PAKET UMROH BULAN FEBRUARI MARET APRIL MEI 2018




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1- Zakat Mata Uang
Jika harta seseorang senilai 85 gram emas atau 595 gram perak, dengan hitungan nilai pada saat dia mengeluarkan zakat sesuai dengan nilai mata uang negara orang yang membayar zakat, maka dia keluarkan zakatnya sebanyak 2½ %, setelah setiap putaran tahun hijriyah dan harta sampai senisab.
Suatu contoh: Seseorang mempunyai harta seba-nyak Rp.10.000.000,-, setelah satu tahun putaran, maka dia harus mengeluarkan zakat sebagai berikut:
Rp.10.000.000,-
x
25
1000
=
Rp.250.000,-
2- Zakat Utang Piutang
Jika seseorang memberi pinjaman kepada orang lain dan masa pinjaman berlalu beberapa waktu, maka menurut pendapat ulama yang paling mudah*1, orang yang memberi pinjaman harus mengeluarkan zakat piutang dalam jangka setahun saja walaupun hutang tersebut berlalu bertahun-tahun.
Suatu contoh Aiman memberi pinjaman uang ke- pada seseorang yang bernama Ahmad sebanyak Rp. 15.000.000,- dan pinjaman tersebut bertahan pada Ahmad selama tiga tahun, maka siapa yang wajib mengeluarkan zakat dan berapa jumlah zakat yang harus dibayar?
Yang berkewajiban mengeluarkan zakat adalah Aiman karena dia pemilik harta tersebut dan dia wajib mengeluarkan zakat dalam jangka setahun saja sebesar:
Rp.15.000.000,-
x
25
1000
x
1 tahun = Rp.375.000,-
*1 Demikian itu adalah pendapat Imam Malik baik utang yang diharapkan pengembaliannya atau tidak dengan syarat tidak diakhirkan penyerahan-nya tersendiri dari zakat. Jika tidak, maka wajib mengeluarkan zakat tiap tahun yang telah berlalu dari masa hutang. Sebagaimana pendapat Ibnu Qasim Al-Maliki bahwa yang lebih hati-hati adalah mengeluarkan zakat piutang setiap tahun sepanjang masa piutang seperti pendapat madzhab Hambali.
3- Zakat Profesi
Jika seorang muslim memperoleh pendapatan dari hasil usaha atau profesi tertentu, maka dia boleh menge-luarkan zakatnya langsung 2½ % pada saat penerimaan setelah dipotong kebutuhan bulanannya atau menunggu putaran satu tahun dan dikeluarkan zakatnya bersama dengan harta benda lain yang wajib dizakati senilai 2½ %.
Suatu contoh: Seseorang memiliki harta yang diza-kati setiap tahun di awal bulan Muharram, jika dia mene-rima gaji pada bulan Ramadhan, maka dia boleh memilih ketentuan di bawah ini:
Mengeluarkan zakat profesi dari gaji bulan Rama-dhan tersendiri pada bulan itu *2 atau,
Ditunda pembayaran zakat profesi digabung dengan harta yang lain dan dikeluarkan secara bersama pada bulan Muharram.
Secara kaidah bahwa harta itu wajib dizakati sekali dalam setahun.
*2 Termasuk harta profesi antara lain gaji atau pendapatan dari suatu profesi atau keahlian, boleh dikeluarkan zakatnya tanpa menunggu putaran haul (tahun), tetapi tidak boleh dizakati dua kali dalam setahun.
4- Zakat Saham dan Kertas Berharga
Saham dan kertas berharga*3 bila telah sampai seni-sab wajib dikeluarkan zakatnya bersama keuntungannya, seperti nisab mata uang dan kadar zakat sebesar 2½ %.
Suatu contoh: Seseorang memiliki saham, pada saat mau mengeluarkan zakatnya saham tersebut menurut harga pasar senilai Rp.50.000.000,- dan tiap tahun mendapat-kan laba sebesar Rp.5.000.000,- sehingga jumlah harta keseluruhan sebesar Rp.50.000.000,- + Rp.5.000.000,- = Rp.55.000.000,-.
Zakatnya: Rp.55.000.000,-
x
25
1000
=
Rp.1.375.000,-
*3 Kertas berharga biasanya tercampur dengan nilai yang haram yaitu riba, tetap wajib dikeluarkan zakatnya, karena dibolehkan menyalurkan hasil yang haram untuk kepentingan umum kaum muslimin
5- Zakat Perhiasan Wanita
Pendapat tengah-tengah di antara pendapat para ulama adalah pendapat yang diriwayatkan dari Anas bin Malik radhiallaahu anhu bahwa beliau berfatwa tentang wajibnya zakat perhiasan sekali dalam seumur dan bukan setiap putaran haul (tahun)*4 , tetapi jika membeli perhiasan lain maka dia harus mengeluarkan zakat perhiasan yang baru dibeli itu dengan syarat barang tersebut hanya untuk perhiasan*5. Adapun peralatan dan wadah yang terbuat dari emas bila telah sampai senisab, maka harus dikeluarkan zakatnya.
Suatu contoh: Seorang wanita memiliki perhiasan emas seberat 100 gram yang dipakai untuk perhiasan, bagaimana mengeluarkan zakatnya?
Jawab: Wajib bagi wanita mengeluarkan zakat per-hiasan tersebut sekali dalam seumur.
100 x 2½
=
25
100
gr. atau berupa uang senilai 2½ gr.
Jika dia membeli lagi emas untuk perhiasan sebe-rat 100 gram, maka dia harus mengeluarkan zakatnya sebesar 2½ gram sekali saja seumur hidup.
*4 Pendapat ini terdapat dalam kitab Al-Muhalla 6/78 dan Sunan Kubra 4/ 138
*5 Kadar zakat yang wajib dikeluarkan baik emas maupun perak sebesar 2½ %.
6- Zakat Apartemen, Perkantoran dan Tanah Persewaan
(A). Barangsiapa yang memiliki apartemen, ruko atau tanah yang disewakan, maka dia wajib mengeluar-kan zakat dari hasil penyewaan sebesar 2½ %, bila telah sampai senisab.
Suatu contoh: Seseorang memiliki ruko untuk disewakan tahunan dengan nilai sewa sebesar Rp.20.000.000,- bagaimana cara mengeluarkan zakatnya?
Jawab: Kadar zakatnya 2½%
Rp.20.000.000,-
x
25
1000
=
Rp.500.000,-
Catatan: Jika gedung tersebut belum ada yang menyewa maka belum ada kewajiban mengeluarkan zakat.
(B). Jika seseorang menjual gedung tersebut, ma-ka dia wajib mengeluarkan zakat dari hasil penjualan sebesar 2½ %.
Suatu contoh: Seseorang memiliki tanah kosong kemudian dijual dan laku seharga Rp.100.000.000,- dan se-belum terjual tanah tersebut berada di bawah kepemilikan-nya selama tiga tahun tanpa mendapatkan keuntungan karena tidak ada yang menyewa. Maka dia wajib menge-luarkan zakat dari hasil penjualan saja dengan perincian:
Rp.100.000.000,-
x
25
1000
=
Rp.2.500.000,-
Dan dikeluarkan cukup setahun itu saja sesuai de-ngan pendapat yang paling mudah.*6
Kaidah: Jika gedung atau tanah tersebut diguna-kan untuk keperluan pribadi tidak wajib dizakati.
*6 Demikian itu adalah pendapat dari madzhab Malikiyah, alasan mereka bahwa harta persewaan sebelum terjual tidak berkembang sehingga tidak harus dizakati. Lihat Syarh Kabir dan Hasyiyah Dasuqi 1/457. Dan untuk lebih hati-hati sebaiknya mengeluarkan zakatnya setiap tahun bila jelas tanah tersebut d iproyeksikan untuk niaga.
7- Zakat Perdagangan
Seorang pedagang hendaknya menghitung jumlah nilai barang dagangan dengan harga asli lalu digabung-kan dengan keuntungan bersih setelah dipotong piutang. Kadar zakatnya 2½ %.*7
Suatu contoh: Seorang pedagang menjumlah barang dagangan di akhir tahun dengan jumlah total Rp. 200.000.000,- dan laba bersih sebesar Rp.50.000.000,- sementara dia mempunyai hutang sebesar Rp.100.000.000,-.
Modal dikurangi hutang: Rp.200.000.000,- – Rp. 100.000.000,- = Rp.100.000.000,-
Jumlah harta zakat: Rp.100.000.000,- + Rp. 50.000.000,- = Rp.150.000.000,-
Zakatnya: Rp.150.000.000,-
x
25
1000
=
Rp.3.750.000,-
*7 Modal tetap tidak wajib dizakati seperti gedung, perkakas dan alat opera-sional perdagangan
8- Zakat Tanaman
Jika biji-bijian atau buah-buahan*8 telah sampai senisab yaitu lima wasak atau seberat + 670 kg, maka wajib dikeluarkan zakatnya 10% bila disiram dengan air hujan dan 5% jika menggunakan alat atau memindah air dari tempat lain dengan kendaraan atau yang lainnya.
Suatu contoh: Seorang petani memetik hasil panen sebanyak lima ton gandum dan dua ton korma, maka berapa zakat yang harus dikeluarkan jika dia mengguna-kan alat penyiram tanaman?
Zakat gandum: 5000
x
5
100
=
250 kg.
Zakat korma: 2000
x
5
100
=
100 kg.
*8 Hasil-hasil pertanian selain biji-bijian dianggap sebagai buah-buahan, seperti sayur mayur segar dan buahan-buahan masih dalam kelompok barang-barang niaga yang kadar zakatnya 2½ %. Meskipun Madzhab Hanafi berpendapat wajib mengeluarkan zakat setiap tanaman yang ditumbuhkan bumi sekadar 5% atau 10% sebagaimana penjelasan yang telah lalu.
9- Zakat Peternakan
Jika seseorang memiliki lima onta, maka ia wajib mengeluarkan zakat seekor kambing dan jika memiliki tiga puluh sapi, maka dia harus mengeluarkan tabi’i (sapi yang berumur setahun). Jika memiliki kambing empat puluh, maka dia wajib mengeluarkan zakat seekor kambing. Apabila jumlah hewan ternak lebih dari hitung-an di atas, maka cara mengeluarkan zakat seperti pada tabel di bawah ini:
Selain hewan yang tersebut di atas masuk dalam kelompok barang niaga bila diproyeksikan sebagai barang perdagangan.
Tabel Zakat Hewan Ternak yang Hidup di Padang Gembala
Tabel Zakat Kambing
Nisab
Zakat yang harus dikeluarkan
Dari
Sampai
40
120
1 Kambing
121
200
2 Kambing
201
 
