PAKET UMROH BULAN FEBRUARI MARET APRIL MEI 2018




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MEMILIH BENIH Benih bermutu merupakan syarat utama untuk mendapatkan panen yang maksimal. Disebut benih bermutu; jenisnya murni, bernas, kering, sehat, bebas penyakit dan campuran biji rumput yang tidak dikehendaki. Kriteria ini biasanya menghasilkan tanaman sehat, kekar, kokoh dan pertumbuhan yang seragam. PEMILIHAN LAHAN LAHAN YANG BAIK Lahan yang baik adalah lahan yang kering, berpengairan cukup, lahan tadah hujan, lahan gambut yang telah diperbaiki atau lahan basah bekas menanam padi. Agar tumbuh dan berproduksi dengan baik Jagung harus ditanam di lahan terbuka yang terkena sinar matahari penuh selama 8 jam. KADAR pH Meskipun idealnya memerlukan pH 6,8 tetapi jagung bisa toleran terhadap lahan tanaman pH 5,5 – 7.0. Apabila ada tanah yang pH nya terlalu rendah bisa dinaikkan dengan menaburkan kapur. Kemudian agar lebih efisien, aplikasinya bisa dilakukan bersama dengan pengolahan lahan. Setelah penaburan, lahan dicangkul dan disiram agar kapur bisa tercampur secara merata. Kebutuhan kapur sangat bergantung pada nilai pH awal lahan. Sebagai patokan, untuk satu hektar lahan yang memiliki pH 5,0 dibutuhkan kapur antara 2 sampai 4 ton. Apabila pH lahan terlalu tinggi atau basa, maka dapat diturunkan dengan menaburkan belerang. Namun hal ini dilakukan jika nilai pH lahan memang sangat tinggi yakni 8,0 atau 9,0 PENGOLAHAN LAHAN PEMBERSIHAN GULMA Sebelum jagung ditanam, lahan perlu dibersihkan dari gulma dan tanaman liar. Gulma seperti alang alang, rumput teki, semak dan pohon perdu disiangi sampai ke akar akarnya. Gulma itu dibakar, abunya ditaburkan ke lahan sebagai kompos untuk kesuburan tanah. Gulma jangan dikubur, karena dikawatirkan akan munculnya hama seperti rayap dan semut. Selain itu, alang alang dan rumput teki bisa tumbuh kembali apabila hanya dikubur di dalam tanah. Selain gulma, pohon pohon besar yang tumbuh di sekitar lahan dan berpotensi menghalangi masuknya sinar matahari; untuk jagung melakukan proses fotosintesis, juga perlu ditebang. PENCANGKULAN Pencangkulan dilakukan dengan memindahlkan tanah bagian bawah sedalam 15 s/d 20 cm ke atas permukaan lahan. Selain untuk menyeimbangkan ketersediaan unsur hara antara bagian bawah dan bagian atas lahan, pencangkulan juga dimaksudkan membuat tanah lebih remah dan gembur. Untuk lahan yang memiliki jenis tanah gembur atau bekas tanaman semusim, pencangkulan cukup dilakukan sekali saja. Sementara itu untuk lahan yang memiliki tanah berat, pencangkulan perlu dilakukan dua kali lalu digaru. Jika lahan yang digarap terlalu luas, pencangkulan bisa diganti dengan bajak agar pengerjaannya bisa lebih cepat. PEMBUATAN BEDENGAN Pembuatan bedengan untuk lokasi penanaman benih banyak dilakukan di dataran rendah pada lahan kering, lahan bekas sawah, atau lahan tadah hujan. Bedengan dibuat selebar 70 s/d 100 cm, dengan ketinggian antara 10 s/d 20 cm. Sedangkan untuk panjangnya disesuaikan dengan kondisi, kontur, lahan. Di daerah kering tinggi bedengan sebaiknya dibuat agak rendah untuk memudahkan penyiraman karena jika terlalu tinggi membutuhkan banyak air saat penyiraman. Di antara bedengan dibuat parit selebar 20 s/d 30 cm yang berfungsi untuk mengatur keluar masuknya air di bedengan agar akar jagung tidak tergenang. PEMUPUKAN Pemupukan dimaksudkan meningkatkan kandungan unsur hara di lahan tanam. Waktu pemberian pupuk RI1, yang paling efektif selain bersama dengan saat pencangkulan atau pembajakan bisa juga diberikan saat akan membuat lubang tanam. Dengan cara begitu, pupuk RI1 yang diberikan akan tercampur merata dengan lahan tanam. Sebagai pedoman untuk lahan 1 hektar diperlukan 12 – 15 liter pupuk RI 1. PENANAMAN PEMBUATAN LUBANG TANAM Lubang tanam dibuat sedalam antara 2 s/d 5 cm menggunakan tugal, yakni alat terbuat dari kayu bulat panjang ujungnya runcing. Jarak lubang adalah 20 x 20 cm atau 20 x 40 cm. Agar barisan lubang tanam yang dibuat menjadi teratur, bisa digunakan alat bantu berupa tali yang dibentangkan sepanjang bedengan. Sementara itu, untuk benih yang ditanam di parit bedengan, diperlukan jarak antar lubang sepanjang 20 cm. PENANAMAN BENIH Untuk menghindarkan hama dan jamur serta untuk merangsang pertumbuhan dengan kualitas yang baik, sebelum ditanam benih direndam terlebih dahulu ke dalam air yang sudah dicampur pupuk RI1 selama 30 menit. Sesudah direndam perlu ditiriskan, tetapi tidak perlu diberi fungisida. Penanaman benih dilakukan pada pagi atau sore, saat matahari tidak begitu terik. Setelah benih masuk ke lubang, maka lubang itu harus ditutuip lagi dengan tanah secara ringan; tidak perlu dipadat padatkan. Waktu terbaik menanam benih adalah waktu akhir musim hujan agar saat masa pertumbuhan hingga memasuki masa mengeluarkan buah, tanaman masih mendapatkan pasokan air dan diharapkan saat panen tiba, musim kemarau telah datang sehingga memudahkan proses pengeringan. Mengingat dewasa ini kondisi dan situasi musim di Indonesia selalu berubah, untuk memastikan jadwal yang tepat, seyogyanya berkonsultasi terlebih dahulu dengan dinas pertanian setempat. PERAWATAN PENYULAMAN BENIH Satu minggu setelah tanam benih akan tumbuh dan muncul tanaman muda. Saat itu pengecekan harus dilakukan. Jika ada benih yang tidak tumbuh, mati, atau tanaman muda terserang penyakit, segera lakukan penyulaman yakni melakukan penanaman benih kembali yang proses dan tata caranya sama dengan penanaman benih sebelumnya. Penyulaman ini dimaksudkan agar tanaman tumbuh seragam, baik umur maupun sosoknya. Karena itu penyulaman tidak bisa dilakukan setelah tanaman berumur di atas 25 hari, dikarenakan pada usia itu sistem perakaran tanaman sudah tumbuh kuat sehingga benih sulaman tidak mampu bersaing memperebutkan unsur hara. PENYIANGAN GULMA Penyiangan dilakukan dua kali; pada saat tanaman berumur 14 hari dan 40 hari setelah tanam. Untuk gulma seperti rumput atau perdu lain, penyiangan dilakukan manual dengan cara mencabut seluruh bagian tanaman gulma sampai ke akar akarnya. Setelah itu gulma dikumpulkan dan dibakar sampai habis! Bersama penyiangan gulma yang kedua dilakukan juga pembubunan, yakni menutup akar tanaman yang muncul ke permukaan tanah dengan menggunakan tanah yang diambil di antara tanaman. Dengan menggunakan cangkul, tanah dipindahkan ke barisan jagung yang ada di kanan dan kiri hingga tercipta parit baru barisan tanaman. Hal ini dimaksudkan agar akar tanaman semakin mencengkeram tanah sehingga tanaman tidak akan roboh saat diterpa angin. PUPUK LANJUTAN Pada usia 15 s/d 30 hari setelah tanam atau setelah penyiangan pertama, tanaman perlu diberi pupuk lanjutan. Dengan tetap menggunakan RI1, pemberian pupuk ini dilanjutkan kembali setelah berusia 40 hari. PENGAIRAN Pengariran dilakukan dengan sistem leb; mengalirkan air ke dalam parit hingga meresap ke seluruh bagian bedengan. Cara ini lebih efisien dibanding penyiraman manual yang tentu memakan banyak waktu dan tenaga. Agar akar tanaman tetap mudah bernafas, usahakan saat melakukan pengairan air tidak sampai menggenangi bedengan. Untuk lahan yang tergolong kering atau saat tanaman mulai mengeluarkan buah, pengairan harus dilakukan dengan teratur dan terjadwal. Lahan yang terlalu kering atau kekurangan air saat proses pembuahan akan mengakibatkan tongkol tumbuh kecil sehingga mengurangi jumlah produksi pada saat panen. MASA PANEN Umur panen tergantung dari varietasnya. Tetapi ada beberapa ciri khusus, salah satunya adalah ketika daun jagung, kelobot, sudah berwarna putih kecoklatan dan tidak meninggalkan bekas apabila bijinya ditekan menggunakan kuku. Sebelum dipanen, daun jagung dikupas dan dipangkas bagian atasnya sehingga yang tersisa di pohon adalah