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Istilah busana merupakan istilah yang sudah tidak asing lagi bagi kita semua. Istilah busana berasal dari bahasa sanskerta yaitu ”bhusana” dan istilah yang popular dalam bahasa Indonesia yaitu ”busana” yang dapat diartikan ”pakaian”. Namun demikian pengertian busana dan pakaian terdapat sedikit perbedaan, di mana busana mempunyai konotasi ”pakaian yang bagus atau indah” yaitu pakaian yang serasi, harmonis, selaras, enak dipandang, nyaman melihatnya, cocok dengan pemakai serta sesuai dengan kesempatan. Sedangkan pakaian adalah bagian dari busana itu sendiri.

Busana dalam pengertian luas adalah segala sesuatu yang dipakai mulai dari kepala sampai ujung kaki yang memberi kenyamanan dan menampilkan keindahan bagi sipemakai. Secara garis besar busana meliputi:

1. Busana mutlak yaitu busana yang tergolong busana pokok seperti baju, rok, kebaya, blus, bebe dan lain-lain, termasuk pakaian dalam seperti singlet, bra, celana dalam dan lain sebagainya.

2.  Milineris yaitu pelengkap busana yang sifatnya melengkapi busana mutlak, serta mempunyai nilai guna di samping juga untuk keindahan seperti sepatu, tas, topi, kaus kaki, kaca mata, selendang, scraf, shawl, jam tangan dan lain-lain.

3.  Aksesoris yaitu pelengkap busana yang sifatnya hanya untuk menambah keindahan sipemakai seperti cincin, kalung, leontin, bross dan lain sebagainya.

Dari uraian di atas jelaslah bahwa busana tidak hanya terbatas pada pakaian seperti rok, blus atau celana saja, tetapi merupakan kesatuan dari keseluruhan yang kita pakai mulai dari kepala sampai ke ujung kaki, baik yang sifatnya pokok maupun sebagai pelengkap yang bernilai guna atau untuk perhiasan. Pemahaman hal di atas sangat penting sekali bagi seseorang yang akan berkecimpung di bidang tata busana.

Pemakaian istilah busana dalam Bahasa Inggris sangat beragam, tergantung pada konteks yang dikemukakan, seperti:

a. Fashion lebih difokuskan pada mode yang umumnya ditampilkan seperti istilah-istilah mode yang sedang digemari masyarakat yaitu in fashion, mode yang dipamerkan atau diperagakan disebut fashion show, sedangkan pencipta mode dikatakan fashion designer, dan buku mode disebut fashion book.

b. Costume. Istilah ini berkaitan dengan jenis busana seperti busana nasional yaitu national costume, busana muslim disebut moslem costume, busana daerah disebut traditional costume.

c. Clothing, dapat diartikan sandang yaitu busana yang berkaitan dengan kondisi atau situasi seperti busana untuk musim dingin disebut winter clothing, busana musim panas yaitu summer clothing dan busana untuk musim semi disebut spring cloth.

d. Dress, dapat diartikan gaun, rok, blus yaitu busana yang menunjukkan kesempatan tertentu, misalnya busana untuk kesempatan resmi disebut dress suit, busana seragam dikatakan dress uniform dan busana untuk pesta disebut dress party. Dress juga menunjukkan model pakaian tertentu seperti long dress, sack dress dan Malaysian dress.

e. Wear, istilah ini dipakai untuk menunjukkan jenis busana itu sendiri, contoh busana anak disebut children’s wear, busana pria disebut men’s wear dan busana wanita disebut women’s wear.


Istilah terkait pengertian busana : tata busana, pengertian tata busana, pengertian busana muslim, busana pesta

 

sumber : www.mithasukses.com

PENGERTIAN BUSANA

saco-indonesia.com, Satu rumah di Perumahan Mega Sentul  Blok Alamada Jl. Aster, RT.002/08, Desa Pasir Laja, Kecamatan Sukaraja, Rabu malam telah digerebek oleh Tim Densus 88 Anti Teror.  Dalam penggrebekan tersebut seorang anggota yang terduga teroris jaringan Abu Roban telah diamankan bersama tiga penghuni lainnya

Terduga teroris itu Saduloh Rojak yang berusia 40 tahun, sebagai pemilik rumah, sedangkan tiga lainnya  Sibgotulloh,19, Achmad Jayabrata,22, dan Sayan Hibatulloh,19 adalah tamunya saat penggerebekan berlangsung. Selain itu  tim Densus juga telah   menyita cairan bahan kimia seember seberat 25 kg, pistol air softgun, senjata tajam dan senjata yang berbentuk pulpen serta sejumlah buku jihad.