3 Kambing
Kemudian setiap 100 kambing zakatnya seekor kambing
* Tidak boleh mengambil zakat berupa pejantan, hewan yang sudah tua sekali, cacat atau paling buruk.
* Tidak boleh mengambil zakat berupa hewan pincang, hewan betina yang mau melahirkan, hewan potong atau hewan termahal.
Tabel Zakat Onta
Nisab
Zakat yang harus dikeluarkan
Dari
Sampai
5
9
1 Kambing
10
14
2 Kambing
15
19
3 Kambing
20
24
4 Kambing
25
35
1 Bintu Makhadh
36
45
1 Bintu labun
46
60
1 Hiqqah
61
75
1 Jad’ah
76
90
2 Bintu Labun
91
120
2 Hiqqah
121
 
3 Bintu Labun
Kemudian setiap 40 onta zakatnya satu Bintu Labun dan setiap 50 onta zakatnya 1 Hiqqah.
Bintu Makhadh adalah onta yang telah berumur satu tahun, dinamakan seperti itu karena induknya sedang hamil.
Bintu Labun adalah onta yang telah berumur dua tahun, dinamakan seperti itu karena induknya sedang menyusui lagi.
Hiqqah adalah onta yang telah berumur tiga tahun, dinamakan seperti itu karena sudah mampu dan berhak dikendarai.
Jad’ah adalah onta telah yang berumur empat tahun
Tabel Zakat Sapi
Nisab
Zakat yang harus dibayarkan
Dari
Sampai
30
39
1 Tabii’ atau Tabii’ah
40
59
1 Musinnah
60
 
