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saco-indonesia.com, India telah berhasil membuat smartphone dengan layar (lebih tepatnya kaca) melengkung mirip seperti Samsung Galaxy Round. Namun smartphone ini telah dibanderol dengan harga jauh lebih murah yaitu USD 200 atau sekitar Rp 2,4 juta.

yang telah membuat smartphone buatan perusahaan bernama Intex ini murah adalah karena smartphone ini ternyata tetap memiliki layar datar namun dilengkapi dengan kaca yang melengkung. Berbeda dengan Samsung Galaxy Round yang juga dilengkapi layar melengkung. Terlebih lagi Lg G Flex yang hadir di pasaran dengan layar, bodi, dan baterai melengkung.

Untuk spesifikasinya sendiri, smartphone dengan nama Intex Aqua Curve ini juga akan hadir di pasaran dengan mengusung spesifikasi seperti Android 4.2 Jelly Bean, prosesor 1.3 GHz Quad-core MediaTek (MT6582) layar 5 inci qHD (540 x 960 piksel), RAM 1GB, chip grafis Mali 400, kamera belakang 8MP dengan LED flash dan fitur autofocus, kamera depan 2MP, dan disokong baterai 2.000 mAh.

Selain itu, smartphone Android dengan fitur dual SIM (GSM/CDMA) ini juga telah dibekali internal memori 4GB, slot microSD 32GB, dan telah dilengkapi konektivitas seperti jaringan 3G, Bluetooth, WiFi, Micro-USB, dan GPS.

Smartphone Intex Aqua Curve ini juga akan beredar di pasaran dengan tiga varian warna yaitu hitam, merah, dan biru.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

INDIA BERHASIL BUAT 'SMARTPHONE LAYAR MELENGKUNG' PERTAMANYA

GIGABYTE Bersama sponsor lain yaitu Intel, G.Skill, dan Enermax membawa LN2 ke padang pasir Las Vegas: Menciptakan tiga rekor dunia


Saco-Indonesia.com,  16 Januari 2014, Taipei, Taiwan -- GIGABYTE TECHNOLOGY Co. Ltd., produsen pemimpin dalam produksi motherboard dan graphic card mengumumkan pencetakan tiga rekor dunia dalam hal overclocking ketika ajang CES 2014 di Caesar Palace, Las Vegas. Selamat kepada Vivi dan STEPONZ, bersamaan dengan Dinos22 dan HiCookie, dimana mereka memecahkan rekor dunia pada benchmark 3DMark06, Unigine Heaven Extreme dan Cinebench.

Kegiatan yang diadakan pada CES 2014 di Caesar Palace Conference Center, Las Vegas ini, GIGABYTE mengundang para talenta Overclocking kelas dunia dari seluruh dunia untuk mendemonstrasikan semua skill maupun pengalaman yang dibutuhkan untuk memecahkan rekor-rekor dunia. Motherboard yang digunakan adalah GIGABYTE Z87X-OC dan GIGABYTE Z87X-OC Force bersamaan dengan processor, memory, SSD, dan power supply yang disediakan kerjasama dengan sponsor Intel, G.Skill, dan Enermax.

[Image: image005_zpsa7ae6f52.jpg~original]

HiCookie, sebagai Chief Overclocking Evangelist, GIGABYTE Motherboard Business Unit, berkomentar, "Ajang CES 2014 Extreme OC adalah ajang yang tepat dan fantastis untuk Overclocking, dengan menggaris-bawahi komitmen dari GIGABYTE kepada segmen PC ekstrim". Ia melanjutkan, "Rekor-rekor dunia yang baru ini adalah bukti bahwa masih tetap ada ruang untuk meningkatkan performa, jika Anda memiliki motherboard yang didesain dari awalnya untuk dapat memecahkan rekor. Tidak terlupa hal ini juga merupakan penggabungan dari perangkat-perangkat lain dari Intel, G.Skill, dan Enermax".

Frank Hung, Product Marketing Manager dari G.Skill, berkomentar, "Kami sangat senang mendapatkan kesempatan yang istimewa ini untuk mengikuti ajang CES 2014 Extreme OC tahun ini. Kami juga merasa bangga akan pencapaian rekor dunia tahun ini, karena diperoleh dengan menggunakan hardware kelas tertinggi dari G.Skill, GIGABYTE, Intel, dan Enermax". Ia melanjutkan, "Memecahkan rekor dunia tidaklah pernah mudah, jadi ini merupakan sensasi tersendiri untuk dapat melihat begitu banyak ahli overclocking yang ikut berpartisipasi".

