PAKET UMROH BULAN FEBRUARI MARET APRIL MEI 2018




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saco-indonesia.com, Kondisi Erwiana Sulistiyaningsih, TKW yang telah disiksa oleh majikannya di Hongkong telah membaik sejak dirawat di RSI Amal Sehat, Sragen, Jawa Tengah sejak 11 Januari lalu. Erwiana telah ditangani oleh lima dokter spesialis yakni spesialis bedah, syaraf, penyakit dalam, kulit, serta psikolog untuk dapat memulihkan memorinya pascatrauma.

Ketua Tim Dokter dr Imam Fadli Sp B juga mengatakan kondisi Erwiana saat ini terus membaik. Namun masih mengeluhkan pusing terutama saat duduk dalam waktu yang lama.

"Sudah lumayan membaik, setelah kita tangani. Ada 5 dokter spesialis, yang telah menangani. Pusing yang dirasakan karena efek gegar otaknya yang belum juga sembuh. Berdasarkan dari hasil MRI, masih ada sisa bekas pendarahan di otak," ujar Imam.
Imam juga memperkirakan kondisi Erwiana akan pulih dalam waktu kurang dari sebulan. Pihaknya juga menjanjikan penyembuhan Erwiana secepatnya untuk keperluan penyidikan.

Sementara itu, tim dokter forensik dari Hongkong akan datang ke RSI Amal Sehat. Mereka juga akan didampingi tim dokter forensik dari Rumah Sakit Bhayangkara, Polda Jateng.

"Nanti malam mereka akan datang. Mereka akan melihat dari dekat kondisi Erwiana. Secara legal kan dokter forensik Indonesia yang berhak melakukan visum. Tim dokter dari Hongkong hanya mendampingi saja," pungkas Imam.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

ERWIANA AKAN DIPERIKSA OLEH TIM DOKTER HONGKONG

 Allah Maha Pemurah, diantara refleksi sifat Maha Pemurah Allah, Allah mensyariatkan  amal-amal yang ringan dikerjakan namun pahalanya (balasan kebaikannya) berlipat ganda, baik di dunia maupun di akhirat. Dengan amal-amal ini, kita sebagai umat manusia yang ditakdirkan Allah memiliki usia yang pendek, rata-rata antara 60-70 tahun bisa mengoptimalkan usia kita untuk mendapatkan balasan kebaikan dari Allah yang berlipat ganda. Diantara amal-amal ringan tapi berpahala besar adalah amal-amal yang pahalanya setara dengan pahala ibadah haji dan umrah. Amalan-amalan tersebut diantaranya:

1. KELUAR DARI RUMAH MENUJU SHALAT FARDHU DI MASJID DALAM KONDISI SUDAH BERSUCI.
Dari ABu Umamah, Rasulullah shallallahu alaihi wa sallam bersabda, "Barang siapa keluar dari rumahnya dalam keadaan suci untuk menunaikan shalat fardhu, pahalanya seperti pahala haji orang berihram." (Shahih: Shahih Abu Dawud, no 558)

2. SHALAT BERJAMA'AH DI MASJID KEMUDIAN DUDUK BERDZIKIR SAMPAI TERBIT MATAHARI LALU SHALAT 2 RAKA'AT

مَنْ صَلَّىالْغَدَا ةَ فِي جَمَاعَةٍ ثُمَّ قَعَدَ يَذْكُرُ اللَّهَ حَتَّى تَطْلُعَ الشَّمْسُ ثُمَّ صَلَّى رَكْعَتَيْنِ كَانَتْ لَهُ كَأَجْرِحَجَّةٍ وَعُمْرَةٍ قَالَ قَالَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ تَامَّةٍ تَامَّةٍ تَامَّةٍ   
Dari Anas bin Malik, Rasulullah s.a.w bersabda, " Barangsiapa Shalat Subuh berjamaah lalu duduk berdzikir (mengingat) Allah sampai terbit matahari kemudian shalat 2 raka'at, maka baginya pahala seperti pahala haji dan umrah yang sempurna, sempurna, sempurna." (Hasan: Shahih At-Tirmidzi, no. 480, 586; Shahih At-Targhib wa AT-Tarhib, no. 464; Ash-Shahihah, no. 3403)(Dishahihkan oleh Al-Albani). Dalam hadits lain, dari Abu Umamah dan 'Utbah bin 'Abd, Rasulullah bersabda, "Barangsiapa shalat Subuh dalam sebuah masjid secara berjama'ah lalu tinggal di dalamnya hingga ia Shalat Dhuha, maka ia mendapatkan pahala seperti pahalanya orang haji dan umrah yang sempurna haji dan umrahnya." (Hasan li ghairihi: Shahih At-Targhib wa At-Tarhib, no. 469).
Dalam hadits-hadits diatas, Rasulullah menyebutkan dzikir secara umum. Masuk dalam dzikir adalah ta'lim/kajian Islam. Selain lebih banyak faedahnya karena mempelajari ilmu syar'i, juga karena lebih meringankan jiwa yang terkadang malas berdzikir sendiri dalam waktu yang cukup lama.