Ketua RW 08 Desa Pasir Laja Nurrahman, telah mengatakan tidak ada perlawanan saat  penggerebekan. terjadi  “Sekitar pkl.18:30, lima anggota Densus 88 tersebut datang ke rumah saya dan meyerahkan surat izin penangkapan di Blok Alamada Jl. Aster,” katanya.

Menurutnya, penggrebekan tersebut telah berlangung sangat cepat dan Tim Densus telah membawa sejumlah barang bukti dari rumah Saduloh Rojak. “Usai mengerebek rumah Saduloh di Blok Alamada, Tim Densus juga telah menggerebek rumah istri keduanya di  RT.003/05 di perumahan yang sama. Tim Densus juga sempat memeriksa Ny. Sifa, istri pertama Saduloh,” katanya.

Dia juga telah menyebutkan, selama ini Saduloh juga jarang bergaul, tapi rajin salat di majid di  dalam kompleks. “Tapi belakangan ini dia jarang salat ke masjid. Kami tidak tahu pasti pekerjaanya, dia juga sering berangkat kerja pagi, siang dan malam. Tidak seperti pegawai biasa yang berangkat pagi dan pulang sore atau malam,” katanya.

Editor : Dian Sukmawati

TERDUGA TERORIS DI BOGOR DITNGKAP OLEH DENSUS 88

saco-indonesia.com, Satu lagi kelebihan dari musisi Yovie Widiannto, selain piawai dalam menciptakan sebuah karya musik, ia juga mampu untuk menggabungkan penyanyi beda label record. Yovie juga telah memadukan mereka dalam album barunya yang bertajuk IRREPLACEABLE #TAKKAN TERGANTI. Karena faktor kedekatan, Yovie juga mengaku tidak terlalu sulit untuk dapat meminta kepada pihak label untuk meminta penyanyi-penyanyi ikut terlibat.

"Label penyanyinya juga beda, karena saya punya banyak sahabat lintas label. Sempet kerja bareng di pertunjukkan atau saya jadi produsernya. Sudah banyak kerjasama nggak susah ketika dimintai tolong," papar Yovie saat konferensi pers di KFC Kemang, Jakarta.

Menurut Yovie, seringnya tampil dalam sebuah pertunjukan bersama dengan para penyanyi yang terlibat dalam album barunya menjadi salah satu alasan mudahnya Yovie meminta kepada pihak label.

"Pertimbangan mereka udah sempat tur dengan Yovie and His Friends di beberapa kota. Juga konser kemarin intensitas kerja samanya sangat tinggi dengan interpretasi berbeda-berbeda tanpa kehilangan esensinya," pungkasnya.

Editor : dian sukmawati
Sumber : kapanlagi.com

 

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saco-indonesia.com, Dipercaya atau tidak, warna adalah salah satu yang dapat membuat emosi dan kinerja manusia menjadi baik. Untuk itu, Canon telah mempersembahkan produk printer yaitu PIXMA MC7170 dengan beragam warna.

Sekarang ini, mayoritas printer yang telah beredar di pasaran hanya telah memiliki warna yang sudah digunakan oleh banyak perusahaan produsen mesin cetak lainnya, seperti hitam, putih atau abu-abu.

Melalui Datascrip sebagai authorized distributor-nya di Indonesia, Canon telah menghadirkan PIXMA MG7170, printer foto All in One (AIO) dengan 3 pilihan warna elegan dan menarik, yaitu coklat, merah dan hitam.

Selain bervariasi dari sisi warna tampilan yang colourful, penggunanya juga dapat dengan mudah mengoperasikannya, apalagi dengan dukungan teknologi nirkabel di dalamnya.

Dilengkapi dengan koneksi Wi-Fi, pengguna juga dapat dengan mudah untuk mencetak dan memindai tanpa harus terkoneksi dengan PC atau jaringan router. Printer ini juga dilengkapi dengan Access Point Mode yang telah didesain untuk dapat menjawab kebutuhan cetak tanpa harus menghubungkan perangkat dengan printer melalui kabel.