2 Tabii’ah
Kemudian setiap tiga puluh sapi zakatnya satu tabii’i dan setiap empat puluh sapi satu Musinnah.
* Tabii’ atau Tabii’ah adalah sapi yang telah berumur satu tahun.
* Musinnah adalah sapi yang telah berumur dua tahun.
10- Zakat Madu Tawon
Jika hasil madu mencapai nisab seberat 670 kg, maka harus dikeluarkan zakatnya sebesar 10 % dari be-rat bersih madu setelah dipotong biaya produksi.
Suatu contoh: Zakat 1000 kg madu adalah:
1000 kg
x
10
100
=
100 kg.
11- Zakat Barang Tambang
Hasil tambang dan minyak serta gas bumi hasilnya harus disalurkan ke Baitul Mal untuk kepentingan umum dan kebutuhan ummat.
Jika ada seseorang atau perusahaan diberi kesem-patan menambang dan mengolah barang tambang terse-but, maka dia harus mengeluarkan zakat sebesar 2½ % dari penghasilan yang telah dikelola. Termasuk kelom-pok barang tambang yaitu seluruh bahan bangunan seperti batu atau pasir, juga harus dikeluarkan zakatnya sebesar 2½ % dari hasil yang telah diperoleh.*9
*9 Zakat hasil tambang tidak disyaratkan putaran haul (tahun), wajib menge-luarkan zakat pada saat barang tambang telah selesai proses pengolahan.
12- Zakat Hasil Laut dan Perikanan
Jika seorang nelayan atau perusahaan pengolah hasil laut menangkap ikan kemudian hasil tersebut dijual, maka dia wajib mengeluarkan zakat seperti zakat niaga yaitu 2½% (*10) demikian itu bila hasilnya telah sampai senisab seperti nisabnya mata uang.
Suatu contoh: Suatu perusahaan penangkap ikan menghasilkan satu ton ikan, kemudian dijual kepada konsumen seharga Rp.4.000.00,-, berapa zakat yang harus dibayar.*11
Zakatnya: Rp.4.000.000,-
x
25
1000
=
Rp.100.000,-
*10 Pendapat ini diriwayatkan dari Imam Ahmad seperti yang telah disebut-kan dalam kitab Al-Mughni 3/28.
*11 Artinya nilai jual ikan seharga nisabnya mata uang yaitu 85 gr emas
13- Zakat Fitrah
A. Setiap muslim wajib membayar zakat fitrah setelah matahari terbenam akhir bulan Ramadhan dan lebih utama jika dibayarkan sebelum keluar shalat Idul Fitri dan boleh dibayarkan dua hari sebelum hari raya *12 , demi menjaga kemaslahatan orang fakir. Dan haram mengakhirkan pembayaran zakat fitrah hingga habis shalat dan barangsiapa melakukan perbuatan tersebut, maka harus menggantinya.*13
B. Seorang muslim wajib membayar zakat untuk dirinya dan orang-orang yang menjadi tanggung jawab-nya seperti isterinya, anaknya, dan pembantunya yang muslim. Akan tetapi boleh bagi seorang isteri atau anak atau pembantu membayar zakat sendiri.
C. Kadar zakat fitrah yang harus dibayar*14 adalah satu sha’ dari makanan pokok negara setempat, dan satu sha’ untuk ukuran sekarang kira-kira 2,176 kg (keten-tuan ini sesuai makanan pokok gandum).
Dan kita bisa menggunakan tangan untuk menjadi takaran dengan cara kita penuhi kedua telapak tangan sebanyak empat kali. Karena satu mud sama dengan genggaman dua telapak tangan orang dewasa dan satu sha’ sama dengan empat mud.
Contoh: Seseorang mempunyai satu isteri dan empat orang anak serta satu pembantu muslim, berapa dia harus membayar zakat fitrah untuk mereka?
Dengan ukuran sha’ dia harus membayar 7 x 1 sha’ = 7 sha’
Dengan takaran atau timbangan sekarang berupa gandum: 7 x 2,176 kg = 15,232 kg atau lima belas kilo dua ratus tiga puluh dua gram.
Dan dengan kita meraup gandum dengan dua tela-pak tangan: 7 x 4 = 28 kali raupan dari makanan pokok baik berupa korma, gandum, anggur kering, susu ke-ring, jagung atau beras.
D. Dianjurkan mengeluarkan zakat dengan makanan*15 , Imam Abu Hanifah membolehkan membayar dengan uang dan ini pendapat yang lebih mudah terlebih bagi lingkungan industri.*16
Kadar nilai zakat disesuaikan dengan harga makan-an pokok masing-masing negara, jika seseorang ingin membayar zakat dengan korma sebanyak dua puluh kilo, maka hendaknya dia harus menanyakan harga kor-ma per kilo untuk ukuran korma sedang, lalu dihitung dengan mata uang setempat.
*12 Menurut madzhab Hambali boleh mengeluarkan zakat setelah pertengah-an bulan Ramadhan, pendapat ini lebih mempermudah khususnya bagi negara yang menangani langsung pembayaran zakat fitrah, atau jika yang menangani itu yayasan-yayasan sosial, sehingga mempermudah mereka dalam pengumpulan dan pembagiannya pada hari Ied.
*13 Lihat Nailul Authar, 4/195. Fiqhuz Zakah: 1/155.
*14 Dalam zakat fitrah tidak mengenal nisab, di saat ada kelebihan dari kebutuhan makanan pada malam hari raya untuk dirinya dan keluarga-nya, maka seseorang wajib membayar zakat fitrah.
*15 Para ulama madzhab tiga (Imam Malik, Syafi’i dan Ahmad) tidak membo-lehkan mengeluarkan zakat fitrah dengan uang.
*16 Fiqhuz Zakah , 1/949. Penulis pernah membuat semacam ide yang disampaikan lewat mimbar pada tahun 1404 H. hendaknya zakat fitrah dikelola oleh pemerintah atau Lembaga Islam kemudian disalurkan kepada yang berhak dan yang membutuhkan baik di dalam maupun luar negeri khususnya negara-negara yang terkena krisis seperti negara Afrika atau Asia yang banyak menderita kelaparan. Apalagi kristenisasi sangat gencar dengan berkedok bantuan sosial berupa makanan atau obat-obatan untuk bantuan kelaparan dan bencana alam dimanfaatkan untuk pemurtadan sehingga banyak di antara kaum muslimin yang keluar dari Islam hanya karena sesuap nasi seperti yang terjadi di Indonesia.
Jika zakat fitrah tersebut bisa dikumpulkan setelah pertengahan bulan Ramadhan, maka sangat mungkin zakat fitrah tersebut disalurkan kepada yang berhak pada waktu itu juga. Dengan demikian pada saat hari raya orang-orang kelaparan bisa merasa kenyang dan kecukupan, bila tidak apa mungkin seseorang dipaksa bergembira di hari raya sementara kela-paran melilitnya.
 
 
PERHITUNGAN ZAKAT MENURUT ISLAM

Bakasi, Saco-Indonesia.com — Sejumlah penyidik Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK) mendatangi Gedung DPR, Kamis (16/1/2014). Para petugas menggunakan rompi berwarna krem dengan tulisan di bagian belakang "KPK". Mereka langsung menuju ruang anggota Fraksi Partai Demokrat, Sutan Bhatoegana di lantai 9 nomor 0905, dan Tri Yulianto di lantai 10 nomor 1013, di Gedung Nusantara I DPR.

Dari informasi yang dihimpun, penyidik KPK tiba sekitar pukul 10.00 WIB. Wartawan yang sempat terkecoh tak diberikan kesempatan untuk mengambil gambar suasana penggeledahan.

Hingga berita ini ditayangkan, penggeledahan masih berlangsung. Lorong menuju ruang Tri Yulianto dijaga seorang petugas pengamanan dalam Gedung Parlemen. Tampak pula seorang anggota Brimob yang turut berjaga dengan dilengkapi senjata laras panjang.

KOMPAS.com/Indra Akuntono Ketua DPP Partai Demokrat Sutan Bhatoegana

Tak diperoleh informasi lebih jauh terkait penggeledahan ini. Diduga, penggeledahan terkait kasus dugaan suap di SKK Migas yang menjerat mantan Kepala Satuan Kerja Khusus Pelaksana Kegiatan Usaha Hulu Minyak dan Gas (SKK Migas) Rudi Rubiandini.

Disebut terima uang

Sebelumnya, Sutan Bhatoeganadisebut menerima uang 200.000 dollar AS dari Rudi. Hal itu terungkap dalam dakwaan Rudi yang dibacakan Jaksa Penuntut Umum Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi di Pengadilan Tindak Pidana Korupsi Jakarta, Selasa (7/1/2014).

Jaksa Riyono menjelaskan, uang yang diserahkan ke Sutan merupakan bagian dari 300.000 dollar AS yang diterima Rudi dari bos Kernel Oil Singapura Widodo Ratanachaitong.

"Uang 300.000 dollar AS tersebut, menurut terdakwa, diberikan kepada Sutan Bhatoegana melalui Tri Yulianto sebesar 200.000 dollar AS di sebuah toko di Jalan MT Haryono, Jakarta Selatan," kata Riyono.

Riyono memaparkan, uang 300.000 dollar AS diterima Rudi dari Deviardi pada tanggal 26 Juli 2013 di Gedung Plasa Mandiri Gatot Subroto, Jakarta Selatan.

Adapun Deviardi menerima uang itu dari anak buah Widodo, Simon Gunawan Tanjaya. Setelah itu, sisa uang tersebut disimpan oleh Rudi dalam safe deposit box Bank Mandiri. Sutan pernah diperiksa KPK terkait pemberian uang itu. Dia membantah Komisi VII DPR RI meminta tunjangan hari raya (THR) kepada Rudi.

Sumber : kompas.com

Editror :Maulana Lee

KPK Geledah Ruangan Kerja Sutan Bhatoegana dan Tri Yulianto

    saco-indonesia.com,

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    Mendung kan berganti

    
    Editor : Dian Sukmawati

 

MIKHA TAMBAYONG MENDUNG KAN BERGANTI

saco-indonesia.com, Jajaran reskrim Polsek Sukmajaya, telah berhasil mengungkap kasus pencurian di rumah yang ditinggal penghuni alias rumsong. Dua tersangka yang kerap bermain di wilayah Sukmajaya telah dibekuk. Tertangkapnya pelaku juga berkat perekam CCTV yang terekam wajah pelaku.