3. MEMPELAJARI ATAU MENGAJARKAN KEBAIKAN DI MASJID
Dari Abu Umamah, Nabi saw bersabda," Barangsiapa pergi ke masjid, dia tidak menginginkan kecuali mempelajari suatu kebaikan atau mengajarkannya, maka baginya pahala seperti pahala orang haji sempurna hajinya.". Dalam riwayat lain dengan redaksi, "Barangsiapa berangkat di pagi hari menuju masjid, ia tidak menginginkan kecuali untuk mempelajari suatu kebaikan atau mengajarkannya, maka baginya pahala orang yang melaksanakan umrah dengan umrah yang sempurna. Dan barangsiapa berangkat sore hari menuju masjid, ia tidak menginginkan kecuali mempelajari suatu kebaikan atau mengajarkannya, maka ia mendapatkan pahala orang yang naik haji dengan haji yang sempurna."(Hasan Shahih: Shahih At-Targhib wa AT-Tarhib no 82).
Perlu diketahui, pahala ini bisa didapat dengan syarat, pelaku sebelum masuk ke dalam masjid, di perjalanan menuju masjid, atau masih dirumah, haruslah berniat untuk mempelajari atau mengajarkan kebaikan. Nabi dalam hadits diatas tidak menetapkan durasi waktu tertentu.

4. MELAKSANAKAN SHALAT FARDHU BERJAMA'AH DAN SHALAT DHUHA DI MASJID
Dari Abu Umamah, Rasulullah s.a.w bersabda," Barangsiapa berjalan menuju berjama'ah sholat wajib, maka dia seperti berhaji. Dan barang siapa berjalan menuju shalat tathawwu'(sunnah) maka dia seperti berumrah yang nafilah (istilah lain sunnah)." (Hasan: Shahih Al-Jami' no. 6556), dalam hadits yang lainnya, Rasulullah bersabda," Barangsiapa keluar dari rumahnya dalam keadaan sudah bersuci untuk shalat fardhu maka pahalanya seperti pahala orang haji yang berihram, Dan barangsiapa keluar shalat Dhuha dia tidak bermaksud kecuali itu, maka pahalanya seperti pahala orang yang berumrah. Dan shalat sesudah shalat yang tidak ada perbuatan sia-sia di antara keduanya diyulis di kitab 'Illiyyin."( Shahih: Shahih Sunan Abu Dawud, no. 522;Shahih Al-Jami' no. 6228)

Itulah beberapa amalan yang pahalanya setara dengan pahala orang yang sedang berhaji dan berumrah. Perlu diingat, amal-amal ini tidak bisa menggugurkan kewajiban berhaji dan berumrah. Orang-orang yang telah mengerjakan amal-amal ini tetap wajib melaksanakan ibadah haji dan umrah. Al-Munawi dalam Al-Faidh Al-Qadiir jilid 6 hal. 228, "makna mendapat pahala haji atau mendapat pahala seperti pahala haji, tetapi tidak harus sama persis." Maka, amal-amal yang berpahala seperti/setara pahala haji dan umrah itu tidak menghapus kewajiban haji dan umrah.

Seandainya amal-amal itu bisa mengganti kewajiban haji dan umrah atas setiap muslim, maka tidak akan ada orang yang melaksanakan haji dan umrah sejak zaman Nabi Muhammad. Nabi Muhammad yang mensosialisasikan amal-amal tersebut saja tetap melakukan haji dan umrah, demikian juga para pengikut beliau yang setia. Maka sebuah bid'ah dan kesesatan jika seseorang yang tidak berhaji dan berumrah dengan alasan telah beramal dengan amal-amal berpahala seperti pahala dan haji.

Sumber : http://www.metrokota.go.id

Baca Artikel Lainnya : HAJI DAN UMRAH SERTA PERBEDAANNYA

AMALAN YANG SETARA DENGAN HAJI DAN UMRAH
TAHUKAH KAMU??
Mumler, Fotografer yang Pertama Kali Memotret Hantu

William H. Mumler (1832 -1884) adalah seorang fotografer arwah Amerika yang bekerja di New York dan Boston. Foto arwah pertamanya adalah potret diri yang dikembangkan untuk tampaknya menunjukkan almarhum sepupunya. Mumler kemudian meninggalkan pekerjaannya sebagai perhiasan, dan bukannya memilih untuk bekerja penuh waktu sebagai fotografer, mengambil keuntungan dari sejumlah besar orang-orang yang telah kehilangan sanak keluarga dalam Perang Saudara Amerika. Mungkin dua karya yang paling terkenal adalah foto Mary Todd Lincoln dengan arwah suaminya Abraham Lincoln, dan foto Master Herrod, sebuah media, dengan tiga arwah pemandunya.

Setelah dituduh berbagai kegiatan, ia dibawa ke pengadilan untuk penipuan, dengan mencatat pemain sandiwara PT Barnum memberikan kesaksian terhadap dia. Meskipun dinyatakan tidak bersalah, kariernya sudah berakhir, dan ia meninggal dalam kemiskinan. Foto-foto Mumler dianggap palsu.

Sebelum memulai karirnya sebagai fotografer arwah, Mumler bekerja sebagai pengukir permata di Boston, berlatih fotografi amatir di waktu senggang. Pada awal 1860 -an, ia mengembangkan sebuah potret diri yang muncul untuk menampilkan penampakan sepupunya yang sudah mati selama 12 tahun.Hal ini secara luas diakui sebagai yang pertama foto roh seorang subjek hidup yang menampilkan keserupaan dengan orang yang telah meninggal (seringkali seorang kerabat) tercetak dengan arwah almarhum . Mumler kemudian menjadi fotografer arwah, dan pindah ke New York, di mana karyanya dianalisa oleh sejumlah pakar fotografi, tidak satu pun yang bisa menemukan bukti bahwa foto-fotonya adalah palsu.Fotografi arwah diyakini menjadi bisnis yang menguntungkan kepada keluarga mereka yang tewas selama Perang Saudara Amerika mencari kepastian bahwa di mana mereka tinggal.