Dengan demikian, siapa saja juga dapat langsung mencetak hasil jepretan dari kamera digitalnya yang telah didukung oleh DPS over IP protocol atau dengan Wireless PictBridge yang lebih familiar.

Desain yang compact telah memberikan keleluasaan dan efisiensi dalam penempatan di berbagai sudut ruang rumah atau kantor. PIXMA MG7170 juga sudah dibekali dengan Canon's Intelligent Touch System, yaitu fitur layar sentuh untuk panel operasional dan layar LCD. Fitur ini juga hanya akan menyala pada tombol tertentu saat dioperasikan, menjadikan printer ini lebih sederhana.

Dengan PIXMA Cloud Link terbaru, telah membuat proses mencetak di PIXMA MG7170 jadi lebih seru. PIXMA Cloud Link ini telah terintegrasi penuh dengan fasilitas cloud printing di mana pengguna juga dapat mencetak dari situs jejaring sosial seperti Facebook dan Twitter ataupun situs berbagi foto seperti Picasa, Photobucket dan Flickr, bahkan dari layanan cloud storage seperti Evernote dan Dropbox.

Pengguna dari PIXMA MG7170 cukup login, kemudian memilih foto atau dokumen, lalu bisa langsung cetak. Itu semua dilakukan melalui layar LCD printer, tanpa menggunakan PC.

Bagi para pengguna tablet atau smartphone yang berbasis iOS atau Android juga bisa langsung mencetak maupun mendapatkan file scan dari printer ini.

Anda juga dapat dengan mudah untuk mengirimkan file ke perangkat mobile sehingga tidak perlu repot membawa lembaran dokumen hard copy.

"Kehadiran printer PIXMA MG7170 ini juga semakin memanjakan pengguna dengan pilihan tampilan warna yang menarik, serta fitur dan teknologi yang semakin memudahkan untuk proses mencetak maupun memindai, tanpa harus melalui PC atau terhubung melalui kabel. Cukup dengan perangkat mobile seperti tablet, smartphone ataupun kamera digital yang dapat terkoneksi Wi-Fi telah mencetak menjadi lebih mudah," Merry Harun, Canon Division Director, PT Datascrip.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

CANNON PRINTER PIXMA MG170

Mr. Napoleon was a self-taught musician whose career began in earnest with the orchestra led by Chico Marx of the Marx Brothers.

Marty Napoleon, 93, Dies; Jazz Pianist Played With Louis Armstrong

Mr. Miller, of the firm Weil, Gotshal & Manges, represented companies including Lehman Brothers, General Motors and American Airlines, and mentored many of the top Chapter 11 practitioners today.

Harvey R. Miller, Renowned Bankruptcy Lawyer, Dies at 82

BALTIMORE — In the afternoons, the streets of Locust Point are clean and nearly silent. In front of the rowhouses, potted plants rest next to steps of brick or concrete. There is a shopping center nearby with restaurants, and a grocery store filled with fresh foods.

And the National Guard and the police are largely absent. So, too, residents say, are worries about what happened a few miles away on April 27 when, in a space of hours, parts of this city became riot zones.

“They’re not our reality,” Ashley Fowler, 30, said on Monday at the restaurant where she works. “They’re not what we’re living right now. We live in, not to be racist, white America.”

As Baltimore considers its way forward after the violent unrest brought by the death of Freddie Gray, a 25-year-old black man who died of injuries he suffered while in police custody, residents in its predominantly white neighborhoods acknowledge that they are sometimes struggling to understand what beyond Mr. Gray’s death spurred the turmoil here. For many, the poverty and troubled schools of gritty West Baltimore are distant troubles, glimpsed only when they pass through the area on their way somewhere else.

Photo
 
Officers blocked traffic at Pennsylvania and West North Avenues after reports that a gun was discharged in the area. Credit Drew Angerer for The New York Times

And so neighborhoods of Baltimore are facing altogether different reckonings after Mr. Gray’s death. In mostly black communities like Sandtown-Winchester, where some of the most destructive rioting played out last week, residents are hoping businesses will reopen and that the police will change their strategies. But in mostly white areas like Canton and Locust Point, some residents wonder what role, if any, they should play in reimagining stretches of Baltimore where they do not live.

“Most of the people are kind of at a loss as to what they’re supposed to do,” said Dr. Richard Lamb, a dentist who has practiced in the same Locust Point office for nearly 39 years. “I listen to the news reports. I listen to the clergymen. I listen to the facts of the rampant unemployment and the lack of opportunities in the area. Listen, I pay my taxes. Exactly what can I do?”