Kapolsek Sukmajaya, Kompol Agus Widodo telah menuturkan bermula laporan pencurian di toko material OPE milik Pargudani yang berusia 54 tahun , di Kebon Duren Rt. 02/05 No.40 Kel.Kalimulya Kec,Cilodong Depok pada Senin (10/2) kemarin pukul 01:30 dinihari.

Ketika petugas telah melakukan olah TKP dan memintai sejumlah keterangan saksi, petugas menemukan pelaku .”Subari yang berusia 30 tahun ,warga Bakalrejo RT.002/003 Kel. Guntur Kec. Demak, Jawa Tengah lalu Muksin, 31, warga Bakalan RT 007/002, Kec. Kapas Bojonegoro Jatim kita bekuk berturut-turut. Kedua pelaku adalah pemulung ,”ujarnya kepada Pos Kota, Selasa (11/2) pagi.

Pelaku telah ditangkap di rumah kontrakannya di Kp Sawah RT 3/4 Jatimulya,Cilodong. “Wajah pelaku yang terekam dari CCTV dicetak, dan diselidiki ternyata mereka adalah pemulung. Saat ditemukan lokasi persembunyiannya, ketika dilakukan penggrebekan tidak melakukan perlawanan,”ungkapnya.

Dalam aksinya tersebut, lanjut Kapolsek menggasak alat-alat material dan listrik dengan kerugian telah mencapai Rp. 15 juta.

“Alat bukti pelaku kita sita berupa linggis untuk merusak pintu depan, dan barang yang dicuri seperti 25 rol kabel listrik eterna, 1 unit kompor gas 1 buah magic com, 18 handle pintu, 1 karung berisi 50 unit keran air, set buah katrol, sebuah shower, dan 1 buah gerobak rongsokan,”bebernya.

Dari pengakuan pelaku tersebut , aksi pencurian yang dilakukan sudah berulang-ulang dengan beraksi di sekitar wilayah Sukmajaya dan Cilodong.

“Pelaku berpura-pura menjadi pemulung untuk dapat memantau situasi keadaan rumah atau toko yang akan menjadi sasarannya di tengah hari malam,”demikian.

“Pelaku akan dikenakan pasal 363 KUHP tentang pencurian pemberatan dengan hukuman 5 tahun penjara.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

BOBOL TOKO MATERIAL DUA PEMULUNG DIBEKUK POLISI

saco-indonesia.com, Banyak orang yang telah bingung ketika saat menghidupkan mesin kendaraannya tiba-tiba ngadat. Hal ini bisa telah terjadi karena berbagai hal, salah satunya adalah karena aki yang sudah tidak berfungsi dengan baik. Aki juga merupakan sumber energi yang biasanya digunakan untuk alat-alat elektronik, kendaraan dan lain sebagainya. Aki itu sendiri telah terbagi menjadi dua yaitu aki basah dan aki kering. Tentunya keduanya juga telah memiliki kelebihan dan kekurangannya sendiri-sendiri. Jika Aki basah dibutuhkan perawatan yang lebih telaten dibandingkan dengan aki kering, tetapi jika kita tahu cara merawat aki basah, maka aki basah akan mempunyai umur yang lebih lama jika dibandingkan aki kering.

Sebagai salah satu sumber kelistrikan pada kendaraan, tentunya kita juga tidak ingin aki kendaraan kita gampang mati. Karena itu disini kita akan mengulas salah satunya saja, yaitu bagaimana cara untuk merawat aki basah agar awet dan bisa dipakai dalam kurun waktu yang lama.
Cara Merawat Aki Basah Yang Benar

Langkah-langkah cara merawat aki basah :

    Anda jangan malas untuk selalu memeriksa air aki. Pemeriksaan juga bisa dilakukan secara berkala, dan air aki juga harus lebih tinggi dari batas Low dan juga berada di bawah batas Upper Level.
    Tambah air aki jika air aki sudah berkurang dan berada di bawah level Low. Gunakan air aki biasa, jangan menggunakan air aki zuur, karena air aki zuur telah digunakan saat pertama saja.
    Penambahan air aki sebaiknya pada pagi hari sebelum mesin dinyalakan.
    Penggunaan arus listrik Aki juga harus sewajarnya. Anda juga harus membatasi pemakaian arus sesuai kapasitas dari aki yang digunakan, karena jika over maka aki akan mudah mati.
    Hati-hati terhadap hubungan pendek antara kutub positif dan negatif, karena hal tersebut juga bisa menyebabkan kerusakan pada sel aki.
    Periksa katup krem yang ada di aki, jika Anda telah mendapati dalam keadaan longgar maka segera kencangkan.
    Aki yang telah mendapat goncangan terlalu keras juga dapat mempengaruhi umur aki tersebut, maka pastikan aki terlindungi dengan memperhatikan penjepit aki/braket aki tetap kokoh.
    Bersihkan aki dari debu dan berikan sedikit gemuk pada kutupnya agar tidak mudah berkarat atau berjamur.
    Periksa secara keseluruhan fisik aki, apakah ada keretakan pada fisik, plug aki yang tidak tertutup dengan baik dan juga jangan lupa memperhatikan bagian ventplug, mampet atau tidaknya.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

CARA MERAWAT AKI BASAH

HOBART, Tasmania — Few places seem out of reach for China’s leader, Xi Jinping, who has traveled from European capitals to obscure Pacific and Caribbean islands in pursuit of his nation’s strategic interests.

So perhaps it was not surprising when he turned up last fall in this city on the edge of the Southern Ocean to put down a long-distance marker in another faraway region, Antarctica, 2,000 miles south of this Australian port.

Standing on the deck of an icebreaker that ferries Chinese scientists from this last stop before the frozen continent, Mr. Xi pledged that China would continue to expand in one of the few places on earth that remain unexploited by humans.

He signed a five-year accord with the Australian government that allows Chinese vessels and, in the future, aircraft to resupply for fuel and food before heading south. That will help secure easier access to a region that is believed to have vast oil and mineral resources; huge quantities of high-protein sea life; and for times of possible future dire need, fresh water contained in icebergs.

It was not until 1985, about seven decades after Robert Scott and Roald Amundsen raced to the South Pole, that a team representing Beijing hoisted the Chinese flag over the nation’s first Antarctic research base, the Great Wall Station on King George Island.

But now China seems determined to catch up. As it has bolstered spending on Antarctic research, and as the early explorers, especially the United States and Australia, confront stagnant budgets, there is growing concern about its intentions.

China’s operations on the continent — it opened its fourth research station last year, chose a site for a fifth, and is investing in a second icebreaker and new ice-capable planes and helicopters — are already the fastest growing of the 52 signatories to the Antarctic Treaty. That gentlemen’s agreement reached in 1959 bans military activity on the continent and aims to preserve it as one of the world’s last wildernesses; a related pact prohibits mining.

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But Mr. Xi’s visit was another sign that China is positioning itself to take advantage of the continent’s resource potential when the treaty expires in 2048 — or in the event that it is ripped up before, Chinese and Australian experts say.

“So far, our research is natural-science based, but we know there is more and more concern about resource security,” said Yang Huigen, director general of the Polar Research Institute of China, who accompanied Mr. Xi last November on his visit to Hobart and stood with him on the icebreaker, Xue Long, or Snow Dragon.

With that in mind, the polar institute recently opened a new division devoted to the study of resources, law, geopolitics and governance in Antarctica and the Arctic, Mr. Yang said.

Australia, a strategic ally of the United States that has strong economic relations with China, is watching China’s buildup in the Antarctic with a mix of gratitude — China’s presence offers support for Australia’s Antarctic science program, which is short of cash — and wariness.