Pengkritik karya Mumler termasuk PT Barnum, yang mengaku Mumler adalah mengambil keuntungan dari orang-orang yang sedang dalam kesedihan. Setelah penemuan bahwa beberapa hantu Mumler itu sesungguhnya orang-orang hidup,dan tuduhan bahwa ia telah patah ke rumah-rumah untuk mencuri foto-foto almarhum kerabat,Mumler dibawa ke pengadilan atas penipuan pada bulan April 1869.Barnum bersaksi melawan dia, mempekerjakan Abraham Bogardus untuk membuat gambar yang muncul untuk menunjukkan Barnum dengan arwah Abraham Lincoln untuk menunjukkan kemudahan dengan foto-foto yang dapat diciptakan.Mereka yang bersaksi dalam mendukung Mumler termasuk Musa A. Dow, seorang wartawan yang Mumler telah memotret. Meskipun dibebaskan dari penipuan, karier Mumler rusak dan dia meninggal di kemiskinan pada tahun 1884. Foto-nya dianggap hoax dan hanya rekayasa.
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saco-indonesia.com, Kecelakaan telah terjadi di Jalur Pantura Barat, Jalan Raya Desa Kluwut, Kecamatan Bulakamba, Kabupaten Brebes, Jawa Tengah. Sepasang suami istri tewas mengenaskan usai terlindas sebuah truk tronton.

Korban yang bernama Suwarto yang berusia (40) tahun yang bekerja sebagai satpam kantor Pajak Kota Tegal dan istrinya yang juga merupakan warga Kelurahan Tegalsari, Kecamatan Tegal Barat, Kota Tegal.

"Diduga korban mengantuk dan kedua anak korban telah dilarikan ke Puskesmas terdekat untuk dapat dirawat intensif," ujar Kepala Satuan Pos Lantas Tanjung, Aipda Adiat, Minggu (2/2) kemarin.

Adiat juga menjelaskan, korban telah mengendarai sepeda motor jenis Yamaha Cripton warna hitam melaju dengan kecepatan sedang menuju arah barat. Namun, korban menabrak trotoar di pinggir Jalan Raya Kluwut dan bersama kedua anaknya terpental ke tengah jalan. Dalam waktu yang bersamaan muncul sebuah truk tronton dari arah timur hingga menggilas pasangan suami istri tersebut.

"Kami juga masih harus mengumpulkan keterangan terkait kecelakaan yang telah menewaskan pasutri ini," kata Adiat.

Adiat juga menambahkan, kini kedua korban tewas masih berada di Rumah Sakit Bhakti Asih Kabupaten Brebes. Saat ini, pihaknya juga akan mengamankan sopir truk tronton untuk dapat dimintai keterangan.

"Kami belum bisa menetapkan sang sopir sebagai tersangka, karena masih butuh pengembangan dan pendalaman bukti-bukti untuk dapat dilakukan penyelidikan. Selanjutnya truk tronton telah diamankan di Pos Lantas Tanjung," pungkasnya.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

SATPAM KANTOR PAJAK TEGAL TEWAS TERLINDAS TRONTON

Ms. Pryor, who served more than two decades in the State Department, was the author of well-regarded biographies of the founder of the American Red Cross and the Confederate commander.

Elizabeth Brown Pryor, Biographer of Clara Barton and Robert E. Lee, Dies at 64
Joseph Lechleider

Mr. Lechleider helped invent DSL technology, which enabled phone companies to offer high-speed web access over their infrastructure of copper wires.

Joseph Lechleider, a Father of the DSL Internet Technology, Dies at 82

A lapsed seminarian, Mr. Chambers succeeded Saul Alinsky as leader of the social justice umbrella group Industrial Areas Foundation.

Edward Chambers, Early Leader in Community Organizing, Dies at 85

Ms. von Furstenberg made her debut in the movies and on the Broadway stage in the early 1950s as a teenager and later reinvented herself as a television actress, writer and philanthropist.

Betsy von Furstenberg, Baroness and Versatile Actress, Dies at 83

UNITED NATIONS — Wearing pinstripes and a pince-nez, Staffan de Mistura, the United Nations envoy for Syria, arrived at the Security Council one Tuesday afternoon in February and announced that President Bashar al-Assad had agreed to halt airstrikes over Aleppo. Would the rebels, Mr. de Mistura suggested, agree to halt their shelling?

What he did not announce, but everyone knew by then, was that the Assad government had begun a military offensive to encircle opposition-held enclaves in Aleppo and that fierce fighting was underway. It would take only a few days for rebel leaders, having pushed back Syrian government forces, to outright reject Mr. de Mistura’s proposed freeze in the fighting, dooming the latest diplomatic overture on Syria.

Diplomacy is often about appearing to be doing something until the time is ripe for a deal to be done.

 

 

Now, with Mr. Assad’s forces having suffered a string of losses on the battlefield and the United States reaching at least a partial rapprochement with Mr. Assad’s main backer, Iran, Mr. de Mistura is changing course. Starting Monday, he is set to hold a series of closed talks in Geneva with the warring sides and their main supporters. Iran will be among them.

In an interview at United Nations headquarters last week, Mr. de Mistura hinted that the changing circumstances, both military and diplomatic, may have prompted various backers of the war to question how much longer the bloodshed could go on.