And in Canton, where the restaurants have clever names like Nacho Mama’s and Holy Crepe Bakery and Café, Sara Bahr said solutions seemed out of reach for a proudly liberal city.

“I can only imagine how frustrated they must be,” said Ms. Bahr, 36, a nurse who was out with her 3-year-old daughter, Sally. “I just wish I knew how to solve poverty. I don’t know what to do to make it better.”

The day of unrest and the overwhelmingly peaceful demonstrations that followed led to hundreds of arrests, often for violations of the curfew imposed on the city for five consecutive nights while National Guard soldiers patrolled the streets. Although there were isolated instances of trouble in Canton, the neighborhood association said on its website, many parts of southeast Baltimore were physically untouched by the tumult.

Tensions in the city bubbled anew on Monday after reports that the police had wounded a black man in Northwest Baltimore. The authorities denied those reports and sent officers to talk with the crowds that gathered while other officers clutching shields blocked traffic at Pennsylvania and West North Avenues.

Lt. Col. Melvin Russell, a community police officer, said officers had stopped a man suspected of carrying a handgun and that “one of those rounds was spent.”

Colonel Russell said officers had not opened fire, “so we couldn’t have shot him.”

Photo
 
Lambi Vasilakopoulos, right, who runs a casual restaurant in Canton, said he was incensed by last week's looting and predicted tensions would worsen. Credit Drew Angerer for The New York Times

The colonel said the man had not been injured but was taken to a hospital as a precaution. Nearby, many people stood in disbelief, despite the efforts by the authorities to quash reports they described as “unfounded.”

Monday’s episode was a brief moment in a larger drama that has yielded anger and confusion. Although many people said they were familiar with accounts of the police harassing or intimidating residents, many in Canton and Locust Point said they had never experienced it themselves. When they watched the unrest, which many protesters said was fueled by feelings that they lived only on Baltimore’s margins, even those like Ms. Bahr who were pained by what they saw said they could scarcely comprehend the emotions associated with it.

But others, like Lambi Vasilakopoulos, who runs a casual restaurant in Canton, said they were incensed by what unfolded last week.

“What happened wasn’t called for. Protests are one thing; looting is another thing,” he said, adding, “We’re very frustrated because we’re the ones who are going to pay for this.”

There were pockets of optimism, though, that Baltimore would enter a period of reconciliation.

“I’m just hoping for peace,” Natalie Boies, 53, said in front of the Locust Point home where she has lived for 50 years. “Learn to love each other; be patient with each other; find justice; and care.”

A skeptical Mr. Vasilakopoulos predicted tensions would worsen.

“It cannot be fixed,” he said. “It’s going to get worse. Why? Because people don’t obey the laws. They don’t want to obey them.”

But there were few fears that the violence that plagued West Baltimore last week would play out on these relaxed streets. The authorities, Ms. Fowler said, would make sure of that.

“They kept us safe here,” she said. “I didn’t feel uncomfortable when I was in my house three blocks away from here. I knew I was going to be O.K. because I knew they weren’t going to let anyone come and loot our properties or our businesses or burn our cars.”

Baltimore Residents Away From Turmoil Consider Their Role

Ms. Turner and her twin sister founded the Love Kitchen in 1986 in a church basement in Knoxville, Tenn., and it continues to provide clothing and meals.

Ellen Turner Dies at 87; Opened Kitchen to Feed the Needy of Knoxville

“It was really nice to play with other women and not have this underlying tone of being at each other’s throats.”

ay 4, 2015 ‘Game of Thrones’ Q&A: Keisha Castle-Hughes on the Tao of the Sand Snakes

A 214-pound Queens housewife struggled with a lifelong addiction to food until she shed 72 pounds and became the public face of the worldwide weight-control empire Weight Watchers.

Jean Nidetch, 91, Dies; Pounds Came Off, and Weight Watchers Was Born

Ms. von Furstenberg made her debut in the movies and on the Broadway stage in the early 1950s as a teenager and later reinvented herself as a television actress, writer and philanthropist.

Betsy von Furstenberg, Baroness and Versatile Actress, Dies at 83

Though Robin and Joan Rolfs owned two rare talking dolls manufactured by Thomas Edison’s phonograph company in 1890, they did not dare play the wax cylinder records tucked inside each one.