“We should have no illusions about the deeper agenda — one that has not even been agreed to by Chinese scientists but is driven by Xi, and most likely his successors,” said Peter Jennings, executive director of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute and a former senior official in the Australian Department of Defense.

“This is part of a broader pattern of a mercantilist approach all around the world,” Mr. Jennings added. “A big driver of Chinese policy is to secure long-term energy supply and food supply.”

That approach was evident last month when a large Chinese agriculture enterprise announced an expansion of its fishing operations around Antarctica to catch more krill — small, protein-rich crustaceans that are abundant in Antarctic waters.

“The Antarctic is a treasure house for all human beings, and China should go there and share,” Liu Shenli, the chairman of the China National Agricultural Development Group, told China Daily, a state-owned newspaper. China would aim to fish up to two million tons of krill a year, he said, a substantial increase from what it currently harvests.

Because sovereignty over Antarctica is unclear, nations have sought to strengthen their claims over the ice-covered land by building research bases and naming geographic features. China’s fifth station will put it within reach of the six American facilities, and ahead of Australia’s three.

Chinese mappers have also given Chinese names to more than 300 sites, compared with the thousands of locations on the continent with English names.

In the unspoken competition for Antarctica’s future, scientific achievement can also translate into influence. Chinese scientists are driving to be the first to drill and recover an ice core containing tiny air bubbles that provide a record of climate change stretching as far back as 1.5 million years. It is an expensive and delicate effort at which others, including the European Union and Australia, have failed.

In a breakthrough a decade ago, European scientists extracted an ice core nearly two miles long that revealed 800,000 years of climate history. But finding an ice core going back further would allow scientists to examine a change in the earth’s climate cycles believed to have occurred 900,000 to 1.2 million years ago.

China is betting it has found the best location to drill, at an area called Dome A, or Dome Argus, the highest point on the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Though it is considered one of the coldest places on the planet, with temperatures of 130 degrees below zero Fahrenheit, a Chinese expedition explored the area in 2005 and established a research station in 2009.

“The international community has drilled in lots of places, but no luck so far,” said Xiao Cunde, a member of the first party to reach the site and the deputy director of the Institute for Climate Change at the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences. “We think at Dome A we will have a straight shot at the one-million-year ice core.”

Mr. Xiao said China had already begun drilling and hoped to find what scientists are looking for in four to five years.

To support its Antarctic aspirations, China is building a sophisticated $300 million icebreaker that is expected to be ready in a few years, said Xia Limin, deputy director of the Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Administration in Beijing. It has also bought a high-tech fixed-wing aircraft, outfitted in the United States, for taking sensitive scientific soundings from the ice.

China has chosen the site for its fifth research station at Inexpressible Island, named by a group of British explorers who were stranded at the desolate site in 1912 and survived the winter by excavating a small ice cave.

Mr. Xia said the inhospitable spot was ideal because China did not have a presence in that part of Antarctica, and because the rocky site did not have much snow, making it relatively cheap to build there.

Anne-Marie Brady, a professor of political science at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand and the author of a soon-to-be-released book, “China as a Polar Great Power,” said Chinese scientists also believed they had a good chance of finding mineral and energy resources near the site.

“China is playing a long game in Antarctica and keeping other states guessing about its true intentions and interests are part of its poker hand,” she said. But she noted that China’s interest in finding minerals was presented “loud and clear to domestic audiences” as the main reason it was investing in Antarctica.

Because commercial drilling is banned, estimates of energy and mineral resources in Antarctica rely on remote sensing data and comparisons with similar geological environments elsewhere, said Millard F. Coffin, executive director of the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies in Hobart.

But the difficulty of extraction in such severe conditions and uncertainty about future commodity prices make it unlikely that China or any country would defy the ban on mining anytime soon.

Tourism, however, is already booming. Travelers from China are still a relatively small contingent in the Antarctic compared with the more than 13,000 Americans who visited in 2013, and as yet there are no licensed Chinese tour operators.

But that is about to change, said Anthony Bergin, deputy director of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute. “I understand very soon there will be Chinese tourists on Chinese vessels with all-Chinese crew in the Antarctic,” he said.

 

Top News China’s Intents Are Questioned as It Builds in Antarctica

Mr. Mankiewicz, an Oscar-nominated screenwriter for “I Want to Live!,” also wrote episodes of television shows such as “Star Trek” and “Marcus Welby, M.D.”

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Mr. Miller, of the firm Weil, Gotshal & Manges, represented companies including Lehman Brothers, General Motors and American Airlines, and mentored many of the top Chapter 11 practitioners today.

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The live music at the Vice Media party on Friday shook the room. Shane Smith, Vice’s chief executive, was standing near the stage — with a drink in his hand, pants sagging, tattoos showing — watching the rapper-cum-chef Action Bronson make pizzas.

The event was an after-party, a happy-hour bacchanal for the hundreds of guests who had come for Vice’s annual presentation to advertisers and agencies that afternoon, part of the annual frenzy for ad dollars called the Digital Content NewFronts. Mr. Smith had spoken there for all of five minutes before running a slam-bang highlight reel of the company’s shows that had titles like “Weediquette” and “Gaycation.”

In the last year, Vice has secured $500 million in financing and signed deals worth hundreds of millions of dollars with established media companies like HBO that are eager to engage the young viewers Vice attracts. Vice said it was now worth at least $4 billion, with nearly $1 billion in projected revenue for 2015. It is a long way from Vice’s humble start as a free magazine in 1994.

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At the Vice after-party, the rapper Action Bronson, a host of a Vice show, made a pizza. Credit Jesse Dittmar for The New York Times

But even as cash flows freely in Vice’s direction, the company is trying to keep its brash, insurgent image. At the party on Friday, it plied guests with beers and cocktails. Its apparently unrehearsed presentation to advertisers was peppered with expletives. At one point, the director Spike Jonze, a longtime Vice collaborator, asked on stage if Mr. Smith had been drinking.

“My assistant tried to cut me off,” Mr. Smith replied. “I’m on buzz control.”

Now, Vice is on the verge of getting its own cable channel, which would give the company a traditional outlet for its slate of non-news programming. If all goes as planned, A&E Networks, the television group owned by Hearst and Disney, will turn over its History Channel spinoff, H2, to Vice.

The deal’s announcement was expected last week, but not all of A&E’s distribution partners — the cable and satellite TV companies that carry the network’s channels — have signed off on the change, according to a person familiar with the negotiations who spoke on the condition of anonymity because the talks were private.

A cable channel would be a further step in a transformation for Vice, from bad-boy digital upstart to mainstream media company.

Keen for the core audience of young men who come to Vice, media giants like 21st Century Fox, Time Warner and Disney all showed interest in the company last year. Vice ultimately secured $500 million in financing from A&E Networks and Technology Crossover Ventures, a Silicon Valley venture capital firm that has invested in Facebook and Netflix.

Those investments valued Vice at more than $2.5 billion. (In 2013, Fox bought a 5 percent stake for $70 million.)

Then in March, HBO announced that it had signed a multiyear deal to broadcast a daily half-hour Vice newscast. Vice already produces a weekly newsmagazine show, called “Vice,” for the network. That show will extend its run through 2018, with an increase to 35 episodes a year, from 14.

Michael Lombardo, HBO’s president for programming, said when the deal was announced that it was “certainly one of our biggest investments with hours on the air.”

Vice, based in Brooklyn, also recently signed a multiyear $100 million deal with Rogers Communications, a Canadian media conglomerate, to produce original content for TV, smartphone and desktop viewers.