buah jagung yang terkupas tetapi masih tersisa daunnya. Perlakuan ini dimaksudkan untuk mempercepat proses pengeringan jagung. Setelah beberapa hari di pohon dan bijinya tampak mengering, barulah dilakukan pemetikan dengan mengambil waktu pada siang hari, ketika cuaca terik, agar kadar air dalam biji tidak bertambah. Ingat, kadar air yang tinggi menyebabkan buah jagung mudah terserang penyakit. Pemetikan jagung bisa dilakukan dengan memetik buahnya saja, tongkolan, atau sekaligus dengan daun keringnya. Jika jagung yang dipanen buahnya saja akan lebih mudah diangkut menggunakan keranjang atau karung, maka jagung yang dipanen dengan daunnya akan memudahkan pengangkutan bila menggunakan pikulan. Setelah jagung dipanen, selanjutnya perlu dilakukan penjemuran, pemipilan; memisahkan biji jagung dari tongkolnya, dan penyimpanan. HAMA DAN PENYAKIT PENANGGULANGAN HAMA Penggerek Batang Serangga ini meletakkan telurnya pada daun, dan setelah menetas larvanya akan memakan batang jagung. Gejala ini bisa dilihat ketika muncul lubang pada batang jagung. Selain itu, Penggerek Batang juga menyerang rambut dan pucuk tongkol buah jagung. Jika dibiarkan hama ini bisa menyebabkan berkurangnya produksi bahkan gagal panen. Pencegahannya bisa dilakukan dengan menanam jagung secara serempak, melakukan rotasi, dan memusnahkan tanaman yang terserang. Lalat Hama lalat berwarna abu abu, meletakkan telurnya berwarna putih di bawah permukaan daun. Setelah beberapa hari menetas larva memakan daun, pangkal daun dan pangkal batang serta menyebabkan munculnya lubang lubang di seluruh bagian tanaman. Jika seranggannya hebat, batang bisa patah karena pangkalnya habis dimakan. Pencegahannya antara lain dengan melakukan penanaman serentak, memilih varietas yang tahan serangan hama, memasang mulsa jerami di atas bedengan dan selalu menjaga kebersihan dari gulma. Ulat Tongkol Ulat tongkol meletakkan telurnya yang berwarna putih di daun dan rambut tongkol. Setelah menetas telur akanberubah menjadi larva berwarna kuning berkepala hitam. Larva inilah yang akan menyerang tongkol buah, dan menyebabkan kebusukan. Pencegahan hama ini dilakukan dengan mengambil dan memusnahkan satu per satu. Ulat Tanah Ulat tanah ini menyerang bagian bagian vital seperti batang dan buah. Hama ini menyerang pada malam hari dan dan bersembunyi di dalam tanah pada siang hari. Ulat tanah biasa menyerang tanaman yang masih muda, membuat batang tanaman akan patah dan mati. Pencegahannya dengan menggunakan metode olah tanah. Kumbang Penggerek Biji Kumbang ini menyerang buah sejak saat panen sampai masuk ke dalam gudang. Biji buah menjadi keropos karena bagian dalamnya habis digerogoti, dan kerugiannya bisa mencapai 70%. Kumbang Bubuk Kumbang ini hampir seperti Kumbang Penggerek Biji, juga menyerang buah jagung. Gejala yang ditimbulkan adalah munculnya lubang lubang pada biji jagung yang lama kelamaan biji jagung akan hancur menjadi bubuk. Hama ini menyerang biji yang kurang kering dan biasanya terjadi pada saat cuaca lembab, dan kerusakan yang terjadi bisa mencapai 10%. Kutu Daun Kutu daun menyerang dengan cara menghisap cairan makanan yang ada di daun. Tanaman akan kekurangan cairan dan daun berubah warna menjadi kuning, mengering, akhirnya mati. Pencegahan dilakukan dengan merotasi tanaman untuk memutus siklus kehidupannya. Ulat Grayak Dalam skala besar ulat grayak akan menghabiskan seluruh daun dan hanya menyisakan tulang daun. Pencegahannya dengan melakukan rotasi tanaman dan untuk menekan perkembangannya perlu menjaga kebersihan lahan. Monyet dan Babi Serangan kedua hama ini dapat menimbulkan kerugian yang sangat besar. Dalam waktu semalam monyet dan babi bisa menghabiskan dan merusak tanaman seluas seperempat hektar. Untuk mengatasi hama ini bisa digunakan jerat dan kincir bambu yang bersuara keras. PENANGGULANGAN PENYAKIT Busuk Kelobot Penyakit busuk kelobot, daun jagung, disebabkan oleh jamur dengan gejala munculnya bintik bintik bulat warna hitam kebiruan di kelobot. Buah akan membusuk, akhirnya mati. Pencegahannya selain berdekatan dengan pohon pisang; karena sama sama merupakan inang jamur, bibit harus direndam dengan RI1. Bercak Daun Penyakit ini juga disebabkan oleh jamur, menyerang daun, pelepah, dan tongkol buah. Gejalanya muncul bercak bercak berwarna coklat dan kuning di daun, pelepah, dan tongkol buah. Penyakit ini menyebabkan terhambatnya proses fotosintesis sehingga mengganggu produktivitas. Pencegahannya dilakukan dengan menanam varietas yang tahan serangan penyakit ini. Pengendaliannya dilakukan dengan memusnahkan tanaman yang terserang agar tidak menular ke tanaman lain. Busuk Tongkol Pada awalnya jamur menyerang daun kemudian merembet ke buah, dengan gejalanya memunculkan bercak bercak berwarna merah muda atau coklat gelap di kelobot buah. Akibatnya tongkol buah akan membusuk dan menyebabkan gagal panen. Pencegahannya dilakukan dengan menanam varietas yang tahan terhadap hama ini dan membersihkan gulma yang berpotensi menjadi inang jamur. Busuk Kerdil Penyakit kerdil disebabkan oleh virus yang pada awalnya memunculkan bercak bercak kuning muda dan memenuhi seluruh permukaan daun. Tanaman tidak bisa melakukan proses fotosintesis sehingga kekurangan makanan dan menjadi cacat atau kerdil. Pencegahan terbaik dengan melakukan penanaman varietas yang tahan terhadap penyakit ini dan melakukan rotasi tanaman untuk memutuskan siklus kehidupan virus. Tanaman yang terserang harus dimusnahkan agar tidak menjadi inang dan menulari tanaman lain yang masih sehat. Hawar/Blight Penyakit Hawar disebabkan oleh bakteri yang biasa menyerang daun bagian bawah tanaman muda yang akan berbunga, dengan gejala awal munculnya bercak bercak pada daun berbentuk huruf V. Akibatnya pertumbuhan terhambat dan produktivitasnya menurun, daun mengering lalu mati. Pencegahannya selain menanam varietas yang tahan terhadap penyakit ini, juga harus membersihkan gulma di sekitar lahan terutama inang sejenis bawang. Sedangkan pengendaliannya dengan cara memeusnahkan tanaman yang terserang. Bulai/Downy Mildew Penyakit ini disebabkan jamur, dan bagian yang diserang adalah daun terutama pada tanaman muda berumur di bawah 40 hari. Daun berubah warna menjadi kuning keputih putihan dan di bagian bawahnya muncul semacam serbuk berwarna putih berbentuk seperti tepung. Serangan jamur ini akan meningkat pada suhu udara tinggi. Akibatnya tanaman rusak dan tidak bisa menghasilkan tongkol jagung yang sempurna. Jika serangan hebat tanaman mati. Pencegahan penyakit ini dilakukan dengan merendam benih dengan RI1 sebelum ditanam. Pengendaliannya dilakukan dengan cara membakar tanaman yang diserang. Busuk Batang Penyakit busuk batang disebabkan oleh bakteri yang gejala awalnya batang abgian bawah berubah warna menjadi kecoklatan kemudian membusuk, mati, dan patah secara tiba tiba. Dari titik patahan tercium bau busuk yang menyengat. Pencegahannya dilakukan dengan selalu menjaga kebersihan lahan agar tidak menular ke tanaman yang masih sehat. Karat Daun Penyakit Karat Daun disebabkan oleh jamur dengan gejala awal muncul bercak bercak merah dan keluar serbuk seperti tepung berwarna coklat kekuning kuningan. Akibatnya tanaman tidak bisa melakukan fotosintesis fengan sempurna sehingga pertumbuhannya lambat, bahkan bisa mati. Pencegahannya dilakukan dengan menanam varietas yang tahan terhadap penyakit ini. Catatan : Dari semua jenis hama diatas ketika tanaman kita diserang hama, dapat dilakukan langkah - langkah sebagai berikut : Aplikasikan Nutrisi RI1 Organik dicampur dengan rendama daun tembakau dan extrak daun sirsak, extrak daun intaran, extrak daun suren kemudian semprot kan pada tanaman dan tanaman yang terserang hama secara merata. BERCOCOK TANAM JAGUNG

