock clerk, as he urges audiences not to forget “the workers in our hotel kitchens, the landscaping crews in our neighborhoods, the late-night janitorial staff that clean our offices.”

Gov. Scott Walker of Wisconsin, a preacher’s son, posts on Twitter about his ham-and-cheese sandwiches and boasts of his coupon-clipping frugality. His $1 Kohl’s sweater has become a campaign celebrity in its own right.

Senator Rand Paul of Kentucky laments the existence of “two Americas,” borrowing the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s phrase to describe economically and racially troubled communities like Ferguson, Mo., and Detroit.

Photo
 
Senator Marco Rubio of Florida praises his parents, a bartender and a Kmart stock clerk. Credit Joe Raedle/Getty Images

“Some say, ‘But Democrats care more about the poor,’ ” Mr. Paul likes to say. “If that’s true, why is black unemployment still twice white unemployment? Why has household income declined by $3,500 over the past six years?”

We are in the midst of the Empathy Primary — the rhetorical battleground shaping the Republican presidential field of 2016.

Harmed by the perception that they favor the wealthy at the expense of middle-of-the-road Americans, the party’s contenders are each trying their hardest to get across what the elder George Bush once inelegantly told recession-battered voters in 1992: “Message: I care.”

Their ability to do so — less bluntly, more sincerely — could prove decisive in an election year when power, privilege and family connections will loom large for both parties.

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Questions of understanding and compassion cost Republicans in the last election. Mr. Romney, who memorably dismissed the “47 percent” of Americans as freeloaders, lost to President Obama by 63 percentage points among voters who cast their ballots for the candidate who “cares about people like me,” according to exit polls.

And a Pew poll from February showed that people still believe Republicans are indifferent to working Americans: 54 percent said the Republican Party does not care about the middle class.

That taint of callousness explains why Senator Ted Cruz of Texas declared last week that Republicans “are and should be the party of the 47 percent” — and why another son of a president, Jeb Bush, has made economic opportunity the centerpiece of his message.

With his pedigree and considerable wealth — since he left the Florida governor’s office almost a decade ago he has earned millions of dollars sitting on corporate boards and advising banks — Mr. Bush probably has the most complicated task making the argument to voters that he understands their concerns.

On a visit last week to Puerto Rico, Mr. Bush sounded every bit the populist, railing against “elites” who have stifled economic growth and innovation. In the kind of economy he envisions leading, he said: “We wouldn’t have the middle being squeezed. People in poverty would have a chance to rise up. And the social strains that exist — because the haves and have-nots is the big debate in our country today — would subside.”

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Who Is Running for President (and Who’s Not)?

Republicans’ emphasis on poorer and working-class Americans now represents a shift from the party’s longstanding focus on business owners and “job creators” as the drivers of economic opportunity.

This is intentional, Republican operatives said.

In the last presidential election, Republicans rushed to defend business owners against what they saw as hostility by Democrats to successful, wealthy entrepreneurs.

“Part of what you had was a reaction to the Democrats’ dehumanization of business owners: ‘Oh, you think you started your plumbing company? No you didn’t,’ ” said Grover Norquist, the conservative activist and president of Americans for Tax Reform.

But now, Mr. Norquist said, Republicans should move past that. “Focus on the people in the room who know someone who couldn’t get a job, or a promotion, or a raise because taxes are too high or regulations eat up companies’ time,” he said. “The rich guy can take care of himself.”

Democrats argue that the public will ultimately see through such an approach because Republican positions like opposing a minimum-wage increase and giving private banks a larger role in student loans would hurt working Americans.

“If Republican candidates are just repeating the same tired policies, I’m not sure that smiling while saying it is going to be enough,” said Guy Cecil, a Democratic strategist who is joining a “super PAC” working on behalf of Hillary Rodham Clinton.

Republicans have already attacked Mrs. Clinton over the wealth and power she and her husband have accumulated, caricaturing her as an out-of-touch multimillionaire who earns hundreds of thousands of dollars per speech and has not driven a car since 1996.

Mr. Walker hit this theme recently on Fox News, pointing to Mrs. Clinton’s lucrative book deals and her multiple residences. “This is not someone who is connected with everyday Americans,” he said. His own net worth, according to The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, is less than a half-million dollars; Mr. Walker also owes tens of thousands of dollars on his credit cards.

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But showing off a cheap sweater or boasting of a bootstraps family background not only helps draw a contrast with Mrs. Clinton’s latter-day affluence, it is also an implicit argument against Mr. Bush.