The Rolfses, longtime collectors of Edison phonographs, knew that if they turned the cranks on the dolls’ backs, the steel phonograph needle might damage or destroy the grooves of the hollow, ring-shaped cylinder. And so for years, the dolls sat side by side inside a display cabinet, bearers of a message from the dawn of sound recording that nobody could hear.

In 1890, Edison’s dolls were a flop; production lasted only six weeks. Children found them difficult to operate and more scary than cuddly. The recordings inside, which featured snippets of nursery rhymes, wore out quickly.

Yet sound historians say the cylinders were the first entertainment records ever made, and the young girls hired to recite the rhymes were the world’s first recording artists.

Year after year, the Rolfses asked experts if there might be a safe way to play the recordings. Then a government laboratory developed a method to play fragile records without touching them.

Audio

The technique relies on a microscope to create images of the grooves in exquisite detail. A computer approximates — with great accuracy — the sounds that would have been created by a needle moving through those grooves.

In 2014, the technology was made available for the first time outside the laboratory.

“The fear all along is that we don’t want to damage these records. We don’t want to put a stylus on them,” said Jerry Fabris, the curator of the Thomas Edison Historical Park in West Orange, N.J. “Now we have the technology to play them safely.”

Last month, the Historical Park posted online three never-before-heard Edison doll recordings, including the two from the Rolfses’ collection. “There are probably more out there, and we’re hoping people will now get them digitized,” Mr. Fabris said.

The technology, which is known as Irene (Image, Reconstruct, Erase Noise, Etc.), was developed by the particle physicist Carl Haber and the engineer Earl Cornell at Lawrence Berkeley. Irene extracts sound from cylinder and disk records. It can also reconstruct audio from recordings so badly damaged they were deemed unplayable.

“We are now hearing sounds from history that I did not expect to hear in my lifetime,” Mr. Fabris said.

The Rolfses said they were not sure what to expect in August when they carefully packed their two Edison doll cylinders, still attached to their motors, and drove from their home in Hortonville, Wis., to the National Document Conservation Center in Andover, Mass. The center had recently acquired Irene technology.

Audio

Cylinders carry sound in a spiral groove cut by a phonograph recording needle that vibrates up and down, creating a surface made of tiny hills and valleys. In the Irene set-up, a microscope perched above the shaft takes thousands of high-resolution images of small sections of the grooves.

Stitched together, the images provide a topographic map of the cylinder’s surface, charting changes in depth as small as one five-hundredth the thickness of a human hair. Pitch, volume and timbre are all encoded in the hills and valleys and the speed at which the record is played.

At the conservation center, the preservation specialist Mason Vander Lugt attached one of the cylinders to the end of a rotating shaft. Huddled around a computer screen, the Rolfses first saw the wiggly waveform generated by Irene. Then came the digital audio. The words were at first indistinct, but as Mr. Lugt filtered out more of the noise, the rhyme became clearer.

“That was the Eureka moment,” Mr. Rolfs said.

In 1890, a girl in Edison’s laboratory had recited:

There was a little girl,

And she had a little curl

Audio

Right in the middle of her forehead.

When she was good,

She was very, very good.

But when she was bad, she was horrid.

Recently, the conservation center turned up another surprise.

In 2010, the Woody Guthrie Foundation received 18 oversize phonograph disks from an anonymous donor. No one knew if any of the dirt-stained recordings featured Guthrie, but Tiffany Colannino, then the foundation’s archivist, had stored them unplayed until she heard about Irene.

Last fall, the center extracted audio from one of the records, labeled “Jam Session 9” and emailed the digital file to Ms. Colannino.

“I was just sitting in my dining room, and the next thing I know, I’m hearing Woody,” she said. In between solo performances of “Ladies Auxiliary,” “Jesus Christ,” and “Dead or Alive,” Guthrie tells jokes, offers some back story, and makes the audience laugh. “It is quintessential Guthrie,” Ms. Colannino said.

The Rolfses’ dolls are back in the display cabinet in Wisconsin. But with audio stored on several computers, they now have a permanent voice.

Ghostly Voices From Thomas Edison’s Dolls Can Now Be Heard

Mr. King sang for the Drifters and found success as a solo performer with hits like “Spanish Harlem.”