Vice’s finances are private, but according to an internal document reviewed by The New York Times and verified by a person familiar with the company’s financials, the company is on track to make about $915 million in revenue this year.

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Vice showed a highlight reel of its TV series at the NewFronts last week in New York. Credit Jesse Dittmar for The New York Times

It brought in $545 million in a strong first quarter, which included portions of the new HBO deal and the Rogers deal, according to the document. More of its revenue now comes from these types of content partnerships, compared with the branded content deals that made up much of its revenue a year ago, the company said.

Mr. Smith said the company was worth at least $4 billion. If the valuation gets much higher, he said he would consider taking the company public.

“I don’t care about money; we have plenty of money,” Mr. Smith, who is Vice’s biggest shareholder, said in an interview after the presentation on Friday. “I care about strategic deals.”

In the United States, Vice Media had 35.2 million unique visitors across its sites in March, according to comScore.

The third season of Vice’s weekly HBO show has averaged 1.8 million viewers per episode, including reruns, through April 12, according to Brad Adgate, the director of research at Horizon Media. (Vice said the show attracted three million weekly viewers when repeat broadcasts, online and on-demand viewings were included.)

For years, Mr. Smith has criticized traditional TV, calling it slow and unable to draw younger viewers. But if all the deals Vice has struck are to work out, Mr. Smith may have to play more by the rules of traditional media. James Murdoch, Rupert Murdoch’s son and a member of Vice’s board, was at the company’s presentation on Friday, as were other top media executives.

“They know they need people like me to help them, but they can’t get out of their own way,” Mr. Smith said in the interview Friday. “My only real frustration is we’re used to being incredibly dynamic, and they’re not incredibly dynamic.”

With its own television channel in the United States, Vice would have something it has long coveted even as traditional media companies are looking beyond TV. Last year, Vice’s deal with Time Warner failed in part because the two companies could not agree on how much control Vice would have over a 24-hour television network.

Vice said it intended to fill its new channel with non-news programming. The company plans to have sports shows, fashion shows, food shows and the “Gaycation” travel show with the actress Ellen Page. It is also in talks with Kanye West about a show.

It remains to be seen whether Vice’s audience will watch a traditional cable channel. Still, Vice has effectively presold all of the ad spots to two of the biggest advertising agencies for the first three years, Mr. Smith said.

In the meantime, Mr. Smith is enjoying Vice’s newfound role as a potential savior of traditional media companies.

“I’m a C.E.O. of a content company,” Mr. Smith said before he caught a flight to Las Vegas for the boxing match on Saturday between Floyd Mayweather Jr. and Manny Pacquiao. “If it stops being fun, then why are you doing it?”

As Vice Moves More to TV, It Tries to Keep Brash Voice

Mr. Alger, who served five terms from Texas, led Republican women in a confrontation with Lyndon B. Johnson that may have cost Richard M. Nixon the 1960 presidential election.

Bruce Alger, 96, Dies; Led ‘Mink Coat’ Protest Against Lyndon Johnson

Mr. Paczynski was one of the concentration camp’s longest surviving inmates and served as the personal barber to its Nazi commandant Rudolf Höss.

Jozef Paczynski, Inmate Barber to Auschwitz Commandant, Dies at 95

WASHINGTON — The former deputy director of the C.I.A. asserts in a forthcoming book that Republicans, in their eagerness to politicize the killing of the American ambassador to Libya, repeatedly distorted the agency’s analysis of events. But he also argues that the C.I.A. should get out of the business of providing “talking points” for administration officials in national security events that quickly become partisan, as happened after the Benghazi attack in 2012.

The official, Michael J. Morell, dismisses the allegation that the United States military and C.I.A. officers “were ordered to stand down and not come to the rescue of their comrades,” and he says there is “no evidence” to support the charge that “there was a conspiracy between C.I.A. and the White House to spin the Benghazi story in a way that would protect the political interests of the president and Secretary Clinton,” referring to the secretary of state at the time, Hillary Rodham Clinton.

But he also concludes that the White House itself embellished some of the talking points provided by the Central Intelligence Agency and had blocked him from sending an internal study of agency conclusions to Congress.

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Michael J. Morell Credit Mark Wilson/Getty Images

“I finally did so without asking,” just before leaving government, he writes, and after the White House released internal emails to a committee investigating the State Department’s handling of the issue.

A lengthy congressional investigation remains underway, one that many Republicans hope to use against Mrs. Clinton in the 2016 election cycle.

In parts of the book, “The Great War of Our Time” (Twelve), Mr. Morell praises his C.I.A. colleagues for many successes in stopping terrorist attacks, but he is surprisingly critical of other C.I.A. failings — and those of the National Security Agency.

Soon after Mr. Morell retired in 2013 after 33 years in the agency, President Obama appointed him to a commission reviewing the actions of the National Security Agency after the disclosures of Edward J. Snowden, a former intelligence contractor who released classified documents about the government’s eavesdropping abilities. Mr. Morell writes that he was surprised by what he found.

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“You would have thought that of all the government entities on the planet, the one least vulnerable to such grand theft would have been the N.S.A.,” he writes. “But it turned out that the N.S.A. had left itself vulnerable.”

He concludes that most Wall Street firms had better cybersecurity than the N.S.A. had when Mr. Snowden swept information from its systems in 2013. While he said he found himself “chagrined by how well the N.S.A. was doing” compared with the C.I.A. in stepping up its collection of data on intelligence targets, he also sensed that the N.S.A., which specializes in electronic spying, was operating without considering the implications of its methods.

“The N.S.A. had largely been collecting information because it could, not necessarily in all cases because it should,” he says.

The book is to be released next week.

Mr. Morell was a career analyst who rose through the ranks of the agency, and he ended up in the No. 2 post. He served as President George W. Bush’s personal intelligence briefer in the first months of his presidency — in those days, he could often be spotted at the Starbucks in Waco, Tex., catching up on his reading — and was with him in the schoolhouse in Florida on the morning of Sept. 11, 2001, when the Bush presidency changed in an instant.

Mr. Morell twice took over as acting C.I.A. director, first when Leon E. Panetta was appointed secretary of defense and then when retired Gen. David H. Petraeus resigned over an extramarital affair with his biographer, a relationship that included his handing her classified notes of his time as America’s best-known military commander.

Mr. Morell says he first learned of the affair from Mr. Petraeus only the night before he resigned, and just as the Benghazi events were turning into a political firestorm. While praising Mr. Petraeus, who had told his deputy “I am very lucky” to run the C.I.A., Mr. Morell writes that “the organization did not feel the same way about him.” The former general “created the impression through the tone of his voice and his body language that he did not want people to disagree with him (which was not true in my own interaction with him),” he says.

But it is his account of the Benghazi attacks — and how the C.I.A. was drawn into the debate over whether the Obama White House deliberately distorted its account of the death of Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens — that is bound to attract attention, at least partly because of its relevance to the coming presidential election. The initial assessments that the C.I.A. gave to the White House said demonstrations had preceded the attack. By the time analysts reversed their opinion, Susan E. Rice, now the national security adviser, had made a series of statements on Sunday talk shows describing the initial assessment. The controversy and other comments Ms. Rice made derailed Mr. Obama’s plan to appoint her as secretary of state.

The experience prompted Mr. Morell to write that the C.I.A. should stay out of the business of preparing talking points — especially on issues that are being seized upon for “political purposes.” He is critical of the State Department for not beefing up security in Libya for its diplomats, as the C.I.A., he said, did for its employees.

But he concludes that the assault in which the ambassador was killed took place “with little or no advance planning” and “was not well organized.” He says the attackers “did not appear to be looking for Americans to harm. They appeared intent on looting and conducting some vandalism,” setting fires that killed Mr. Stevens and a security official, Sean Smith.