“Will that have an impact in accelerating the willingness for a political solution? We need to test it,” he said. “The Geneva consultations may be a good umbrella for testing that. It’s an occasion for asking everyone, including the government, if there is any new way that they are looking at a political solution, as they too claim they want.”

He said he would have a better assessment at the end of June, when he expects to wrap up his consultations. That coincides with the deadline for a final agreement in the Iran nuclear talks.

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Whether a nuclear deal with Iran will pave the way for a new opening on peace talks in Syria remains to be seen. Increasingly, though, world leaders are explicitly linking the two, with the European Union’s top diplomat, Federica Mogherini, suggesting last week that a nuclear agreement could spur Tehran to play “a major but positive role in Syria.”

It could hardly come soon enough. Now in its fifth year, the Syrian war has claimed 220,000 lives, prompted an exodus of more than three million refugees and unleashed jihadist groups across the region. “This conflict is producing a question mark in many — where is it leading and whether this can be sustained,” Mr. de Mistura said.

Part Italian, part Swedish, Mr. de Mistura has worked with the United Nations for more than 40 years, but he is more widely known for his dapper style than for any diplomatic coups. Syria is by far the toughest assignment of his career — indeed, two of the organization’s most seasoned diplomats, Lakhdar Brahimi and Kofi Annan, tried to do the job and gave up — and critics have wondered aloud whether Mr. de Mistura is up to the task.

He served as a United Nations envoy in Afghanistan and Iraq, and before that in Lebanon, where a former minister recalled, with some scorn, that he spent many hours sunbathing at a private club in the hills above Beirut. Those who know him say he has a taste for fine suits and can sometimes speak too soon and too much, just as they point to his diplomatic missteps and hyperbole.

They cite, for instance, a news conference in October, when he raised the specter of Srebrenica, where thousands of Muslims were massacred in 1995 during the Balkans war, in warning that the Syrian border town of Kobani could fall to the Islamic State. In February, he was photographed at a party in Damascus, the Syrian capital, celebrating the anniversary of the Iranian revolution just as Syrian forces, aided by Iran, were pummeling rebel-held suburbs of Damascus; critics seized on that as evidence of his coziness with the government.

Mouin Rabbani, who served briefly as the head of Mr. de Mistura’s political affairs unit and has since emerged as one of his most outspoken critics, said Mr. de Mistura did not have the background necessary for the job. “This isn’t someone well known for his political vision or political imagination, and his closest confidants lack the requisite knowledge and experience,” Mr. Rabbani said.

As a deputy foreign minister in the Italian government, Mr. de Mistura was tasked in 2012 with freeing two Italian marines detained in India for shooting at Indian fishermen. He made 19 trips to India, to little effect. One marine was allowed to return to Italy for medical reasons; the other remains in India.

He said he initially turned down the Syria job when the United Nations secretary general approached him last August, only to change his mind the next day, after a sleepless, guilt-ridden night.

Mr. de Mistura compared his role in Syria to that of a doctor faced with a terminally ill patient. His goal in brokering a freeze in the fighting, he said, was to alleviate suffering. He settled on Aleppo as the location for its “fame,” he said, a decision that some questioned, considering that Aleppo was far trickier than the many other lesser-known towns where activists had negotiated temporary local cease-fires.

“Everybody, at least in Europe, are very familiar with the value of Aleppo,” Mr. de Mistura said. “So I was using that as an icebreaker.”

The cease-fire negotiations, to which he had devoted six months, fell apart quickly because of the government’s military offensive in Aleppo the very day of his announcement at the Security Council. Privately, United Nations diplomats said Mr. de Mistura had been manipulated. To this, Mr. de Mistura said only that he was “disappointed and concerned.”

Tarek Fares, a former rebel fighter, said after a recent visit to Aleppo that no Syrian would admit publicly to supporting Mr. de Mistura’s cease-fire proposal. “If anyone said they went to a de Mistura meeting in Gaziantep, they would be arrested,” is how he put it, referring to the Turkish city where negotiations between the two sides were held.

Secretary General Ban Ki-moon remains staunchly behind Mr. de Mistura’s efforts. His defenders point out that he is at the center of one of the world’s toughest diplomatic problems, charged with mediating a conflict in which two of the world’s most powerful nations — Russia, which supports Mr. Assad, and the United States, which has called for his ouster — remain deadlocked.

R. Nicholas Burns, a former State Department official who now teaches at Harvard, credited Mr. de Mistura for trying to negotiate a cease-fire even when the chances of success were exceedingly small — and the chances of a political deal even smaller. For his efforts to work, Professor Burns argued, the world powers will first have to come to an agreement of their own.

“He needs the help of outside powers,” he said. “It starts with backers of Assad. That’s Russia and Iran. De Mistura is there, waiting.”

With Iran Talks, a Tangled Path to Ending Syria’s War

WASHINGTON — A decade after emergency trailers meant to shelter Hurricane Katrina victims instead caused burning eyes, sore throats and other more serious ailments, the Environmental Protection Agency is on the verge of regulating the culprit: formaldehyde, a chemical that can be found in commonplace things like clothes and furniture.

But an unusual assortment of players, including furniture makers, the Chinese government, Republicans from states with a large base of furniture manufacturing and even some Democrats who championed early regulatory efforts, have questioned the E.P.A. proposal. The sustained opposition has held sway, as the agency is now preparing to ease key testing requirements before it releases the landmark federal health standard.

The E.P.A.’s five-year effort to adopt this rule offers another example of how industry opposition can delay and hamper attempts by the federal government to issue regulations, even to control substances known to be harmful to human health.