Ben E. King, Soulful Singer of ‘Stand by Me,’ Dies at 76
Children playing last week in Sandtown-Winchester, the Baltimore neighborhood where Freddie Gray was raised. One young resident called it “a tough community.”
Todd Heisler/The New York Times

Children playing last week in Sandtown-Winchester, the Baltimore neighborhood where Freddie Gray was raised. One young resident called it “a tough community.”

Hard but Hopeful Home to ‘Lot of Freddies’

Hard but Hopeful Home to ‘Lot of Freddies’

Mr. Tepper was not a musical child and had no formal training, but he grew up to write both lyrics and tunes, trading off duties with the other member of the team, Roy C. Bennett.

Sid Tepper Dies at 96; Delivered ‘Red Roses for a Blue Lady’ and Other Songs

WASHINGTON — The last three men to win the Republican nomination have been the prosperous son of a president (George W. Bush), a senator who could not recall how many homes his family owned (John McCain of Arizona; it was seven) and a private equity executive worth an estimated $200 million (Mitt Romney).

The candidates hoping to be the party’s nominee in 2016 are trying to create a very different set of associations. On Sunday, Ben Carson, a retired neurosurgeon, joined the presidential field.

Senator Marco Rubio of Florida praises his parents, a bartender and a Kmart stock clerk, as he urges audiences not to forget “the workers in our hotel kitchens, the landscaping crews in our neighborhoods, the late-night janitorial staff that clean our offices.”

Gov. Scott Walker of Wisconsin, a preacher’s son, posts on Twitter about his ham-and-cheese sandwiches and boasts of his coupon-clipping frugality. His $1 Kohl’s sweater has become a campaign celebrity in its own right.

Senator Rand Paul of Kentucky laments the existence of “two Americas,” borrowing the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s phrase to describe economically and racially troubled communities like Ferguson, Mo., and Detroit.

Photo
 
Senator Marco Rubio of Florida praises his parents, a bartender and a Kmart stock clerk. Credit Joe Raedle/Getty Images

“Some say, ‘But Democrats care more about the poor,’ ” Mr. Paul likes to say. “If that’s true, why is black unemployment still twice white unemployment? Why has household income declined by $3,500 over the past six years?”

We are in the midst of the Empathy Primary — the rhetorical battleground shaping the Republican presidential field of 2016.

Harmed by the perception that they favor the wealthy at the expense of middle-of-the-road Americans, the party’s contenders are each trying their hardest to get across what the elder George Bush once inelegantly told recession-battered voters in 1992: “Message: I care.”

Their ability to do so — less bluntly, more sincerely — could prove decisive in an election year when power, privilege and family connections will loom large for both parties.

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Questions of understanding and compassion cost Republicans in the last election. Mr. Romney, who memorably dismissed the “47 percent” of Americans as freeloaders, lost to President Obama by 63 percentage points among voters who cast their ballots for the candidate who “cares about people like me,” according to exit polls.

And a Pew poll from February showed that people still believe Republicans are indifferent to working Americans: 54 percent said the Republican Party does not care about the middle class.

That taint of callousness explains why Senator Ted Cruz of Texas declared last week that Republicans “are and should be the party of the 47 percent” — and why another son of a president, Jeb Bush, has made economic opportunity the centerpiece of his message.

With his pedigree and considerable wealth — since he left the Florida governor’s office almost a decade ago he has earned millions of dollars sitting on corporate boards and advising banks — Mr. Bush probably has the most complicated task making the argument to voters that he understands their concerns.

On a visit last week to Puerto Rico, Mr. Bush sounded every bit the populist, railing against “elites” who have stifled economic growth and innovation. In the kind of economy he envisions leading, he said: “We wouldn’t have the middle being squeezed. People in poverty would have a chance to rise up. And the social strains that exist — because the haves and have-nots is the big debate in our country today — would subside.”

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Who Is Running for President (and Who’s Not)?

Republicans’ emphasis on poorer and working-class Americans now represents a shift from the party’s longstanding focus on business owners and “job creators” as the drivers of economic opportunity.

This is intentional, Republican operatives said.

In the last presidential election, Republicans rushed to defend business owners against what they saw as hostility by Democrats to successful, wealthy entrepreneurs.

“Part of what you had was a reaction to the Democrats’ dehumanization of business owners: ‘Oh, you think you started your plumbing company? No you didn’t,’ ” said Grover Norquist, the conservative activist and president of Americans for Tax Reform.

But now, Mr. Norquist said, Republicans should move past that. “Focus on the people in the room who know someone who couldn’t get a job, or a promotion, or a raise because taxes are too high or regulations eat up companies’ time,” he said. “The rich guy can take care of himself.”