saco-indonesia.com, Aksi mogok ratusan nelayan yang sudah dilakukan beberapa hari telah membuat Tempat Pelelangan Ikan (TPI) di Tegalsari, Kota Tegal, Jawa Tengah, sepi.

Mogok yang telah dilakukan nelayan sebagai protes terkait dalam Peraturan Menteri Sumber Daya Mineral nomor 15 tahun 2013 tentang harga solar industri bagi kapal ikan ukuran di atas 30 gross ton (GT).

pelelangan ikan lebih sepi dari biasanya. Hanya terlihat beberapa petugas yang tengah membersihkan pelelangan tersebut . Sementara ratusan kapal berjejer di tepi pelabuhan tanda tak melaut.

Kepala TPI Tegalsari, Herry Pramadikdo, juga mengatakan kapal yang biasanya membongkar muatan hasil tangkapan lebih sedikit jika dibandingkan dengan hari-hari biasa.

"Biasanya sampai enam kapal, ini hanya sekitar dua kapal," katanya Kamis(6/2).

Sementara untuk kapal one day fishing hanya sekitar 15 hingga 20 kapal. Padahal di hari biasa mencapai tak kurang dari 40 kapal one day fishing yang telah membongkar muatan hasil tangkapan tersebut.

Proses lelang di TPI Tegalsari pun juga selesai lebih cepat. Lelang biasanya telah dilakukan dua kali dan selesai pada pukul 15.00 WIB.

"Beberapa hari ini lelang ikan selesai pukul 1 siang, yang dilelang hanya sedikit jumlahnya," ujarnya.

Herry juga menjelaskan dampak lain, harga ikan melonjak. Tak tanggung-tanggung, kenaikan harga telah mencapai 100 persen.

Selain mogoknya nelayan sebab kenaikan harga solar, faktor cuaca juga menjadi salah satu penyebab TPI sepi.

"Sudah sejak awal Desember memang cuaca buruk telah membuat nelayan tidak bisa melaut. Sekarang ditambah dengan kenaikan harga solar yang tinggi ," ungkapnya.

Herry juga berharap, pemerintah akan segera mencabut kebijakan pemberlakuan harga solar industri bagi kapal pencari ikan.

"Cepat-cepat ada kesepakatan untuk dapat menyelesaikan masalah. Jika tidak dampaknya akan semakin lama dan harga ikan bisa naik lagi," katanya.

Kenaikan harga ikan juga dikatakan oleh salah seorang penjual ikan.

"Cumi-cumi naik dari Rp 30.000 sekarang harganya Rp 60.000 per kilo," kata Eni pedagang ikan di TPI.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

NELAYAN MOGOK MELAUT KARENA SOLAR NAIK, HARGA IKAN MELAMBUNG

Tentang Monumen Kapal Selam

Monumen Kapal Selam

Atau biasa di singkat dengan Monkasel, yang berlokasi di tepi Kali Mas, di pusat kota Surabaya. Lebih tepatnya di sebelah plaza Surabaya yaitu berada di Jalan Pemuda no 39. Monumen Kapal selam biasa buka pada hari senin sampai jumat, pukul 08.00 sampai 20.00 sedangkan untuk hari sabtu dan minggu biasanya telah beroperasi dari pukul 08.00 sampai 21.00, dengan harga tiket Rp 5000 per orang.

Monumen ini sebenarnya adalah kapal selam sungguhan yaitu KRI Pasopati 410 , salah satu armada Angkatan Laut Republik Indonesia buatan Uni Soviet tahun 1952 dengan tipe Whiskey Class. Kapal ini juga pernah ikut berperan dalam Pertempuran Laut Aru tentang Irian Barat dengan Belanda.

Monumen Kapal Selam telah di resmikan tanggal 27 Juni 1998, untuk dapat memperingati keberanian para pahlawan Indonesia, kemudian kapal ini akan di bawa ke darat. Namun untuk membawa kapal selam ke tengah kota Surabaya tidaklah mudah, kapal selam tersebut dipotong telah menjadi 16 bagian dan selanjutnya dibawa ke area Monumen Kapal Selam kemudian dirakit kembali dan di jadikan monumen. Ada beberapa ruangan antara lain:

    Ruang torpedo haluan yang di lengkapi dengan 4 peluncur torpedo
    Ruang periskop yang juga berfunsi sebagai Pusat Informasi tempur
    Ruang Tinggal Perwira
    Ruang ABK (Anak Buah Kapal)
    Ruang torpedo buritan
    Ruang listrik
    Ruang diesel

Di antara ruang di pisah dengan pintu kedap air, di dalam ruangan hawanya cukup panas. Saat melakukan operasi, para awak kapal selam ini harus mampu menahan suhu udara yang cukup panas di dalam kapal. Meski mendapat pasokan oksigen yang cukup, namun kapal ini tidak dilengkapi pendingin udara.

Di Monumen Kapal Selam juga terdapat berbagai fasilitas, antara lin, kamu juga bisa menonton film di Video Rama yang menyajikan sejarah kapal selam di Indonesia, ataupun menikmati sajian musik di panggung terbuka pada hari sabtu dan minggu. Terdapat tempat untuk pemutaran film yang menampilkan proses peperangan di Laut Aru. Sedangkan di pinggir Kali Mas yang juga masih di dalam area monumen kamu bisa berolahraga di jogging track yang di sediakan selain itu terdapat pula kios makanan yang menyediakan berbagai macam masakan. Tentu mengunjungi Monumen Kapal Selam atau Monkasel bisa menjadi wisata keluarga yang mendidik. Anda dan keluarga bisa lebih tahu tentang salah satu armada laut Indonesia yang kuat yaitu kapal selam.

 

TEMPAT WISATA MONUMEN KAPAL SELAM

Bekasi, Saco-Indonesia.com - Deputi Menko Perekonomian Bidang Koordinasi Perniagaan dan Kewirausahaan, Edy Putra Irawady mengatakan pemerintah sedang mempertimbangkan untuk mengembangkan Kepulauan Seribu sebagai Kawasan Ekonomi Khusus (KEK) Pariwisata.

"Ini ide dari empat tahun lalu, nanti ada pulau khusus untuk 'shopping', pulau untuk pelatihan dan pendidikan, pulau untuk tempat tinggal dan pulau untuk wisata sejarah," ujarnya di Jakarta, Selasa (28/1/2014).

Edy mengatakan pemikiran ini sedang dilakukan pematangan, termasuk pembicaraan terkait koordinasi antarinstansi, kewenangan administratif yang berada di kawasan kepulauan seribu serta keterlibatan tiga pemerintah provinsi sekaligus.

"Kalau semua sudah sepaham, nanti dibahas lagi di kantor Kemenko Perekonomian. Ini nanti menyangkut tiga provinsi, karena KEK biasa hanya satu provinsi. Pembahasan termasuk siapa badan pengelolanya dan harus dibagi zona," ujarnya.

Edy mengatakan pematangan ide ini dilakukan untuk mengantisipasi hambatan dari implementasi KEK Pariwisata Kepulauan Seribu, yaitu antara lain karena masing-masing pulau memiliki pengelola tersendiri dan koordinasi belum memadai antara otoritas berwenang di kawasan itu.

"Kalau ini bisa kita kembangkan, akan menjadi luar biasa. Selama ini Kemenparekraf membangun destinasi dan jasa, tapi koordinasi nanti di kita. Termasuk dalam penyediaan pelabuhan, resort, 'clearance' dan imigrasi serta fasilitas olaharaga air," paparnya.

Menurut Edy, kalau pengembangan KEK Pariwisata Kepulauan Seribu dapat berjalan efektif, maka para wisatawan mancanegara tidak lagi melakukan kegiatan belanja di Singapura maupun kawasan lain di Asia Tenggara.

KOMPAS.COM/TRI WAHYUNI Sisa reruntuhan Benteng Martello akibat gelombang tidal letusan Gunung Krakatau pada tahun 1883, merupakan salah satu situs sejarah di Pulau Bidadari, Kepulauan Seribu.

"Ini bisa menjadi destinasi internasional, karena potensinya sangat besar. Bahkan, menurut saya bisa menyaingi Dubai, yang selama ini hanya menang dalam hal promosi," ucap Edy.

Pemerintah berupaya untuk mendorong wisata bahari yang sangat potensial untuk dikembangkan, mengingat kondisi geografis Indonesia yang merupakan negara kepulauan dengan keanekaragaman hayati dan kekayaan budaya yang menarik.

Selain itu, kegiatan wisata bahari juga berpotensi untuk dapat mendistribusikan dan mengakselerasi pengembangan ekonomi pada masyarakat pesisir, pulau-pulau pesisir dan perairan pendalaman yang selama belum tereksplorasi.

Sumber :kompas.com

Editor : Maulana Lee

Kepulauan Seribu Dipertimbangkan Jadi KEK Pariwisata

LONDON, Saco-Indonesia.com - Sebanyak 11 pecatur muda Indonesia di bawah usia 17 tahun memborong medali dalam kejuaraan "World School Chess Championship 2013" dan juara utama the 5th Alexader the Great 2013 di Chalkidiki Yunani.
     
Sekretaris Pertama Fungsi Pensosbud KBRI Athena Jani Sasanti kepada Antara London, Kamis, mengatakan kejuaraan catur dunia yang berlangsung sejak 7 berakhir 14 Mei itu diikuti 567 peserta dari 30 negara termasuk negara yang kuat dalam olah raga catur yaitu Rusia, India,Inggris dan Turki.
     
Pada World School Chess Champions 2013, Indonesia menyabet juara kedua untuk kelompok usia U-9 yaitu Diajeng Theresa Singgih dari Jabar dan juara ketiga kelompok U-15 yaitu Aay Aisyah Anisa dari Jatim, sedang peserta Indonesia muda lainnya berada di ranking 10 besar juara.
     
Sementara pada Kejuaraan the 5th Alexander the Great Open Championship 2013 yang berlangsung di tempat yang sama, Grand Master (GM) Indonesia Irene Kharima Sukandar memenangkan juara utama turnamen bergensi tersebut.
     