Continue reading the main story
 

Document: The Formaldehyde Fight

Formaldehyde is a known carcinogen that can also cause respiratory ailments like asthma, but the potential of long-term exposure to cause cancers like myeloid leukemia is less well understood.

The E.P.A.’s decision would be the first time that the federal government has regulated formaldehyde inside most American homes.

“The stakes are high for public health,” said Tom Neltner, senior adviser for regulatory affairs at the National Center for Healthy Housing, who has closely monitored the debate over the rules. “What we can’t have here is an outcome that fails to confront the health threat we all know exists.”

The proposal would not ban formaldehyde — commonly used as an ingredient in wood glue in furniture and flooring — but it would impose rules that prevent dangerous levels of the chemical’s vapors from those products, and would set testing standards to ensure that products sold in the United States comply with those limits. The debate has sharpened in the face of growing concern about the safety of formaldehyde-treated flooring imported from Asia, especially China.

What is certain is that a lot of money is at stake: American companies sell billions of dollars’ worth of wood products each year that contain formaldehyde, and some argue that the proposed regulation would impose unfair costs and restrictions.

Determined to block the agency’s rule as proposed, these industry players have turned to the White House, members of Congress and top E.P.A. officials, pressing them to roll back the testing requirements in particular, calling them redundant and too expensive.

“There are potentially over a million manufacturing jobs that will be impacted if the proposed rule is finalized without changes,” wrote Bill Perdue, the chief lobbyist at the American Home Furnishings Alliance, a leading critic of the testing requirements in the proposed regulation, in one letter to the E.P.A.

Industry opposition helped create an odd alignment of forces working to thwart the rule. The White House moved to strike out key aspects of the proposal. Subsequent appeals for more changes were voiced by players as varied as Senator Barbara Boxer, Democrat of California, and Senator Roger Wicker, Republican of Mississippi, as well as furniture industry lobbyists.

Hurricane Katrina in 2005 helped ignite the public debate over formaldehyde, after the deadly storm destroyed or damaged hundreds of thousands of homes along the Gulf of Mexico, forcing families into temporary trailers provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

The displaced storm victims quickly began reporting respiratory problems, burning eyes and other issues, and tests then confirmed high levels of formaldehyde fumes leaking into the air inside the trailers, which in many cases had been hastily constructed.

Public health advocates petitioned the E.P.A. to issue limits on formaldehyde in building materials and furniture used in homes, given that limits already existed for exposure in workplaces. But three years after the storm, only California had issued such limits.

Industry groups like the American Chemistry Council have repeatedly challenged the science linking formaldehyde to cancer, a position championed by David Vitter, the Republican senator from Louisiana, who is a major recipient of chemical industry campaign contributions, and whom environmental groups have mockingly nicknamed “Senator Formaldehyde.”

Continue reading the main story

Formaldehyde in Laminate Flooring

In laminate flooring, formaldehyde is used as a bonding agent in the fiberboard (or other composite wood) core layer and may also be used in glues that bind layers together. Concerns were raised in March when certain laminate flooring imported from China was reported to contain levels of formaldehyde far exceeding the limit permitted by California.

Typical

laminate

flooring

CLEAR FINISH LAYER

Often made of melamine resin

PATTERN LAYER

Paper printed to resemble wood,

or a thin wood veneer

GLUE

Layers may be bound using

formaldehyde-based glues

CORE LAYER

Fiberboard or other

composite, formed using

formaldehyde-based adhesives

BASE LAYER

Moisture-resistant vapor barrier

What is formaldehyde?

Formaldehyde is a common chemical used in many industrial and household products as an adhesive, bonding agent or preservative. It is classified as a volatile organic compound. The term volatile means that, at room temperature, formaldehyde will vaporize, or become a gas. Products made with formaldehyde tend to release this gas into the air. If breathed in large quantities, it may cause health problems.

WHERE IT IS COMMONLY FOUND

POTENTIAL HEALTH RISKS

Pressed-wood and composite wood products

Wallpaper and paints

Spray foam insulation used in construction

Commercial wood floor finishes

Crease-resistant fabrics

In cigarette smoke, or in the fumes from combustion of other materials, including wood, oil and gasoline.

Exposure to formaldehyde in sufficient amounts may cause eye, throat or skin irritation, allergic reactions, and respiratory problems like coughing, wheezing or asthma.

Long-term exposure to high levels has been associated with cancer in humans and laboratory animals.

Exposure to formaldehyde may affect some people more severely than others.

By 2010, public health advocates and some industry groups secured bipartisan support in Congress for legislation that ordered the E.P.A. to issue federal rules that largely mirrored California’s restrictions. At the time, concerns were rising over the growing number of lower-priced furniture imports from Asia that might include contaminated products, while also hurting sales of American-made products.

Maneuvering began almost immediately after the E.P.A. prepared draft rules to formally enact the new standards.

White House records show at least five meetings in mid-2012 with industry executives — kitchen cabinet makers, chemical manufacturers, furniture trade associations and their lobbyists, like Brock R. Landry, of the Venable law firm. These parties, along with Senator Vitter’s office, appealed to top administration officials, asking them to intervene to roll back the E.P.A. proposal.

The White House Office of Management and Budget, which reviews major federal regulations before they are adopted, apparently agreed. After the White House review, the E.P.A. “redlined” many of the estimates of the monetary benefits that would be gained by reductions in related health ailments, like asthma and fertility issues, documents reviewed by The New York Times show.