Mr. Morell paints a picture of an agency that was struggling, largely unsuccessfully, to understand dynamics in the Middle East and North Africa when the Arab Spring broke out in late 2011 in Tunisia. The agency’s analysts failed to see the forces of revolution coming — and then failed again, he writes, when they told Mr. Obama that the uprisings would undercut Al Qaeda by showing there was a democratic pathway to change.

“There is no good explanation for our not being able to see the pressures growing to dangerous levels across the region,” he writes. The agency had again relied too heavily “on a handful of strong leaders in the countries of concern to help us understand what was going on in the Arab street,” he says, and those leaders themselves were clueless.

Moreover, an agency that has always overvalued secretly gathered intelligence and undervalued “open source” material “was not doing enough to mine the wealth of information available through social media,” he writes. “We thought and told policy makers that this outburst of popular revolt would damage Al Qaeda by undermining the group’s narrative,” he writes.

Instead, weak governments in Egypt, and the absence of governance from Libya to Yemen, were “a boon to Islamic extremists across both the Middle East and North Africa.”

Mr. Morell is gentle about most of the politicians he dealt with — he expresses admiration for both Mr. Bush and Mr. Obama, though he accuses former Vice President Dick Cheney of deliberately implying a connection between Al Qaeda and Iraq that the C.I.A. had concluded probably did not exist. But when it comes to the events leading up to the Bush administration’s decision to go to war in Iraq, he is critical of his own agency.

Mr. Morell concludes that the Bush White House did not have to twist intelligence on Saddam Hussein’s alleged effort to rekindle the country’s work on weapons of mass destruction.

“The view that hard-liners in the Bush administration forced the intelligence community into its position on W.M.D. is just flat wrong,” he writes. “No one pushed. The analysts were already there and they had been there for years, long before Bush came to office.”

Ex-C.I.A. Official Rebuts Republican Claims on Benghazi Attack in ‘The Great War of Our Time’

Mr. Fox, known for his well-honed countrified voice, wrote about things dear to South Carolina and won over Yankee critics.

William Price Fox, Admired Southern Novelist and Humorist, Dies at 89

As governor, Mr. Walker alienated Republicans and his fellow Democrats, particularly the Democratic powerhouse Richard J. Daley, the mayor of Chicago.

Dan Walker, 92, Dies; Illinois Governor and Later a U.S. Prisoner

Even as a high school student, Dave Goldberg was urging female classmates to speak up. As a young dot-com executive, he had one girlfriend after another, but fell hard for a driven friend named Sheryl Sandberg, pining after her for years. After they wed, Mr. Goldberg pushed her to negotiate hard for high compensation and arranged his schedule so that he could be home with their children when she was traveling for work.

Mr. Goldberg, who died unexpectedly on Friday, was a genial, 47-year-old Silicon Valley entrepreneur who built his latest company, SurveyMonkey, from a modest enterprise to one recently valued by investors at $2 billion. But he was also perhaps the signature male feminist of his era: the first major chief executive in memory to spur his wife to become as successful in business as he was, and an essential figure in “Lean In,” Ms. Sandberg’s blockbuster guide to female achievement.

Over the weekend, even strangers were shocked at his death, both because of his relatively young age and because they knew of him as the living, breathing, car-pooling center of a new philosophy of two-career marriage.

“They were very much the role models for what this next generation wants to grapple with,” said Debora L. Spar, the president of Barnard College. In a 2011 commencement speech there, Ms. Sandberg told the graduates that whom they married would be their most important career decision.

In the play “The Heidi Chronicles,” revived on Broadway this spring, a male character who is the founder of a media company says that “I don’t want to come home to an A-plus,” explaining that his ambitions require him to marry an unthreatening helpmeet. Mr. Goldberg grew up to hold the opposite view, starting with his upbringing in progressive Minneapolis circles where “there was woman power in every aspect of our lives,” Jeffrey Dachis, a childhood friend, said in an interview.

The Goldberg parents read “The Feminine Mystique” together — in fact, Mr. Goldberg’s father introduced it to his wife, according to Ms. Sandberg’s book. In 1976, Paula Goldberg helped found a nonprofit to aid children with disabilities. Her husband, Mel, a law professor who taught at night, made the family breakfast at home.

Later, when Dave Goldberg was in high school and his prom date, Jill Chessen, stayed silent in a politics class, he chastised her afterward. He said, “You need to speak up,” Ms. Chessen recalled in an interview. “They need to hear your voice.”

Years later, when Karin Gilford, an early employee at Launch Media, Mr. Goldberg’s digital music company, became a mother, he knew exactly what to do. He kept giving her challenging assignments, she recalled, but also let her work from home one day a week. After Yahoo acquired Launch, Mr. Goldberg became known for distributing roses to all the women in the office on Valentine’s Day.

Ms. Sandberg, who often describes herself as bossy-in-a-good-way, enchanted him when they became friendly in the mid-1990s. He “was smitten with her,” Ms. Chessen remembered. Ms. Sandberg was dating someone else, but Mr. Goldberg still hung around, even helping her and her then-boyfriend move, recalled Bob Roback, a friend and co-founder of Launch. When they finally married in 2004, friends remember thinking how similar the two were, and that the qualities that might have made Ms. Sandberg intimidating to some men drew Mr. Goldberg to her even more.

Over the next decade, Mr. Goldberg and Ms. Sandberg pioneered new ways of capturing information online, had a son and then a daughter, became immensely wealthy, and hashed out their who-does-what-in-this-marriage issues. Mr. Goldberg’s commute from the Bay Area to Los Angeles became a strain, so he relocated, later joking that he “lost the coin flip” of where they would live. He paid the bills, she planned the birthday parties, and both often left their offices at 5:30 so they could eat dinner with their children before resuming work afterward.

Friends in Silicon Valley say they were careful to conduct their careers separately, politely refusing when outsiders would ask one about the other’s work: Ms. Sandberg’s role building Facebook into an information and advertising powerhouse, and Mr. Goldberg at SurveyMonkey, which made polling faster and cheaper. But privately, their work was intertwined. He often began statements to his team with the phrase “Well, Sheryl said” sharing her business advice. He counseled her, too, starting with her salary negotiations with Mark Zuckerberg.

“I wanted Mark to really feel he stretched to get Sheryl, because she was worth it,” Mr. Goldberg explained in a 2013 “60 Minutes” interview, his Minnesota accent and his smile intact as he offered a rare peek of the intersection of marriage and money at the top of corporate life.

 

 

While his wife grew increasingly outspoken about women’s advancement, Mr. Goldberg quietly advised the men in the office on family and partnership matters, an associate said. Six out of 16 members of SurveyMonkey’s management team are female, an almost unheard-of ratio among Silicon Valley “unicorns,” or companies valued at over $1 billion.

When Mellody Hobson, a friend and finance executive, wrote a chapter of “Lean In” about women of color for the college edition of the book, Mr. Goldberg gave her feedback on the draft, a clue to his deep involvement. He joked with Ms. Hobson that she was too long-winded, like Ms. Sandberg, but aside from that, he said he loved the chapter, she said in an interview.

By then, Mr. Goldberg was a figure of fascination who inspired a “where can I get one of those?” reaction among many of the women who had read the best seller “Lean In.” Some lamented that Ms. Sandberg’s advice hinged too much on marrying a Dave Goldberg, who was humble enough to plan around his wife, attentive enough to worry about which shoes his young daughter would wear, and rich enough to help pay for the help that made the family’s balancing act manageable.