Democrats argue that the public will ultimately see through such an approach because Republican positions like opposing a minimum-wage increase and giving private banks a larger role in student loans would hurt working Americans.

“If Republican candidates are just repeating the same tired policies, I’m not sure that smiling while saying it is going to be enough,” said Guy Cecil, a Democratic strategist who is joining a “super PAC” working on behalf of Hillary Rodham Clinton.

Republicans have already attacked Mrs. Clinton over the wealth and power she and her husband have accumulated, caricaturing her as an out-of-touch multimillionaire who earns hundreds of thousands of dollars per speech and has not driven a car since 1996.

Mr. Walker hit this theme recently on Fox News, pointing to Mrs. Clinton’s lucrative book deals and her multiple residences. “This is not someone who is connected with everyday Americans,” he said. His own net worth, according to The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, is less than a half-million dollars; Mr. Walker also owes tens of thousands of dollars on his credit cards.

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But showing off a cheap sweater or boasting of a bootstraps family background not only helps draw a contrast with Mrs. Clinton’s latter-day affluence, it is also an implicit argument against Mr. Bush.

Mr. Walker, who featured a 1998 Saturn with more than 100,000 miles on the odometer in a 2010 campaign ad during his first run for governor, likes to talk about flipping burgers at McDonald’s as a young person. His mother, he has said, grew up on a farm with no indoor plumbing until she was in high school.

Mr. Rubio, among the least wealthy members of the Senate, with an estimated net worth of around a half-million dollars, uses his working-class upbringing as evidence of the “exceptionalism” of America, “where even the son of a bartender and a maid can have the same dreams and the same future as those who come from power and privilege.”

Mr. Cruz alludes to his family’s dysfunction — his parents, he says, were heavy drinkers — and recounts his father’s tale of fleeing Cuba with $100 sewn into his underwear.

Gov. Chris Christie of New Jersey notes that his father paid his way through college working nights at an ice cream plant.

But sometimes the attempts at projecting authenticity can seem forced. Mr. Christie recently found himself on the defensive after telling a New Hampshire audience, “I don’t consider myself a wealthy man.” Tax returns showed that he and his wife, a longtime Wall Street executive, earned nearly $700,000 in 2013.

The story of success against the odds is a political classic, even if it is one the Republican Party has not been able to tell for a long time. Ronald Reagan liked to say that while he had not been born on the wrong side of the tracks, he could always hear the whistle. Richard Nixon was fond of reminding voters how he was born in a house his father had built.

“Probably the idea that is most attractive to an average voter, and an idea that both Republicans and Democrats try to craft into their messages, is this idea that you can rise from nothing,” said Charles C. W. Cooke, a writer for National Review.

There is a certain delight Republicans take in turning that message to their advantage now.

“That’s what Obama did with Hillary,” Mr. Cooke said. “He acknowledged it openly: ‘This is ridiculous. Look at me, this one-term senator with dark skin and all of America’s unsolved racial problems, running against the wife of the last Democratic president.”

G.O.P. Hopefuls Now Aiming to Woo the Middle Class

From sea to shining sea, or at least from one side of the Hudson to the other, politicians you have barely heard of are being accused of wrongdoing. There were so many court proceedings involving public officials on Monday that it was hard to keep up.

In Newark, two underlings of Gov. Chris Christie were arraigned on charges that they were in on the truly deranged plot to block traffic leading onto the George Washington Bridge.

Ten miles away, in Lower Manhattan, Dean G. Skelos, the leader of the New York State Senate, and his son, Adam B. Skelos, were arrested by the Federal Bureau of Investigation on accusations of far more conventional political larceny, involving a job with a sewer company for the son and commissions on title insurance and bond work.

The younger man managed to receive a 150 percent pay increase from the sewer company even though, as he said on tape, he “literally knew nothing about water or, you know, any of that stuff,” according to a criminal complaint the United States attorney’s office filed.

The success of Adam Skelos, 32, was attributed by prosecutors to his father’s influence as the leader of the Senate and as a potentate among state Republicans. The indictment can also be read as one of those unfailingly sad tales of a father who cannot stop indulging a grown son. The senator himself is not alleged to have profited from the schemes, except by being relieved of the burden of underwriting Adam.