As a result, the estimated benefit of the proposed rule dropped to $48 million a year, from as much as $278 million a year. The much-reduced amount deeply weakened the agency’s justification for the sometimes costly new testing that would be required under the new rules, a federal official involved in the effort said.

“It’s a redlining blood bath,” said Lisa Heinzerling, a Georgetown University Law School professor and a former E.P.A. official, using the Washington phrase to describe when language is stricken from a proposed rule. “Almost the entire discussion of these potential benefits was excised.”

Senator Vitter’s staff was pleased.

“That’s a huge difference,” said Luke Bolar, a spokesman for Mr. Vitter, of the reduced estimated financial benefits, saying the change was “clearly highlighting more mismanagement” at the E.P.A.

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The review’s outcome galvanized opponents in the furniture industry. They then targeted a provision that mandated new testing of laminated wood, a cheaper alternative to hardwood. (The California standard on which the law was based did not require such testing.)

But E.P.A. scientists had concluded that these laminate products — millions of which are sold annually in the United States — posed a particular risk. They said that when thin layers of wood, also known as laminate or veneer, are added to furniture or flooring in the final stages of manufacturing, the resulting product can generate dangerous levels of fumes from often-used formaldehyde-based glues.

Industry executives, outraged by what they considered an unnecessary and financially burdensome level of testing, turned every lever within reach to get the requirement removed. It would be particularly onerous, they argued, for small manufacturers that would have to repeatedly interrupt their work to do expensive new testing. The E.P.A. estimated that the expanded requirements for laminate products would cost the furniture industry tens of millions of dollars annually, while the industry said that the proposed rule over all would cost its 7,000 American manufacturing facilities over $200 million each year.

“A lot of people don’t seem to appreciate what a lot of these requirements do to a small operation,” said Dick Titus, executive vice president of the Kitchen Cabinet Manufacturers Association, whose members are predominantly small businesses. “A 10-person shop, for example, just really isn’t equipped to handle that type of thing.”

Photo
 
Becky Gillette wants strong regulation of formaldehyde. Credit Beth Hall for The New York Times

Big industry players also weighed in. Executives from companies including La-Z-Boy, Hooker Furniture and Ashley Furniture all flew to Washington for a series of meetings with the offices of lawmakers including House Speaker John Boehner, Republican of Ohio, and about a dozen other lawmakers, asking several of them to sign a letter prepared by the industry to press the E.P.A. to back down, according to an industry report describing the lobbying visit.

Within a matter of weeks, two letters — using nearly identical language — were sent by House and Senate lawmakers to the E.P.A. — with the industry group forwarding copies of the letters to the agency as well, and then posting them on its website.

The industry lobbyists also held their own meeting at E.P.A. headquarters, and they urged Jim Jones, who oversaw the rule-making process as the assistant administrator for the agency’s Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention, to visit a North Carolina furniture manufacturing plant. According to the trade group, Mr. Jones told them that the visit had “helped the agency shift its thinking” about the rules and how laminated products should be treated.

The resistance was particularly intense from lawmakers like Mr. Wicker of Mississippi, whose state is home to major manufacturing plants owned by Ashley Furniture Industries, the world’s largest furniture maker, and who is one of the biggest recipients in Congress of donations from the industry’s trade association. Asked if the political support played a role, a spokesman for Mr. Wicker replied: “Thousands of Mississippians depend on the furniture manufacturing industry for their livelihoods. Senator Wicker is committed to defending all Mississippians from government overreach.”

Individual companies like Ikea also intervened, as did the Chinese government, which claimed that the new rule would create a “great barrier” to the import of Chinese products because of higher costs.

Perhaps the most surprising objection came from Senator Boxer, of California, a longtime environmental advocate, whose office questioned why the E.P.A.’s rule went further than her home state’s in seeking testing on laminated products. “We did not advocate an outcome, other than safety,” her office said in a statement about why the senator raised concerns. “We said ‘Take a look to see if you have it right.’ ”

Safety advocates say that tighter restrictions — like the ones Ms. Boxer and Mr. Wicker, along with Representative Doris Matsui, a California Democrat, have questioned — are necessary, particularly for products coming from China, where items as varied as toys and Christmas lights have been found to violate American safety standards.

While Mr. Neltner, the environmental advocate who has been most involved in the review process, has been open to compromise, he has pressed the E.P.A. not to back down entirely, and to maintain a requirement that laminators verify that their products are safe.

An episode of CBS’s “60 Minutes” in March brought attention to the issue when it accused Lumber Liquidators, the discount flooring retailer, of selling laminate products with dangerous levels of formaldehyde. The company has disputed the show’s findings and test methods, maintaining that its products are safe.

“People think that just because Congress passed the legislation five years ago, the problem has been fixed,” said Becky Gillette, who then lived in coastal Mississippi, in the area hit by Hurricane Katrina, and was among the first to notice a pattern of complaints from people living in the trailers. “Real people’s faces and names come up in front of me when I think of the thousands of people who could get sick if this rule is not done right.”

An aide to Ms. Matsui rejected any suggestion that she was bending to industry pressure.

“From the beginning the public health has been our No. 1 concern,” said Kyle J. Victor, an aide to Ms. Matsui.

But further changes to the rule are likely, agency officials concede, as they say they are searching for a way to reduce the cost of complying with any final rule while maintaining public health goals. The question is just how radically the agency will revamp the testing requirement for laminated products — if it keeps it at all.

“It’s not a secret to anybody that is the most challenging issue,” said Mr. Jones, the E.P.A. official overseeing the process, adding that the health consequences from formaldehyde are real. “We have to reduce those exposures so that people can live healthy lives and not have to worry about being in their homes.”