Duta Besar RI untuk Yunani Benny Bahanadewa menyampaikan kebangganya atas prestasi yang dicapai pecatur muda Indonesia yang telah mengharumkan nama Indonesia di ajang internasional dan menunjukkan Indonesia memiliki banyak GM yang akan mengantarkan Indonesia sebagai negara pecatur dunia.
     
Keikutsertan peserta Indonesia berasal dari peserta Olympiade Olah Raga Siswa Nasional (02SN) Kementerian Dikbud RI dan PB Percasi, mengikutsertakan 11 pecatur muda katagori U-9, U-11, U-13 dan U-15.
     
Sementara itu, Wakil PB Percasi Yenny Chaidir mengungkapkan kegembiraannya atas kemenangan Indonesia dan akan terus berpartisiapsi pada setiap kejuaraan international dengan harapan Indonesia dapat meningkatkan prestasinya di ajang percaturan dunia.
     
Seri Kejuaraan School Chess Internasional 2013 diselenggarakan FIDE Greece berlangsung sejak 2005 dan Yunani menjadi tempat penyelengaraan pertama kejuraan ini tahun 2009. Pada tahun 2011, kejuaraan tersebut berlangsung di Polandia. Indonesia berhasil merebut lima  kali posisi juara pada periode 2005-2009. 

 

Sumber :ANT/Kompas.com
Editor :Liwon Maulana(galipat)
Atlet Catur Muda Indonesia Juara di Yunani

WASHINGTON — A decade after emergency trailers meant to shelter Hurricane Katrina victims instead caused burning eyes, sore throats and other more serious ailments, the Environmental Protection Agency is on the verge of regulating the culprit: formaldehyde, a chemical that can be found in commonplace things like clothes and furniture.

But an unusual assortment of players, including furniture makers, the Chinese government, Republicans from states with a large base of furniture manufacturing and even some Democrats who championed early regulatory efforts, have questioned the E.P.A. proposal. The sustained opposition has held sway, as the agency is now preparing to ease key testing requirements before it releases the landmark federal health standard.

The E.P.A.’s five-year effort to adopt this rule offers another example of how industry opposition can delay and hamper attempts by the federal government to issue regulations, even to control substances known to be harmful to human health.

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Document: The Formaldehyde Fight

Formaldehyde is a known carcinogen that can also cause respiratory ailments like asthma, but the potential of long-term exposure to cause cancers like myeloid leukemia is less well understood.

The E.P.A.’s decision would be the first time that the federal government has regulated formaldehyde inside most American homes.

“The stakes are high for public health,” said Tom Neltner, senior adviser for regulatory affairs at the National Center for Healthy Housing, who has closely monitored the debate over the rules. “What we can’t have here is an outcome that fails to confront the health threat we all know exists.”

The proposal would not ban formaldehyde — commonly used as an ingredient in wood glue in furniture and flooring — but it would impose rules that prevent dangerous levels of the chemical’s vapors from those products, and would set testing standards to ensure that products sold in the United States comply with those limits. The debate has sharpened in the face of growing concern about the safety of formaldehyde-treated flooring imported from Asia, especially China.

What is certain is that a lot of money is at stake: American companies sell billions of dollars’ worth of wood products each year that contain formaldehyde, and some argue that the proposed regulation would impose unfair costs and restrictions.

Determined to block the agency’s rule as proposed, these industry players have turned to the White House, members of Congress and top E.P.A. officials, pressing them to roll back the testing requirements in particular, calling them redundant and too expensive.

“There are potentially over a million manufacturing jobs that will be impacted if the proposed rule is finalized without changes,” wrote Bill Perdue, the chief lobbyist at the American Home Furnishings Alliance, a leading critic of the testing requirements in the proposed regulation, in one letter to the E.P.A.

Industry opposition helped create an odd alignment of forces working to thwart the rule. The White House moved to strike out key aspects of the proposal. Subsequent appeals for more changes were voiced by players as varied as Senator Barbara Boxer, Democrat of California, and Senator Roger Wicker, Republican of Mississippi, as well as furniture industry lobbyists.

Hurricane Katrina in 2005 helped ignite the public debate over formaldehyde, after the deadly storm destroyed or damaged hundreds of thousands of homes along the Gulf of Mexico, forcing families into temporary trailers provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

The displaced storm victims quickly began reporting respiratory problems, burning eyes and other issues, and tests then confirmed high levels of formaldehyde fumes leaking into the air inside the trailers, which in many cases had been hastily constructed.

Public health advocates petitioned the E.P.A. to issue limits on formaldehyde in building materials and furniture used in homes, given that limits already existed for exposure in workplaces. But three years after the storm, only California had issued such limits.

Industry groups like the American Chemistry Council have repeatedly challenged the science linking formaldehyde to cancer, a position championed by David Vitter, the Republican senator from Louisiana, who is a major recipient of chemical industry campaign contributions, and whom environmental groups have mockingly nicknamed “Senator Formaldehyde.”

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Formaldehyde in Laminate Flooring

In laminate flooring, formaldehyde is used as a bonding agent in the fiberboard (or other composite wood) core layer and may also be used in glues that bind layers together. Concerns were raised in March when certain laminate flooring imported from China was reported to contain levels of formaldehyde far exceeding the limit permitted by California.

Typical

laminate

flooring

CLEAR FINISH LAYER

Often made of melamine resin

PATTERN LAYER

Paper printed to resemble wood,

or a thin wood veneer

GLUE

Layers may be bound using

formaldehyde-based glues

CORE LAYER

Fiberboard or other

composite, formed using

formaldehyde-based adhesives

BASE LAYER

Moisture-resistant vapor barrier

What is formaldehyde?

Formaldehyde is a common chemical used in many industrial and household products as an adhesive, bonding agent or preservative. It is classified as a volatile organic compound. The term volatile means that, at room temperature, formaldehyde will vaporize, or become a gas. Products made with formaldehyde tend to release this gas into the air. If breathed in large quantities, it may cause health problems.

WHERE IT IS COMMONLY FOUND

POTENTIAL HEALTH RISKS

Pressed-wood and composite wood products

Wallpaper and paints

Spray foam insulation used in construction

Commercial wood floor finishes

Crease-resistant fabrics

In cigarette smoke, or in the fumes from combustion of other materials, including wood, oil and gasoline.

Exposure to formaldehyde in sufficient amounts may cause eye, throat or skin irritation, allergic reactions, and respiratory problems like coughing, wheezing or asthma.

Long-term exposure to high levels has been associated with cancer in humans and laboratory animals.

Exposure to formaldehyde may affect some people more severely than others.

By 2010, public health advocates and some industry groups secured bipartisan support in Congress for legislation that ordered the E.P.A. to issue federal rules that largely mirrored California’s restrictions. At the time, concerns were rising over the growing number of lower-priced furniture imports from Asia that might include contaminated products, while also hurting sales of American-made products.

Maneuvering began almost immediately after the E.P.A. prepared draft rules to formally enact the new standards.

White House records show at least five meetings in mid-2012 with industry executives — kitchen cabinet makers, chemical manufacturers, furniture trade associations and their lobbyists, like Brock R. Landry, of the Venable law firm. These parties, along with Senator Vitter’s office, appealed to top administration officials, asking them to intervene to roll back the E.P.A. proposal.

The White House Office of Management and Budget, which reviews major federal regulations before they are adopted, apparently agreed. After the White House review, the E.P.A. “redlined” many of the estimates of the monetary benefits that would be gained by reductions in related health ailments, like asthma and fertility issues, documents reviewed by The New York Times show.

As a result, the estimated benefit of the proposed rule dropped to $48 million a year, from as much as $278 million a year. The much-reduced amount deeply weakened the agency’s justification for the sometimes costly new testing that would be required under the new rules, a federal official involved in the effort said.

“It’s a redlining blood bath,” said Lisa Heinzerling, a Georgetown University Law School professor and a former E.P.A. official, using the Washington phrase to describe when language is stricken from a proposed rule. “Almost the entire discussion of these potential benefits was excised.”

Senator Vitter’s staff was pleased.

“That’s a huge difference,” said Luke Bolar, a spokesman for Mr. Vitter, of the reduced estimated financial benefits, saying the change was “clearly highlighting more mismanagement” at the E.P.A.

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The review’s outcome galvanized opponents in the furniture industry. They then targeted a provision that mandated new testing of laminated wood, a cheaper alternative to hardwood. (The California standard on which the law was based did not require such testing.)

But E.P.A. scientists had concluded that these laminate products — millions of which are sold annually in the United States — posed a particular risk. They said that when thin layers of wood, also known as laminate or veneer, are added to furniture or flooring in the final stages of manufacturing, the resulting product can generate dangerous levels of fumes from often-used formaldehyde-based glues.

Industry executives, outraged by what they considered an unnecessary and financially burdensome level of testing, turned every lever within reach to get the requirement removed. It would be particularly onerous, they argued, for small manufacturers that would have to repeatedly interrupt their work to do expensive new testing. The E.P.A. estimated that the expanded requirements for laminate products would cost the furniture industry tens of millions of dollars annually, while the industry said that the proposed rule over all would cost its 7,000 American manufacturing facilities over $200 million each year.

“A lot of people don’t seem to appreciate what a lot of these requirements do to a small operation,” said Dick Titus, executive vice president of the Kitchen Cabinet Manufacturers Association, whose members are predominantly small businesses. “A 10-person shop, for example, just really isn’t equipped to handle that type of thing.”