Mr. Walker, who featured a 1998 Saturn with more than 100,000 miles on the odometer in a 2010 campaign ad during his first run for governor, likes to talk about flipping burgers at McDonald’s as a young person. His mother, he has said, grew up on a farm with no indoor plumbing until she was in high school.

Mr. Rubio, among the least wealthy members of the Senate, with an estimated net worth of around a half-million dollars, uses his working-class upbringing as evidence of the “exceptionalism” of America, “where even the son of a bartender and a maid can have the same dreams and the same future as those who come from power and privilege.”

Mr. Cruz alludes to his family’s dysfunction — his parents, he says, were heavy drinkers — and recounts his father’s tale of fleeing Cuba with $100 sewn into his underwear.

Gov. Chris Christie of New Jersey notes that his father paid his way through college working nights at an ice cream plant.

But sometimes the attempts at projecting authenticity can seem forced. Mr. Christie recently found himself on the defensive after telling a New Hampshire audience, “I don’t consider myself a wealthy man.” Tax returns showed that he and his wife, a longtime Wall Street executive, earned nearly $700,000 in 2013.

The story of success against the odds is a political classic, even if it is one the Republican Party has not been able to tell for a long time. Ronald Reagan liked to say that while he had not been born on the wrong side of the tracks, he could always hear the whistle. Richard Nixon was fond of reminding voters how he was born in a house his father had built.

“Probably the idea that is most attractive to an average voter, and an idea that both Republicans and Democrats try to craft into their messages, is this idea that you can rise from nothing,” said Charles C. W. Cooke, a writer for National Review.

There is a certain delight Republicans take in turning that message to their advantage now.

“That’s what Obama did with Hillary,” Mr. Cooke said. “He acknowledged it openly: ‘This is ridiculous. Look at me, this one-term senator with dark skin and all of America’s unsolved racial problems, running against the wife of the last Democratic president.”

G.O.P. Hopefuls Now Aiming to Woo the Middle Class

Imagine an elite professional services firm with a high-performing, workaholic culture. Everyone is expected to turn on a dime to serve a client, travel at a moment’s notice, and be available pretty much every evening and weekend. It can make for a grueling work life, but at the highest levels of accounting, law, investment banking and consulting firms, it is just the way things are.

Except for one dirty little secret: Some of the people ostensibly turning in those 80- or 90-hour workweeks, particularly men, may just be faking it.

Many of them were, at least, at one elite consulting firm studied by Erin Reid, a professor at Boston University’s Questrom School of Business. It’s impossible to know if what she learned at that unidentified consulting firm applies across the world of work more broadly. But her research, published in the academic journal Organization Science, offers a way to understand how the professional world differs between men and women, and some of the ways a hard-charging culture that emphasizes long hours above all can make some companies worse off.

Photo
 
Credit Peter Arkle

Ms. Reid interviewed more than 100 people in the American offices of a global consulting firm and had access to performance reviews and internal human resources documents. At the firm there was a strong culture around long hours and responding to clients promptly.

“When the client needs me to be somewhere, I just have to be there,” said one of the consultants Ms. Reid interviewed. “And if you can’t be there, it’s probably because you’ve got another client meeting at the same time. You know it’s tough to say I can’t be there because my son had a Cub Scout meeting.”

Some people fully embraced this culture and put in the long hours, and they tended to be top performers. Others openly pushed back against it, insisting upon lighter and more flexible work hours, or less travel; they were punished in their performance reviews.

The third group is most interesting. Some 31 percent of the men and 11 percent of the women whose records Ms. Reid examined managed to achieve the benefits of a more moderate work schedule without explicitly asking for it.

They made an effort to line up clients who were local, reducing the need for travel. When they skipped work to spend time with their children or spouse, they didn’t call attention to it. One team on which several members had small children agreed among themselves to cover for one another so that everyone could have more flexible hours.

A male junior manager described working to have repeat consulting engagements with a company near enough to his home that he could take care of it with day trips. “I try to head out by 5, get home at 5:30, have dinner, play with my daughter,” he said, adding that he generally kept weekend work down to two hours of catching up on email.

Despite the limited hours, he said: “I know what clients are expecting. So I deliver above that.” He received a high performance review and a promotion.