The Uphill Battle to Better Regulate Formaldehyde

Public perceptions of race relations in America have grown substantially more negative in the aftermath of the death of a young black man who was injured while in police custody in Baltimore and the subsequent unrest, far eclipsing the sentiment recorded in the wake of turmoil in Ferguson, Mo., last summer.

Americans are also increasingly likely to say that the police are more apt to use deadly force against a black person, the latest New York Times/CBS News poll finds.

The poll findings highlight the challenges for local leaders and police officials in trying to maintain order while sustaining faith in the criminal justice system in a racially polarized nation.

Sixty-one percent of Americans now say race relations in this country are generally bad. That figure is up sharply from 44 percent after the fatal police shooting of Michael Brown and the unrest that followed in Ferguson in August, and 43 percent in December. In a CBS News poll just two months ago, 38 percent said race relations were generally bad. Current views are by far the worst of Barack Obama’s presidency.

The negative sentiment is echoed by broad majorities of blacks and whites alike, a stark change from earlier this year, when 58 percent of blacks thought race relations were bad, but just 35 percent of whites agreed. In August, 48 percent of blacks and 41 percent of whites said they felt that way.

Looking ahead, 44 percent of Americans think race relations are worsening, up from 36 percent in December. Forty-one percent of blacks and 46 percent of whites think so. Pessimism among whites has increased 10 points since December.

Continue reading the main story
Do you think race relations in the United States are generally good or generally bad?
60
40
20
0
White
Black
May '14
May '15
Generally bad
Continue reading the main story
Do you think race relations in the United States are getting better, getting worse or staying about the same?
Getting worse
Staying the same
Getting better
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
44%
37
17
46
36
16
41
42
15

The poll finds that profound racial divisions in views of how the police use deadly force remain. Blacks are more than twice as likely to say police in most communities are more apt to use deadly force against a black person — 79 percent of blacks say so compared with 37 percent of whites. A slim majority of whites say race is not a factor in a police officer’s decision to use deadly force.

Overall, 44 percent of Americans say deadly force is more likely to be used against a black person, up from 37 percent in August and 40 percent in December.

Blacks also remain far more likely than whites to say they feel mostly anxious about the police in their community. Forty-two percent say so, while 51 percent feel mostly safe. Among whites, 8 in 10 feel mostly safe.

One proposal to address the matter — having on-duty police officers wear body cameras — receives overwhelming support. More than 9 in 10 whites and blacks alike favor it.

Continue reading the main story
How would you describe your feelings about the police in your community? Would you say they make you feel mostly safe or mostly anxious?
Mostly safe
Mostly anxious
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
75%
21
3
81
16
3
51
42
7
Continue reading the main story
In general, do you think the police in most communities are more likely to use deadly force against a black person, or more likely to use it against a white person, or don’t you think race affects police use of deadly force?
Police more likely to use deadly force against a black person
Police more likely to use deadly force against a white person
Race DOES NOT affect police use of deadly force
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All adults
Whites
Blacks
44%
37%
79%
2%
2%
1%
46%
53%
16%
9%
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4%
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Do you favor or oppose on-duty police officers wearing video cameras that would record events and actions as they occur?
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Oppose
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All adults
Whites
Blacks
92%
93%
93%
6%
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2%

Asked specifically about the situation in Baltimore, most Americans expressed at least some confidence that the investigation by local authorities would be conducted fairly. But while nearly two-thirds of whites think so, fewer than half of blacks agree. Still, more blacks are confident now than were in August regarding the investigation in Ferguson. On Friday, six members of the police force involved in the arrest of Mr. Gray were charged with serious offenses, including manslaughter. The poll was conducted Thursday through Sunday; results from before charges were announced are similar to those from after.

Reaction to the recent turmoil in Baltimore, however, is similar among blacks and whites. Most Americans, 61 percent, say the unrest after Mr. Gray’s death was not justified. That includes 64 percent of whites and 57 percent of blacks.

Continue reading the main story
As you may know, a Baltimore man, Freddie Gray, recently died after being in the custody of the Baltimore police. How much confidence do you have that the investigation by local authorities into this matter will be conducted fairly?
A lot
Some
Not much
None at all
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
29%
31
22
14
5
31
33
20
11
5
20
26
30
22
In general, do you think the unrest in Baltimore after the death of Freddie Gray was justified, or do you think the unrest was not justified?
Justified
Not justified
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
28%
61
11
26
64
11
37
57
6

Negative View of U.S. Race Relations Grows, Poll Finds

Mr. Miller, of the firm Weil, Gotshal & Manges, represented companies including Lehman Brothers, General Motors and American Airlines, and mentored many of the top Chapter 11 practitioners today.

Harvey R. Miller, Renowned Bankruptcy Lawyer, Dies at 82
Frontline  An installment of this PBS program looks at the effects of Ebola on Liberia and other countries, as well as the origins of the outbreak.
Frontline

Frontline An installment of this PBS program looks at the effects of Ebola on Liberia and other countries, as well as the origins of the outbreak.

The program traces the outbreak to its origin, thought to be a tree full of bats in Guinea.

Review: ‘9-Man’ Is More Than a Game for Chinese-Americans

A variation of volleyball with nine men on each side is profiled Tuesday night on the World Channel in an absorbing documentary called “9-Man.”

Television

‘Hard Earned’ Documents the Plight of the Working Poor

“Hard Earned,” an Al Jazeera America series, follows five working-class families scrambling to stay ahead on limited incomes.