Photo
 
Becky Gillette wants strong regulation of formaldehyde. Credit Beth Hall for The New York Times

Big industry players also weighed in. Executives from companies including La-Z-Boy, Hooker Furniture and Ashley Furniture all flew to Washington for a series of meetings with the offices of lawmakers including House Speaker John Boehner, Republican of Ohio, and about a dozen other lawmakers, asking several of them to sign a letter prepared by the industry to press the E.P.A. to back down, according to an industry report describing the lobbying visit.

Within a matter of weeks, two letters — using nearly identical language — were sent by House and Senate lawmakers to the E.P.A. — with the industry group forwarding copies of the letters to the agency as well, and then posting them on its website.

The industry lobbyists also held their own meeting at E.P.A. headquarters, and they urged Jim Jones, who oversaw the rule-making process as the assistant administrator for the agency’s Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention, to visit a North Carolina furniture manufacturing plant. According to the trade group, Mr. Jones told them that the visit had “helped the agency shift its thinking” about the rules and how laminated products should be treated.

The resistance was particularly intense from lawmakers like Mr. Wicker of Mississippi, whose state is home to major manufacturing plants owned by Ashley Furniture Industries, the world’s largest furniture maker, and who is one of the biggest recipients in Congress of donations from the industry’s trade association. Asked if the political support played a role, a spokesman for Mr. Wicker replied: “Thousands of Mississippians depend on the furniture manufacturing industry for their livelihoods. Senator Wicker is committed to defending all Mississippians from government overreach.”

Individual companies like Ikea also intervened, as did the Chinese government, which claimed that the new rule would create a “great barrier” to the import of Chinese products because of higher costs.

Perhaps the most surprising objection came from Senator Boxer, of California, a longtime environmental advocate, whose office questioned why the E.P.A.’s rule went further than her home state’s in seeking testing on laminated products. “We did not advocate an outcome, other than safety,” her office said in a statement about why the senator raised concerns. “We said ‘Take a look to see if you have it right.’ ”

Safety advocates say that tighter restrictions — like the ones Ms. Boxer and Mr. Wicker, along with Representative Doris Matsui, a California Democrat, have questioned — are necessary, particularly for products coming from China, where items as varied as toys and Christmas lights have been found to violate American safety standards.

While Mr. Neltner, the environmental advocate who has been most involved in the review process, has been open to compromise, he has pressed the E.P.A. not to back down entirely, and to maintain a requirement that laminators verify that their products are safe.

An episode of CBS’s “60 Minutes” in March brought attention to the issue when it accused Lumber Liquidators, the discount flooring retailer, of selling laminate products with dangerous levels of formaldehyde. The company has disputed the show’s findings and test methods, maintaining that its products are safe.

“People think that just because Congress passed the legislation five years ago, the problem has been fixed,” said Becky Gillette, who then lived in coastal Mississippi, in the area hit by Hurricane Katrina, and was among the first to notice a pattern of complaints from people living in the trailers. “Real people’s faces and names come up in front of me when I think of the thousands of people who could get sick if this rule is not done right.”

An aide to Ms. Matsui rejected any suggestion that she was bending to industry pressure.

“From the beginning the public health has been our No. 1 concern,” said Kyle J. Victor, an aide to Ms. Matsui.

But further changes to the rule are likely, agency officials concede, as they say they are searching for a way to reduce the cost of complying with any final rule while maintaining public health goals. The question is just how radically the agency will revamp the testing requirement for laminated products — if it keeps it at all.

“It’s not a secret to anybody that is the most challenging issue,” said Mr. Jones, the E.P.A. official overseeing the process, adding that the health consequences from formaldehyde are real. “We have to reduce those exposures so that people can live healthy lives and not have to worry about being in their homes.”

The Uphill Battle to Better Regulate Formaldehyde

Imagine an elite professional services firm with a high-performing, workaholic culture. Everyone is expected to turn on a dime to serve a client, travel at a moment’s notice, and be available pretty much every evening and weekend. It can make for a grueling work life, but at the highest levels of accounting, law, investment banking and consulting firms, it is just the way things are.

Except for one dirty little secret: Some of the people ostensibly turning in those 80- or 90-hour workweeks, particularly men, may just be faking it.

Many of them were, at least, at one elite consulting firm studied by Erin Reid, a professor at Boston University’s Questrom School of Business. It’s impossible to know if what she learned at that unidentified consulting firm applies across the world of work more broadly. But her research, published in the academic journal Organization Science, offers a way to understand how the professional world differs between men and women, and some of the ways a hard-charging culture that emphasizes long hours above all can make some companies worse off.

Photo
 
Credit Peter Arkle

Ms. Reid interviewed more than 100 people in the American offices of a global consulting firm and had access to performance reviews and internal human resources documents. At the firm there was a strong culture around long hours and responding to clients promptly.

“When the client needs me to be somewhere, I just have to be there,” said one of the consultants Ms. Reid interviewed. “And if you can’t be there, it’s probably because you’ve got another client meeting at the same time. You know it’s tough to say I can’t be there because my son had a Cub Scout meeting.”

Some people fully embraced this culture and put in the long hours, and they tended to be top performers. Others openly pushed back against it, insisting upon lighter and more flexible work hours, or less travel; they were punished in their performance reviews.

The third group is most interesting. Some 31 percent of the men and 11 percent of the women whose records Ms. Reid examined managed to achieve the benefits of a more moderate work schedule without explicitly asking for it.

They made an effort to line up clients who were local, reducing the need for travel. When they skipped work to spend time with their children or spouse, they didn’t call attention to it. One team on which several members had small children agreed among themselves to cover for one another so that everyone could have more flexible hours.

A male junior manager described working to have repeat consulting engagements with a company near enough to his home that he could take care of it with day trips. “I try to head out by 5, get home at 5:30, have dinner, play with my daughter,” he said, adding that he generally kept weekend work down to two hours of catching up on email.

Despite the limited hours, he said: “I know what clients are expecting. So I deliver above that.” He received a high performance review and a promotion.

What is fascinating about the firm Ms. Reid studied is that these people, who in her terminology were “passing” as workaholics, received performance reviews that were as strong as their hyper-ambitious colleagues. For people who were good at faking it, there was no real damage done by their lighter workloads.

It calls to mind the episode of “Seinfeld” in which George Costanza leaves his car in the parking lot at Yankee Stadium, where he works, and gets a promotion because his boss sees the car and thinks he is getting to work earlier and staying later than anyone else. (The strategy goes awry for him, and is not recommended for any aspiring partners in a consulting firm.)

A second finding is that women, particularly those with young children, were much more likely to request greater flexibility through more formal means, such as returning from maternity leave with an explicitly reduced schedule. Men who requested a paternity leave seemed to be punished come review time, and so may have felt more need to take time to spend with their families through those unofficial methods.

The result of this is easy to see: Those specifically requesting a lighter workload, who were disproportionately women, suffered in their performance reviews; those who took a lighter workload more discreetly didn’t suffer. The maxim of “ask forgiveness, not permission” seemed to apply.

It would be dangerous to extrapolate too much from a study at one firm, but Ms. Reid said in an interview that since publishing a summary of her research in Harvard Business Review she has heard from people in a variety of industries describing the same dynamic.

High-octane professional service firms are that way for a reason, and no one would doubt that insane hours and lots of travel can be necessary if you’re a lawyer on the verge of a big trial, an accountant right before tax day or an investment banker advising on a huge merger.

But the fact that the consultants who quietly lightened their workload did just as well in their performance reviews as those who were truly working 80 or more hours a week suggests that in normal times, heavy workloads may be more about signaling devotion to a firm than really being more productive. The person working 80 hours isn’t necessarily serving clients any better than the person working 50.

In other words, maybe the real problem isn’t men faking greater devotion to their jobs. Maybe it’s that too many companies reward the wrong things, favoring the illusion of extraordinary effort over actual productivity.

How Some Men Fake an 80-Hour Workweek, and Why It Matters

As he reflected on the festering wounds deepened by race and grievance that have been on painful display in America’s cities lately, President Obama on Monday found himself thinking about a young man he had just met named Malachi.

A few minutes before, in a closed-door round-table discussion at Lehman College in the Bronx, Mr. Obama had asked a group of black and Hispanic students from disadvantaged backgrounds what could be done to help them reach their goals. Several talked about counseling and guidance programs.

“Malachi, he just talked about — we should talk about love,” Mr. Obama told a crowd afterward, drifting away from his prepared remarks. “Because Malachi and I shared the fact that our dad wasn’t around and that sometimes we wondered why he wasn’t around and what had happened. But really, that’s what this comes down to is: Do we love these kids?”

Many presidents have governed during times of racial tension, but Mr. Obama is the first to see in the mirror a face that looks like those on the other side of history’s ledger. While his first term was consumed with the economy, war and health care, his second keeps coming back to the societal divide that was not bridged by his election. A president who eschewed focusing on race now seems to have found his voice again as he thinks about how to use his remaining time in office and beyond.

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Play Video|1:17

Obama Speaks of a ‘Sense of Unfairness’

Obama Speaks of a ‘Sense of Unfairness’

At an event announcing the creation of a nonprofit focusing on young minority men, President Obama talked about the underlying reasons for recent protests in Baltimore and other cities.

By Associated Press on Publish Date May 4, 2015. Photo by Stephen Crowley/The New York Times.