The bridge traffic caper is its own species of crazy; what distinguishes the charges against the two Skeloses is the apparent absence of a survival instinct. It is one thing not to know anything about water or that stuff. More remarkable, if true, is the fact that the sewer machinations continued even after the former New York Assembly speaker, Sheldon Silver, was charged in January with taking bribes disguised as fees.

It was by then common gossip in political and news media circles that Senator Skelos, a Republican, the counterpart in the Senate to Mr. Silver, a Democrat, in the Assembly, could be next in line for the criminal dock. “Stay tuned,” the United States attorney, Preet Bharara said, leaving not much to the imagination.

Even though the cat had been unmistakably belled, Skelos father and son continued to talk about how to advance the interests of the sewer company, though the son did begin to use a burner cellphone, the kind people pay for in cash, with no traceable contracts.

That was indeed prudent, as prosecutors had been wiretapping the cellphones of both men. But it would seem that the burner was of limited value, because by then the prosecutors had managed to secure the help of a business executive who agreed to record calls with the Skeloses. It would further seem that the business executive was more attentive to the perils of pending investigations than the politician.

Through the end of the New York State budget negotiations in March, the hopes of the younger Skelos rested on his father’s ability to devise legislation that would benefit the sewer company. That did not pan out. But Senator Skelos did boast that he had haggled with Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo, a Democrat, in a successful effort to raise a $150 million allocation for Long Island to $550 million, for what the budget called “transformative economic development projects.” It included money for the kind of work done by the sewer company.

The lawyer for Adam Skelos said he was not guilty and would win in court. Senator Skelos issued a ringing declaration that he was unequivocally innocent.

THIS was also the approach taken in New Jersey by Bill Baroni, a man of great presence and eloquence who stopped outside the federal courthouse to note that he had taken risks as a Republican by bucking his party to support paid family leave, medical marijuana and marriage equality. “I would never risk my career, my job, my reputation for something like this,” Mr. Baroni said. “I am an innocent man.”

The lawyer for his co-defendant, Bridget Anne Kelly, the former deputy chief of staff to Mr. Christie, a Republican, said that she would strongly rebut the charges.

Perhaps they had nothing to do with the lane closings. But neither Mr. Baroni nor Ms. Kelly addressed the question of why they did not return repeated calls from the mayor of Fort Lee, N.J., begging them to stop the traffic tie-ups, over three days.

That silence was a low moment. But perhaps New York hit bottom faster. Senator Skelos, the prosecutors charged, arranged to meet Long Island politicians at the wake of Wenjian Liu, a New York City police officer shot dead in December, to press for payments to the company employing his son.

Sometimes it seems as though for some people, the only thing to be ashamed of is shame itself.

Finding Scandal in New York and New Jersey, but No Shame

Fullmer, who reigned when fight clubs abounded and Friday night fights were a television staple, was known for his title bouts with Sugar Ray Robinson and Carmen Basilio.

Gene Fullmer, a Brawling Middleweight Champion, Dies at 83
Photo
 
Many bodies prepared for cremation last week in Kathmandu were of young men from Gongabu, a common stopover for Nepali migrant workers headed overseas. Credit Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

KATHMANDU, Nepal — When the dense pillar of smoke from cremations by the Bagmati River was thinning late last week, the bodies were all coming from Gongabu, a common stopover for Nepali migrant workers headed overseas, and they were all of young men.

Hindu custom dictates that funeral pyres should be lighted by the oldest son of the deceased, but these men were too young to have sons, so they were burned by their brothers or fathers. Sukla Lal, a maize farmer, made a 14-hour journey by bus to retrieve the body of his 19-year-old son, who had been on his way to the Persian Gulf to work as a laborer.

“He wanted to live in the countryside, but he was compelled to leave by poverty,” Mr. Lal said, gazing ahead steadily as his son’s remains smoldered. “He told me, ‘You can live on your land, and I will come up with money, and we will have a happy family.’ ”

Weeks will pass before the authorities can give a complete accounting of who died in the April 25 earthquake, but it is already clear that Nepal cannot afford the losses. The countryside was largely stripped of its healthy young men even before the quake, as they migrated in great waves — 1,500 a day by some estimates — to work as laborers in India, Malaysia or one of the gulf nations, leaving many small communities populated only by elderly parents, women and children. Economists say that at some times of the year, one-quarter of Nepal’s population is working outside the country.

Nepal’s Young Men, Lost to Migration, Then a Quake
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