Review: ‘Frontline’ Looks at Missteps During the Ebola Outbreak

Mr. Pfaff was an international affairs columnist and author who found Washington’s intervention in world affairs often misguided.

William Pfaff, Critic of American Foreign Policy, Dies at 86

Pronovost, who played for the Red Wings, was not a prolific scorer, but he was a consummate team player with bruising checks and fearless bursts up the ice that could puncture a defense.

Marcel Pronovost, 84, Dies; Hall of Famer Shared in Five N.H.L. Titles

Mr. Alger, who served five terms from Texas, led Republican women in a confrontation with Lyndon B. Johnson that may have cost Richard M. Nixon the 1960 presidential election.

Bruce Alger, 96, Dies; Led ‘Mink Coat’ Protest Against Lyndon Johnson

Mr. Paczynski was one of the concentration camp’s longest surviving inmates and served as the personal barber to its Nazi commandant Rudolf Höss.

Jozef Paczynski, Inmate Barber to Auschwitz Commandant, Dies at 95

Ms. Plisetskaya, renowned for her fluidity of movement, expressive acting and willful personality, danced on the Bolshoi stage well into her 60s, but her life was shadowed by Stalinism.

Maya Plisetskaya, Ballerina Who Embodied Bolshoi, Dies at 89

Imagine an elite professional services firm with a high-performing, workaholic culture. Everyone is expected to turn on a dime to serve a client, travel at a moment’s notice, and be available pretty much every evening and weekend. It can make for a grueling work life, but at the highest levels of accounting, law, investment banking and consulting firms, it is just the way things are.

Except for one dirty little secret: Some of the people ostensibly turning in those 80- or 90-hour workweeks, particularly men, may just be faking it.

Many of them were, at least, at one elite consulting firm studied by Erin Reid, a professor at Boston University’s Questrom School of Business. It’s impossible to know if what she learned at that unidentified consulting firm applies across the world of work more broadly. But her research, published in the academic journal Organization Science, offers a way to understand how the professional world differs between men and women, and some of the ways a hard-charging culture that emphasizes long hours above all can make some companies worse off.

Photo
 
Credit Peter Arkle

Ms. Reid interviewed more than 100 people in the American offices of a global consulting firm and had access to performance reviews and internal human resources documents. At the firm there was a strong culture around long hours and responding to clients promptly.

“When the client needs me to be somewhere, I just have to be there,” said one of the consultants Ms. Reid interviewed. “And if you can’t be there, it’s probably because you’ve got another client meeting at the same time. You know it’s tough to say I can’t be there because my son had a Cub Scout meeting.”

Some people fully embraced this culture and put in the long hours, and they tended to be top performers. Others openly pushed back against it, insisting upon lighter and more flexible work hours, or less travel; they were punished in their performance reviews.

The third group is most interesting. Some 31 percent of the men and 11 percent of the women whose records Ms. Reid examined managed to achieve the benefits of a more moderate work schedule without explicitly asking for it.

They made an effort to line up clients who were local, reducing the need for travel. When they skipped work to spend time with their children or spouse, they didn’t call attention to it. One team on which several members had small children agreed among themselves to cover for one another so that everyone could have more flexible hours.

A male junior manager described working to have repeat consulting engagements with a company near enough to his home that he could take care of it with day trips. “I try to head out by 5, get home at 5:30, have dinner, play with my daughter,” he said, adding that he generally kept weekend work down to two hours of catching up on email.

Despite the limited hours, he said: “I know what clients are expecting. So I deliver above that.” He received a high performance review and a promotion.

What is fascinating about the firm Ms. Reid studied is that these people, who in her terminology were “passing” as workaholics, received performance reviews that were as strong as their hyper-ambitious colleagues. For people who were good at faking it, there was no real damage done by their lighter workloads.

It calls to mind the episode of “Seinfeld” in which George Costanza leaves his car in the parking lot at Yankee Stadium, where he works, and gets a promotion because his boss sees the car and thinks he is getting to work earlier and staying later than anyone else. (The strategy goes awry for him, and is not recommended for any aspiring partners in a consulting firm.)

A second finding is that women, particularly those with young children, were much more likely to request greater flexibility through more formal means, such as returning from maternity leave with an explicitly reduced schedule. Men who requested a paternity leave seemed to be punished come review time, and so may have felt more need to take time to spend with their families through those unofficial methods.

The result of this is easy to see: Those specifically requesting a lighter workload, who were disproportionately women, suffered in their performance reviews; those who took a lighter workload more discreetly didn’t suffer. The maxim of “ask forgiveness, not permission” seemed to apply.

It would be dangerous to extrapolate too much from a study at one firm, but Ms. Reid said in an interview that since publishing a summary of her research in Harvard Business Review she has heard from people in a variety of industries describing the same dynamic.

High-octane professional service firms are that way for a reason, and no one would doubt that insane hours and lots of travel can be necessary if you’re a lawyer on the verge of a big trial, an accountant right before tax day or an investment banker advising on a huge merger.

But the fact that the consultants who quietly lightened their workload did just as well in their performance reviews as those who were truly working 80 or more hours a week suggests that in normal times, heavy workloads may be more about signaling devotion to a firm than really being more productive. The person working 80 hours isn’t necessarily serving clients any better than the person working 50.

In other words, maybe the real problem isn’t men faking greater devotion to their jobs. Maybe it’s that too many companies reward the wrong things, favoring the illusion of extraordinary effort over actual productivity.

How Some Men Fake an 80-Hour Workweek, and Why It Matters
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