In the aftermath of racially charged unrest in places like Baltimore, Ferguson, Mo., and New York, Mr. Obama came to the Bronx on Monday for the announcement of a new nonprofit organization that is being spun off from his White House initiative called My Brother’s Keeper. Staked by more than $80 million in commitments from corporations and other donors, the new group, My Brother’s Keeper Alliance, will in effect provide the nucleus for Mr. Obama’s post-presidency, which will begin in January 2017.

“This will remain a mission for me and for Michelle not just for the rest of my presidency but for the rest of my life,” Mr. Obama said. “And the reason is simple,” he added. Referring to some of the youths he had just met, he said: “We see ourselves in these young men. I grew up without a dad. I grew up lost sometimes and adrift, not having a sense of a clear path. The only difference between me and a lot of other young men in this neighborhood and all across the country is that I grew up in an environment that was a little more forgiving.”

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Organizers said the new alliance already had financial pledges from companies like American Express, Deloitte, Discovery Communications and News Corporation. The money will be used to help companies address obstacles facing young black and Hispanic men, provide grants to programs for disadvantaged youths, and help communities aid their populations.

Joe Echevarria, a former chief executive of Deloitte, the accounting and consulting firm, will lead the alliance, and among those on its leadership team or advisory group are executives at PepsiCo, News Corporation, Sprint, BET and Prudential Group Insurance; former Secretary of State Colin L. Powell; Senator Cory Booker, Democrat of New Jersey; former Attorney General Eric H. Holder Jr.; the music star John Legend; the retired athletes Alonzo Mourning, Jerome Bettis and Shaquille O’Neal; and the mayors of Indianapolis, Sacramento and Philadelphia.

The alliance, while nominally independent of the White House, may face some of the same questions confronting former Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton as she begins another presidential campaign. Some of those donating to the alliance may have interests in government action, and skeptics may wonder whether they are trying to curry favor with the president by contributing.

“The Obama administration will have no role in deciding how donations are screened and what criteria they’ll set at the alliance for donor policies, because it’s an entirely separate entity,” Josh Earnest, the White House press secretary, told reporters on Air Force One en route to New York. But he added, “I’m confident that the members of the board are well aware of the president’s commitment to transparency.”

The alliance was in the works before the disturbances last week after the death of Freddie Gray, the black man who suffered fatal injuries while in police custody in Baltimore, but it reflected the evolution of Mr. Obama’s presidency. For him, in a way, it is coming back to issues that animated him as a young community organizer and politician. It was his own struggle with race and identity, captured in his youthful memoir, “Dreams From My Father,” that stood him apart from other presidential aspirants.

But that was a side of him that he kept largely to himself through the first years of his presidency while he focused on other priorities like turning the economy around, expanding government-subsidized health care and avoiding electoral land mines en route to re-election.

After securing a second term, Mr. Obama appeared more emboldened. Just a month after his 2013 inauguration, he talked passionately about opportunity and race with a group of teenage boys in Chicago, a moment aides point to as perhaps the first time he had spoken about these issues in such a personal, powerful way as president. A few months later, he publicly lamented the death of Trayvon Martin, a black Florida teenager, saying that “could have been me 35 years ago.”

Photo
 
President Obama on Monday with Darinel Montero, a student at Bronx International High School who introduced him before remarks at Lehman College in the Bronx. Credit Stephen Crowley/The New York Times

That case, along with public ruptures of anger over police shootings in Ferguson and elsewhere, have pushed the issue of race and law enforcement onto the public agenda. Aides said they imagined that with his presidency in its final stages, Mr. Obama might be thinking more about what comes next and causes he can advance as a private citizen.

That is not to say that his public discussion of these issues has been universally welcomed. Some conservatives said he had made matters worse by seeming in their view to blame police officers in some of the disputed cases.

“President Obama, when he was elected, could have been a unifying leader,” Senator Ted Cruz of Texas, a Republican candidate for president, said at a forum last week. “He has made decisions that I think have inflamed racial tensions.”

On the other side of the ideological spectrum, some liberal African-American activists have complained that Mr. Obama has not done enough to help downtrodden communities. While he is speaking out more, these critics argue, he has hardly used the power of the presidency to make the sort of radical change they say is necessary.

The line Mr. Obama has tried to straddle has been a serrated one. He condemns police brutality as he defends most officers as honorable. He condemns “criminals and thugs” who looted in Baltimore while expressing empathy with those trapped in a cycle of poverty and hopelessness.

In the Bronx on Monday, Mr. Obama bemoaned the death of Brian Moore, a plainclothes New York police officer who had died earlier in the day after being shot in the head Saturday on a Queens street. Most police officers are “good and honest and fair and care deeply about their communities,” even as they put their lives on the line, Mr. Obama said.

“Which is why in addressing the issues in Baltimore or Ferguson or New York, the point I made was that if we’re just looking at policing, we’re looking at it too narrowly,” he added. “If we ask the police to simply contain and control problems that we ourselves have been unwilling to invest and solve, that’s not fair to the communities, it’s not fair to the police.”

Moreover, if society writes off some people, he said, “that’s not the kind of country I want to live in; that’s not what America is about.”

His message to young men like Malachi Hernandez, who attends Boston Latin Academy in Massachusetts, is not to give up.

“I want you to know you matter,” he said. “You matter to us.”

Obama Finds a Bolder Voice on Race Issues

Hockey is not exactly known as a city game, but played on roller skates, it once held sway as the sport of choice in many New York neighborhoods.

“City kids had no rinks, no ice, but they would do anything to play hockey,” said Edward Moffett, former director of the Long Island City Y.M.C.A. Roller Hockey League, in Queens, whose games were played in city playgrounds going back to the 1940s.

From the 1960s through the 1980s, the league had more than 60 teams, he said. Players included the Mullen brothers of Hell’s Kitchen and Dan Dorion of Astoria, Queens, who would later play on ice for the National Hockey League.

One street legend from the heyday of New York roller hockey was Craig Allen, who lived in the Woodside Houses projects and became one of the city’s hardest hitters and top scorers.

“Craig was a warrior, one of the best roller hockey players in the city in the ’70s,” said Dave Garmendia, 60, a retired New York police officer who grew up playing with Mr. Allen. “His teammates loved him and his opponents feared him.”

Young Craig took up hockey on the streets of Queens in the 1960s, playing pickup games between sewer covers, wearing steel-wheeled skates clamped onto school shoes and using a roll of electrical tape as the puck.

His skill and ferocity drew attention, Mr. Garmendia said, but so did his skin color. He was black, in a sport made up almost entirely by white players.

“Roller hockey was a white kid’s game, plain and simple, but Craig broke the color barrier,” Mr. Garmendia said. “We used to say Craig did more for race relations than the N.A.A.C.P.”

Mr. Allen went on to coach and referee roller hockey in New York before moving several years ago to South Carolina. But he continued to organize an annual alumni game at Dutch Kills Playground in Long Island City, the same site that held the local championship games.

The reunion this year was on Saturday, but Mr. Allen never made it. On April 26, just before boarding the bus to New York, he died of an asthma attack at age 61.

Word of his death spread rapidly among hundreds of his old hockey colleagues who resolved to continue with the event, now renamed the Craig Allen Memorial Roller Hockey Reunion.

The turnout on Saturday was the largest ever, with players pulling on their old equipment, choosing sides and taking once again to the rink of cracked blacktop with faded lines and circles. They wore no helmets, although one player wore a fedora.

Another, Vinnie Juliano, 77, of Long Island City, wore his hearing aids, along with his 50-year-old taped-up quads, or four-wheeled skates with a leather boot. Many players here never converted to in-line skates, and neither did Mr. Allen, whose photograph appeared on a poster hanging behind the players’ bench.

“I’m seeing people walking by wondering why all these rusty, grizzly old guys are here playing hockey,” one player, Tommy Dominguez, said. “We’re here for Craig, and let me tell you, these old guys still play hard.”

Everyone seemed to have a Craig Allen story, from his earliest teams at Public School 151 to the Bryant Rangers, the Woodside Wings, the Woodside Blues and more.

Mr. Allen, who became a yellow-cab driver, was always recruiting new talent. He gained the nickname Cabby for his habit of stopping at playgrounds all over the city to scout players.

Teams were organized around neighborhoods and churches, and often sponsored by local bars. Mr. Allen, for one, played for bars, including Garry Owen’s and on the Fiddler’s Green Jokers team in Inwood, Manhattan.

Play was tough and fights were frequent.

“We were basically street gangs on skates,” said Steve Rogg, 56, a mail clerk who grew up in Jackson Heights, Queens, and who on Saturday wore his Riedell Classic quads from 1972. “If another team caught up with you the night before a game, they tossed you a beating so you couldn’t play the next day.”

Mr. Garmendia said Mr. Allen’s skin color provoked many fights.

“When we’d go to some ignorant neighborhoods, a lot of players would use slurs,” Mr. Garmendia said, recalling a game in Ozone Park, Queens, where local fans parked motorcycles in a lineup next to the blacktop and taunted Mr. Allen. Mr. Garmendia said he checked a player into the motorcycles, “and the bikes went down like dominoes, which started a serious brawl.”

A group of fans at a game in Brooklyn once stuck a pole through the rink fence as Mr. Allen skated by and broke his jaw, Mr. Garmendia said, adding that carloads of reinforcements soon arrived to defend Mr. Allen.

And at another racially incited brawl, the police responded with six patrol cars and a helicopter.