What is fascinating about the firm Ms. Reid studied is that these people, who in her terminology were “passing” as workaholics, received performance reviews that were as strong as their hyper-ambitious colleagues. For people who were good at faking it, there was no real damage done by their lighter workloads.

It calls to mind the episode of “Seinfeld” in which George Costanza leaves his car in the parking lot at Yankee Stadium, where he works, and gets a promotion because his boss sees the car and thinks he is getting to work earlier and staying later than anyone else. (The strategy goes awry for him, and is not recommended for any aspiring partners in a consulting firm.)

A second finding is that women, particularly those with young children, were much more likely to request greater flexibility through more formal means, such as returning from maternity leave with an explicitly reduced schedule. Men who requested a paternity leave seemed to be punished come review time, and so may have felt more need to take time to spend with their families through those unofficial methods.

The result of this is easy to see: Those specifically requesting a lighter workload, who were disproportionately women, suffered in their performance reviews; those who took a lighter workload more discreetly didn’t suffer. The maxim of “ask forgiveness, not permission” seemed to apply.

It would be dangerous to extrapolate too much from a study at one firm, but Ms. Reid said in an interview that since publishing a summary of her research in Harvard Business Review she has heard from people in a variety of industries describing the same dynamic.

High-octane professional service firms are that way for a reason, and no one would doubt that insane hours and lots of travel can be necessary if you’re a lawyer on the verge of a big trial, an accountant right before tax day or an investment banker advising on a huge merger.

But the fact that the consultants who quietly lightened their workload did just as well in their performance reviews as those who were truly working 80 or more hours a week suggests that in normal times, heavy workloads may be more about signaling devotion to a firm than really being more productive. The person working 80 hours isn’t necessarily serving clients any better than the person working 50.

In other words, maybe the real problem isn’t men faking greater devotion to their jobs. Maybe it’s that too many companies reward the wrong things, favoring the illusion of extraordinary effort over actual productivity.

How Some Men Fake an 80-Hour Workweek, and Why It Matters

The 2015 Met Gala has only officially begun, but there's a clear leader in the race for best couple, no small feat at an event that threatens to sap Hollywood of every celebrity it has for the duration of an East Coast evening.

That would be Marc Jacobs and his surprise guest (who, by some miracle, remained under wraps until their red carpet debut), Cher.

“This has been a dream of mine for a very, very long time,” Mr. Jacobs said.

It is Cher's first appearance at the Met Gala since 1997, when she arrived on the arm of Donatella Versace.

– MATTHEW SCHNEIER

Cher and Marc Jacobs

Mr. Mankiewicz, an Oscar-nominated screenwriter for “I Want to Live!,” also wrote episodes of television shows such as “Star Trek” and “Marcus Welby, M.D.”

Don Mankiewicz, Screenwriter in a Family Film Tradition, Dies at 93

The magical quality Mr. Lesnie created in shooting the “Babe” films caught the eye of the director Peter Jackson, who chose him to film the fantasy epic.

Andrew Lesnie, Cinematographer of ‘Lord of the Rings,’ Dies at 59

Mr. Fox, known for his well-honed countrified voice, wrote about things dear to South Carolina and won over Yankee critics.

William Price Fox, Admired Southern Novelist and Humorist, Dies at 89

A lapsed seminarian, Mr. Chambers succeeded Saul Alinsky as leader of the social justice umbrella group Industrial Areas Foundation.

Edward Chambers, Early Leader in Community Organizing, Dies at 85

Mr. Tepper was not a musical child and had no formal training, but he grew up to write both lyrics and tunes, trading off duties with the other member of the team, Roy C. Bennett.

Sid Tepper Dies at 96; Delivered ‘Red Roses for a Blue Lady’ and Other Songs
Frontline  An installment of this PBS program looks at the effects of Ebola on Liberia and other countries, as well as the origins of the outbreak.
Frontline

Frontline An installment of this PBS program looks at the effects of Ebola on Liberia and other countries, as well as the origins of the outbreak.

The program traces the outbreak to its origin, thought to be a tree full of bats in Guinea.

Review: ‘9-Man’ Is More Than a Game for Chinese-Americans

A variation of volleyball with nine men on each side is profiled Tuesday night on the World Channel in an absorbing documentary called “9-Man.”

Television

‘Hard Earned’ Documents the Plight of the Working Poor

“Hard Earned,” an Al Jazeera America series, follows five working-class families scrambling to stay ahead on limited incomes.

Review: ‘Frontline’ Looks at Missteps During the Ebola Outbreak
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