Now that he is gone, and Ms. Sandberg goes from being half of a celebrated partnership to perhaps the business world’s most prominent single mother, the pages of “Lean In” carry a new sting of loss.

“We are never at 50-50 at any given moment — perfect equality is hard to define or sustain — but we allow the pendulum to swing back and forth between us,” she wrote in 2013, adding that they were looking forward to raising teenagers together.

“Fortunately, I have Dave to figure it out with me,” she wrote.

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Judge Patterson helped to protect the rights of Attica inmates after the prison riot in 1971 and later served on the Federal District Court in Manhattan.

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Mr. King sang for the Drifters and found success as a solo performer with hits like “Spanish Harlem.”

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The magical quality Mr. Lesnie created in shooting the “Babe” films caught the eye of the director Peter Jackson, who chose him to film the fantasy epic.

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A lapsed seminarian, Mr. Chambers succeeded Saul Alinsky as leader of the social justice umbrella group Industrial Areas Foundation.

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Photo
 
United’s first-class and business fliers get Rhapsody, its high-minded in-flight magazine, seen here at its office in Brooklyn. Credit Sam Hodgson for The New York Times

Last summer at a writers’ workshop in Oregon, the novelists Anthony Doerr, Karen Russell and Elissa Schappell were chatting over cocktails when they realized they had all published work in the same magazine. It wasn’t one of the usual literary outlets, like Tin House, The Paris Review or The New Yorker. It was Rhapsody, an in-flight magazine for United Airlines.

It seemed like a weird coincidence. Then again, considering Rhapsody’s growing roster of A-list fiction writers, maybe not. Since its first issue hit plane cabins a year and a half ago, Rhapsody has published original works by literary stars like Joyce Carol Oates, Rick Moody, Amy Bloom, Emma Straub and Mr. Doerr, who won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction two weeks ago.

As airlines try to distinguish their high-end service with luxuries like private sleeping chambers, showers, butler service and meals from five-star chefs, United Airlines is offering a loftier, more cerebral amenity to its first-class and business-class passengers: elegant prose by prominent novelists. There are no airport maps or disheartening lists of in-flight meal and entertainment options in Rhapsody. Instead, the magazine has published ruminative first-person travel accounts, cultural dispatches and probing essays about flight by more than 30 literary fiction writers.

 

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Sean Manning, executive editor of Rhapsody, which publishes works by the likes of Joyce Carol Oates, Amy Bloom and Anthony Doerr, who won a Pulitzer Prize. Credit Sam Hodgson for The New York Times

 

An airline might seem like an odd literary patron. But as publishers and writers look for new ways to reach readers in a shaky retail climate, many have formed corporate alliances with transit companies, including American Airlines, JetBlue and Amtrak, that provide a captive audience.

Mark Krolick, United Airlines’ managing director of marketing and product development, said the quality of the writing in Rhapsody brings a patina of sophistication to its first-class service, along with other opulent touches like mood lighting, soft music and a branded scent.

“The high-end leisure or business-class traveler has higher expectations, even in the entertainment we provide,” he said.

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Some of Rhapsody’s contributing writers say they were lured by the promise of free airfare and luxury accommodations provided by United, as well as exposure to an elite audience of some two million first-class and business-class travelers.

“It’s not your normal Park Slope Community Bookstore types who read Rhapsody,” Mr. Moody, author of the 1994 novel “The Ice Storm,” who wrote an introspective, philosophical piece about traveling to the Aran Islands of Ireland for Rhapsody, said in an email. “I’m not sure I myself am in that Rhapsody demographic, but I would like them to buy my books one day.”

In addition to offering travel perks, the magazine pays well and gives writers freedom, within reason, to choose their subject matter and write with style. Certain genres of flight stories are off limits, naturally: no plane crashes or woeful tales of lost luggage or rude flight attendants, and nothing too risqué.

“We’re not going to have someone write about joining the mile-high club,” said Jordan Heller, the editor in chief of Rhapsody. “Despite those restrictions, we’ve managed to come up with a lot of high-minded literary content.”

Guiding writers toward the right idea occasionally requires some gentle prodding. When Rhapsody’s executive editor asked Ms. Russell to contribute an essay about a memorable flight experience, she first pitched a story about the time she was chaperoning a group of teenagers on a trip to Europe, and their delayed plane sat at the airport in New York for several hours while other passengers got progressively drunker.

“He pointed out that disaster flights are not what people want to read about when they’re in transit, and very diplomatically suggested that maybe people want to read something that casts air travel in a more positive light,” said Ms. Russell, whose novel “Swamplandia!” was a finalist for the 2012 Pulitzer Prize.

She turned in a nostalgia-tinged essay about her first flight on a trip to Disney World when she was 6. “The Magic Kingdom was an anticlimax,” she wrote. “What ride could compare to that first flight?”

Ms. Oates also wrote about her first flight, in a tiny yellow propeller plane piloted by her father. The novelist Joyce Maynard told of the constant disappointment of never seeing her books in airport bookstores and the thrill of finally spotting a fellow plane passenger reading her novel “Labor Day.” Emily St. John Mandel, who was a finalist for the National Book Award in fiction last year, wrote about agonizing over which books to bring on a long flight.

“There’s nobody that’s looked down their noses at us as an in-flight magazine,” said Sean Manning, the magazine’s executive editor. “As big as these people are in the literary world, there’s still this untapped audience for them of luxury travelers.”

United is one of a handful of companies showcasing work by literary writers as a way to elevate their brands and engage customers. Chipotle has printed original work from writers like Toni Morrison, Jeffrey Eugenides and Barbara Kingsolver on its disposable cups and paper bags. The eyeglass company Warby Parker hosts parties for authors and sells books from 14 independent publishers in its stores.

JetBlue offers around 40 e-books from HarperCollins and Penguin Random House on its free wireless network, allowing passengers to read free samples and buy and download books. JetBlue will start offering 11 digital titles from Simon & Schuster soon. Amtrak recently forged an alliance with Penguin Random House to provide free digital samples from 28 popular titles, which passengers can buy and download over Amtrak’s admittedly spotty wireless service.

Amtrak is becoming an incubator for literary talent in its own right. Last year, it started a residency program, offering writers a free long-distance train trip and complimentary food. More than 16,000 writers applied and 24 made the cut.

Like Amtrak, Rhapsody has found that writers are eager to get onboard. On a rainy spring afternoon, Rhapsody’s editorial staff sat around a conference table discussing the June issue, which will feature an essay by the novelist Hannah Pittard and an unpublished short story by the late Elmore Leonard.

“Do you have that photo of Elmore Leonard? Can I see it?” Mr. Heller, the editor in chief, asked Rhapsody’s design director, Christos Hannides. Mr. Hannides slid it across the table and noted that they also had a photograph of cowboy spurs. “It’s very simple; it won’t take away from the literature,” he said.

Rhapsody’s office, an open space with exposed pipes and a vaulted brick ceiling, sits in Dumbo at the epicenter of literary Brooklyn, in the same converted tea warehouse as the literary journal N+1 and the digital publisher Atavist. Two of the magazine’s seven staff members hold graduate degrees in creative writing. Mr. Manning, the executive editor, has published a memoir and edited five literary anthologies.

Mr. Manning said Rhapsody was conceived from the start as a place for literary novelists to write with voice and style, and nobody had been put off that their work would live in plane cabins and airport lounges.

Still, some contributors say they wish the magazine were more widely circulated.

“I would love it if I could read it,” said Ms. Schappell, a Brooklyn-based novelist who wrote a feature story for Rhapsody’s inaugural issue. “But I never fly first class.”

Rhapsody, a Lofty Literary Journal, Perused at 39,000 Feet
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