Before play began on Saturday, the players gathered at center rink to honor Mr. Allen. Billy Barnwell, 59, of Woodside, recalled once how an all-white, all-star squad snubbed Mr. Allen by playing him third string. He scored seven goals in the first game and made first string immediately.

“He’d always hear racial stuff before the game, and I’d ask him, ‘How do you put up with that?’” Mr. Barnwell recalled. “Craig would say, ‘We’ll take care of it,’ and by the end of the game, he’d win guys over. They’d say, ‘This guy’s good.’”

Tribute for a Roller Hockey Warrior
Photo
 
Many bodies prepared for cremation last week in Kathmandu were of young men from Gongabu, a common stopover for Nepali migrant workers headed overseas. Credit Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

KATHMANDU, Nepal — When the dense pillar of smoke from cremations by the Bagmati River was thinning late last week, the bodies were all coming from Gongabu, a common stopover for Nepali migrant workers headed overseas, and they were all of young men.

Hindu custom dictates that funeral pyres should be lighted by the oldest son of the deceased, but these men were too young to have sons, so they were burned by their brothers or fathers. Sukla Lal, a maize farmer, made a 14-hour journey by bus to retrieve the body of his 19-year-old son, who had been on his way to the Persian Gulf to work as a laborer.

“He wanted to live in the countryside, but he was compelled to leave by poverty,” Mr. Lal said, gazing ahead steadily as his son’s remains smoldered. “He told me, ‘You can live on your land, and I will come up with money, and we will have a happy family.’ ”

Weeks will pass before the authorities can give a complete accounting of who died in the April 25 earthquake, but it is already clear that Nepal cannot afford the losses. The countryside was largely stripped of its healthy young men even before the quake, as they migrated in great waves — 1,500 a day by some estimates — to work as laborers in India, Malaysia or one of the gulf nations, leaving many small communities populated only by elderly parents, women and children. Economists say that at some times of the year, one-quarter of Nepal’s population is working outside the country.

Nepal’s Young Men, Lost to Migration, Then a Quake

Ms. Meadows was the older sister of Audrey Meadows, who played Alice Kramden on “The Honeymooners.”

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Ms. Crough played the youngest daughter on the hit ’70s sitcom starring David Cassidy and Shirley Jones.

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WASHINGTON — The last three men to win the Republican nomination have been the prosperous son of a president (George W. Bush), a senator who could not recall how many homes his family owned (John McCain of Arizona; it was seven) and a private equity executive worth an estimated $200 million (Mitt Romney).

The candidates hoping to be the party’s nominee in 2016 are trying to create a very different set of associations. On Sunday, Ben Carson, a retired neurosurgeon, joined the presidential field.

Senator Marco Rubio of Florida praises his parents, a bartender and a Kmart stock clerk, as he urges audiences not to forget “the workers in our hotel kitchens, the landscaping crews in our neighborhoods, the late-night janitorial staff that clean our offices.”

Gov. Scott Walker of Wisconsin, a preacher’s son, posts on Twitter about his ham-and-cheese sandwiches and boasts of his coupon-clipping frugality. His $1 Kohl’s sweater has become a campaign celebrity in its own right.

Senator Rand Paul of Kentucky laments the existence of “two Americas,” borrowing the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s phrase to describe economically and racially troubled communities like Ferguson, Mo., and Detroit.

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Senator Marco Rubio of Florida praises his parents, a bartender and a Kmart stock clerk. Credit Joe Raedle/Getty Images

“Some say, ‘But Democrats care more about the poor,’ ” Mr. Paul likes to say. “If that’s true, why is black unemployment still twice white unemployment? Why has household income declined by $3,500 over the past six years?”

We are in the midst of the Empathy Primary — the rhetorical battleground shaping the Republican presidential field of 2016.

Harmed by the perception that they favor the wealthy at the expense of middle-of-the-road Americans, the party’s contenders are each trying their hardest to get across what the elder George Bush once inelegantly told recession-battered voters in 1992: “Message: I care.”

Their ability to do so — less bluntly, more sincerely — could prove decisive in an election year when power, privilege and family connections will loom large for both parties.

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Questions of understanding and compassion cost Republicans in the last election. Mr. Romney, who memorably dismissed the “47 percent” of Americans as freeloaders, lost to President Obama by 63 percentage points among voters who cast their ballots for the candidate who “cares about people like me,” according to exit polls.

And a Pew poll from February showed that people still believe Republicans are indifferent to working Americans: 54 percent said the Republican Party does not care about the middle class.

That taint of callousness explains why Senator Ted Cruz of Texas declared last week that Republicans “are and should be the party of the 47 percent” — and why another son of a president, Jeb Bush, has made economic opportunity the centerpiece of his message.

With his pedigree and considerable wealth — since he left the Florida governor’s office almost a decade ago he has earned millions of dollars sitting on corporate boards and advising banks — Mr. Bush probably has the most complicated task making the argument to voters that he understands their concerns.

On a visit last week to Puerto Rico, Mr. Bush sounded every bit the populist, railing against “elites” who have stifled economic growth and innovation. In the kind of economy he envisions leading, he said: “We wouldn’t have the middle being squeezed. People in poverty would have a chance to rise up. And the social strains that exist — because the haves and have-nots is the big debate in our country today — would subside.”

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Who Is Running for President (and Who’s Not)?

Republicans’ emphasis on poorer and working-class Americans now represents a shift from the party’s longstanding focus on business owners and “job creators” as the drivers of economic opportunity.

This is intentional, Republican operatives said.

In the last presidential election, Republicans rushed to defend business owners against what they saw as hostility by Democrats to successful, wealthy entrepreneurs.

“Part of what you had was a reaction to the Democrats’ dehumanization of business owners: ‘Oh, you think you started your plumbing company? No you didn’t,’ ” said Grover Norquist, the conservative activist and president of Americans for Tax Reform.

But now, Mr. Norquist said, Republicans should move past that. “Focus on the people in the room who know someone who couldn’t get a job, or a promotion, or a raise because taxes are too high or regulations eat up companies’ time,” he said. “The rich guy can take care of himself.”

Democrats argue that the public will ultimately see through such an approach because Republican positions like opposing a minimum-wage increase and giving private banks a larger role in student loans would hurt working Americans.

“If Republican candidates are just repeating the same tired policies, I’m not sure that smiling while saying it is going to be enough,” said Guy Cecil, a Democratic strategist who is joining a “super PAC” working on behalf of Hillary Rodham Clinton.

Republicans have already attacked Mrs. Clinton over the wealth and power she and her husband have accumulated, caricaturing her as an out-of-touch multimillionaire who earns hundreds of thousands of dollars per speech and has not driven a car since 1996.

Mr. Walker hit this theme recently on Fox News, pointing to Mrs. Clinton’s lucrative book deals and her multiple residences. “This is not someone who is connected with everyday Americans,” he said. His own net worth, according to The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, is less than a half-million dollars; Mr. Walker also owes tens of thousands of dollars on his credit cards.

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But showing off a cheap sweater or boasting of a bootstraps family background not only helps draw a contrast with Mrs. Clinton’s latter-day affluence, it is also an implicit argument against Mr. Bush.

Mr. Walker, who featured a 1998 Saturn with more than 100,000 miles on the odometer in a 2010 campaign ad during his first run for governor, likes to talk about flipping burgers at McDonald’s as a young person. His mother, he has said, grew up on a farm with no indoor plumbing until she was in high school.

Mr. Rubio, among the least wealthy members of the Senate, with an estimated net worth of around a half-million dollars, uses his working-class upbringing as evidence of the “exceptionalism” of America, “where even the son of a bartender and a maid can have the same dreams and the same future as those who come from power and privilege.”

Mr. Cruz alludes to his family’s dysfunction — his parents, he says, were heavy drinkers — and recounts his father’s tale of fleeing Cuba with $100 sewn into his underwear.

Gov. Chris Christie of New Jersey notes that his father paid his way through college working nights at an ice cream plant.

But sometimes the attempts at projecting authenticity can seem forced. Mr. Christie recently found himself on the defensive after telling a New Hampshire audience, “I don’t consider myself a wealthy man.” Tax returns showed that he and his wife, a longtime Wall Street executive, earned nearly $700,000 in 2013.

The story of success against the odds is a political classic, even if it is one the Republican Party has not been able to tell for a long time. Ronald Reagan liked to say that while he had not been born on the wrong side of the tracks, he could always hear the whistle. Richard Nixon was fond of reminding voters how he was born in a house his father had built.

“Probably the idea that is most attractive to an average voter, and an idea that both Republicans and Democrats try to craft into their messages, is this idea that you can rise from nothing,” said Charles C. W. Cooke, a writer for National Review.

There is a certain delight Republicans take in turning that message to their advantage now.

“That’s what Obama did with Hillary,” Mr. Cooke said. “He acknowledged it openly: ‘This is ridiculous. Look at me, this one-term senator with dark skin and all of America’s unsolved racial problems, running against the wife of the last Democratic president.”

G.O.P. Hopefuls Now Aiming to Woo the Middle Class

BALTIMORE — In the afternoons, the streets of Locust Point are clean and nearly silent. In front of the rowhouses, potted plants rest next to steps of brick or concrete. There is a shopping center nearby with restaurants, and a grocery store filled with fresh foods.

And the National Guard and the police are largely absent. So, too, residents say, are worries about what happened a few miles away on April 27 when, in a space of hours, parts of this city became riot zones.

“They’re not our reality,” Ashley Fowler, 30, said on Monday at the restaurant where she works. “They’re not what we’re living right now. We live in, not to be racist, white America.”

As Baltimore considers its way forward after the violent unrest brought by the death of Freddie Gray, a 25-year-old black man who died of injuries he suffered while in police custody, residents in its predominantly white neighborhoods acknowledge that they are sometimes struggling to understand what beyond Mr. Gray’s death spurred the turmoil here. For many, the poverty and troubled schools of gritty West Baltimore are distant troubles, glimpsed only when they pass through the area on their way somewhere else.

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Officers blocked traffic at Pennsylvania and West North Avenues after reports that a gun was discharged in the area. Credit Drew Angerer for The New York Times

And so neighborhoods of Baltimore are facing altogether different reckonings after Mr. Gray’s death. In mostly black communities like Sandtown-Winchester, where some of the most destructive rioting played out last week, residents are hoping businesses will reopen and that the police will change their strategies. But in mostly white areas like Canton and Locust Point, some residents wonder what role, if any, they should play in reimagining stretches of Baltimore where they do not live.

“Most of the people are kind of at a loss as to what they’re supposed to do,” said Dr. Richard Lamb, a dentist who has practiced in the same Locust Point office for nearly 39 years. “I listen to the news reports. I listen to the clergymen. I listen to the facts of the rampant unemployment and the lack of opportunities in the area. Listen, I pay my taxes. Exactly what can I do?”

And in Canton, where the restaurants have clever names like Nacho Mama’s and Holy Crepe Bakery and Café, Sara Bahr said solutions seemed out of reach for a proudly liberal city.

“I can only imagine how frustrated they must be,” said Ms. Bahr, 36, a nurse who was out with her 3-year-old daughter, Sally. “I just wish I knew how to solve poverty. I don’t know what to do to make it better.”

The day of unrest and the overwhelmingly peaceful demonstrations that followed led to hundreds of arrests, often for violations of the curfew imposed on the city for five consecutive nights while National Guard soldiers patrolled the streets. Although there were isolated instances of trouble in Canton, the neighborhood association said on its website, many parts of southeast Baltimore were physically untouched by the tumult.

Tensions in the city bubbled anew on Monday after reports that the police had wounded a black man in Northwest Baltimore. The authorities denied those reports and sent officers to talk with the crowds that gathered while other officers clutching shields blocked traffic at Pennsylvania and West North Avenues.

Lt. Col. Melvin Russell, a community police officer, said officers had stopped a man suspected of carrying a handgun and that “one of those rounds was spent.”

Colonel Russell said officers had not opened fire, “so we couldn’t have shot him.”

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Lambi Vasilakopoulos, right, who runs a casual restaurant in Canton, said he was incensed by last week's looting and predicted tensions would worsen. Credit Drew Angerer for The New York Times

The colonel said the man had not been injured but was taken to a hospital as a precaution. Nearby, many people stood in disbelief, despite the efforts by the authorities to quash reports they described as “unfounded.”

Monday’s episode was a brief moment in a larger drama that has yielded anger and confusion. Although many people said they were familiar with accounts of the police harassing or intimidating residents, many in Canton and Locust Point said they had never experienced it themselves. When they watched the unrest, which many protesters said was fueled by feelings that they lived only on Baltimore’s margins, even those like Ms. Bahr who were pained by what they saw said they could scarcely comprehend the emotions associated with it.

But others, like Lambi Vasilakopoulos, who runs a casual restaurant in Canton, said they were incensed by what unfolded last week.

“What happened wasn’t called for. Protests are one thing; looting is another thing,” he said, adding, “We’re very frustrated because we’re the ones who are going to pay for this.”

There were pockets of optimism, though, that Baltimore would enter a period of reconciliation.

“I’m just hoping for peace,” Natalie Boies, 53, said in front of the Locust Point home where she has lived for 50 years. “Learn to love each other; be patient with each other; find justice; and care.”

A skeptical Mr. Vasilakopoulos predicted tensions would worsen.

“It cannot be fixed,” he said. “It’s going to get worse. Why? Because people don’t obey the laws. They don’t want to obey them.”

But there were few fears that the violence that plagued West Baltimore last week would play out on these relaxed streets. The authorities, Ms. Fowler said, would make sure of that.

“They kept us safe here,” she said. “I didn’t feel uncomfortable when I was in my house three blocks away from here. I knew I was going to be O.K. because I knew they weren’t going to let anyone come and loot our properties or our businesses or burn our cars.”

Baltimore Residents Away From Turmoil Consider Their Role

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“It was really nice to play with other women and not have this underlying tone of being at each other’s throats.”

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Though Robin and Joan Rolfs owned two rare talking dolls manufactured by Thomas Edison’s phonograph company in 1890, they did not dare play the wax cylinder records tucked inside each one.

The Rolfses, longtime collectors of Edison phonographs, knew that if they turned the cranks on the dolls’ backs, the steel phonograph needle might damage or destroy the grooves of the hollow, ring-shaped cylinder. And so for years, the dolls sat side by side inside a display cabinet, bearers of a message from the dawn of sound recording that nobody could hear.

In 1890, Edison’s dolls were a flop; production lasted only six weeks. Children found them difficult to operate and more scary than cuddly. The recordings inside, which featured snippets of nursery rhymes, wore out quickly.

Yet sound historians say the cylinders were the first entertainment records ever made, and the young girls hired to recite the rhymes were the world’s first recording artists.

Year after year, the Rolfses asked experts if there might be a safe way to play the recordings. Then a government laboratory developed a method to play fragile records without touching them.

Audio

The technique relies on a microscope to create images of the grooves in exquisite detail. A computer approximates — with great accuracy — the sounds that would have been created by a needle moving through those grooves.

In 2014, the technology was made available for the first time outside the laboratory.

“The fear all along is that we don’t want to damage these records. We don’t want to put a stylus on them,” said Jerry Fabris, the curator of the Thomas Edison Historical Park in West Orange, N.J. “Now we have the technology to play them safely.”

Last month, the Historical Park posted online three never-before-heard Edison doll recordings, including the two from the Rolfses’ collection. “There are probably more out there, and we’re hoping people will now get them digitized,” Mr. Fabris said.

The technology, which is known as Irene (Image, Reconstruct, Erase Noise, Etc.), was developed by the particle physicist Carl Haber and the engineer Earl Cornell at Lawrence Berkeley. Irene extracts sound from cylinder and disk records. It can also reconstruct audio from recordings so badly damaged they were deemed unplayable.

“We are now hearing sounds from history that I did not expect to hear in my lifetime,” Mr. Fabris said.

The Rolfses said they were not sure what to expect in August when they carefully packed their two Edison doll cylinders, still attached to their motors, and drove from their home in Hortonville, Wis., to the National Document Conservation Center in Andover, Mass. The center had recently acquired Irene technology.

Audio

Cylinders carry sound in a spiral groove cut by a phonograph recording needle that vibrates up and down, creating a surface made of tiny hills and valleys. In the Irene set-up, a microscope perched above the shaft takes thousands of high-resolution images of small sections of the grooves.

Stitched together, the images provide a topographic map of the cylinder’s surface, charting changes in depth as small as one five-hundredth the thickness of a human hair. Pitch, volume and timbre are all encoded in the hills and valleys and the speed at which the record is played.

At the conservation center, the preservation specialist Mason Vander Lugt attached one of the cylinders to the end of a rotating shaft. Huddled around a computer screen, the Rolfses first saw the wiggly waveform generated by Irene. Then came the digital audio. The words were at first indistinct, but as Mr. Lugt filtered out more of the noise, the rhyme became clearer.

“That was the Eureka moment,” Mr. Rolfs said.

In 1890, a girl in Edison’s laboratory had recited:

There was a little girl,

And she had a little curl

Audio

Right in the middle of her forehead.

When she was good,

She was very, very good.

But when she was bad, she was horrid.

Recently, the conservation center turned up another surprise.

In 2010, the Woody Guthrie Foundation received 18 oversize phonograph disks from an anonymous donor. No one knew if any of the dirt-stained recordings featured Guthrie, but Tiffany Colannino, then the foundation’s archivist, had stored them unplayed until she heard about Irene.

Last fall, the center extracted audio from one of the records, labeled “Jam Session 9” and emailed the digital file to Ms. Colannino.

“I was just sitting in my dining room, and the next thing I know, I’m hearing Woody,” she said. In between solo performances of “Ladies Auxiliary,” “Jesus Christ,” and “Dead or Alive,” Guthrie tells jokes, offers some back story, and makes the audience laugh. “It is quintessential Guthrie,” Ms. Colannino said.

The Rolfses’ dolls are back in the display cabinet in Wisconsin. But with audio stored on several computers, they now have a permanent voice.

Ghostly Voices From Thomas Edison’s Dolls Can Now Be Heard

Ms. Rendell was a prolific writer of intricately plotted mystery novels that combined psychological insight, social conscience and teeth-chattering terror.

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Frontline  An installment of this PBS program looks at the effects of Ebola on Liberia and other countries, as well as the origins of the outbreak.
Frontline

Frontline An installment of this PBS program looks at the effects of Ebola on Liberia and other countries, as well as the origins of the outbreak.

The program traces the outbreak to its origin, thought to be a tree full of bats in Guinea.

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The 6-foot-10 Phillips played alongside the 6-11 Rick Robey on the Wildcats team that won the 1978 N.C.A.A. men’s basketball title.

Mike Phillips, Half of Kentucky’s ‘Twin Towers’ of Basketball, Dies at 59
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