Richard Hwang, Vice President dari Enermax N.A., berkomentar, "Enermax merasa terhormat untuk ikut berpartisipasi di ajang CES 2014 Extreme OC. Kami senang sekali tentang hasil pemecahan rekor dengan menggunakan komponen dari Enermax, GIGABYTE, Intel, dan G.Skill". Ia melanjutkan, "Terima kasih kepada seluruh overclocker yang ikut berpartisipasi dalam mewujudkan ajang yang sangat sukses ini, dan kami sangat menantikan untuk turut serta pada event-event seperti ini lagi".

Editor : Maulana Lee
Pencetakan Rekor Dunia

Telah Dipecahkan Rekor Dunia Overclocking pada ajang GIGABYTE CES 2014 Extreme OC

    saco-indonesia.com,

    Sekarang kau hilang tanpa jejak
    Tak tahu dimana kau berpijak
    Akankah kau masih ingat padaku
    Lelaki yang selalu menunggumu

    Hujan pun turun tanpa ampun
    Usap kenangan yang tersusun
    Apakah kau akan kembali padaku
    Lelaki yang pernah sakitimu

    Langit takkan bisa tunjukkan
    Dimana hatiku
    Dimana kau ada
    Mungkinkah dia kesepian
    Terperangkap malam
    Dimana kau ada


    Editor : Dian Sukmawati

 

JIKUSTIK DIMANA KAU ADA
Kali ini admin akan membagikan artikel mengenai Contoh Karya Ilmiah/Makalah tentang Efek Rumah Kaca. Semoga artikel ini, dapat di gunakan dengan sebaik-baiknya. Dan semoga artikel ini dapat membantu mengerjakan Tugas Sekolah atau Kuliah teman-teman semuanya.
 
 
BAB I
PENDAHULUAN
 
 
A.    Latar Belakang
       Sejak jaman purbakala sampai sekarang,manusia mengalami perubahan yang sangat pesat seiring berjalannya waktu,ilmu pengetahuan juga ikut berkembang.Manusia sebagai mahluk ciptaan Allah yang sangat sempurna mempunyai tugas untuk menjaga dan tetap melestarikan alam agar tidak punah.
        Keadaan permukaan bumi saat ini mengalami peningkatan suhu yang tidak seperti biasanya yang terjadi selama 100 tahun terakhir ini,salah satu penyebabnya adalah rumah kaca yang biasanya di gunakan untuk mengembangkan bunga,buah dan lain sebagainya,rumah kaca ini melindungi tanaman dari panas dan dingin secara berlebih sehingga banyak industri - industri menggunakan metode ini untuk meningkatkan penghasilannya.Tanpa mereka pikirkan seberapa besar dampak yang ditimbulkan dari perbuatannya itu.
       Pemanasan global atau lebih sering disebut Global Warming tengah jadi buah bibir masyarakat saat ini khususnya di Indonesia dikarenakan di Indonesia juga mengalami perubahan iklim yang tidak menentu akibat dari pemanasan global tersebut.Banyak  dampak yang akan ditimbulkan oleh terjadinya pemanasan global.
 
       Oleh karena itu dalam karya ilmiah ini akan dibahas lebih lanjut tentang adakah efek yang di berikan oleh rumah kaca terhadap pemanasan global ? Apakah dampak yang ditimbulkan dari terjadinya pemanasan global ? Hasil- hasil penelitian yang dilakukan para ilmuwan tentang efek rumah kaca terhadap pemanasan global? Dan upaya apa yang sebaiknya dilakukan untuk mengurangi terjadinya pemanasan global ini.Dengan mencari Informasi dan data-data yang dapat dipercaya melalui media seperti buku dan inernet.
                                                                                        
B.Rumusan Masalah
 
        Adapun rumasan masalah dalam penelitian ini yaitu :
1.      Adakah efek dari rumah kaca terhadap pemanasan global ?
2.      Apa penyebab rumah kaca dapat mengakibatkan pemanasan global?
3.      Upaya apa yang dapat di lakukan untuk mengurangi terjadinya pemanasan global di Bumi ?
 
C. Tujuan Penelitian
       Tujuan penelitian yang dilakukan yaitu mencakup :
1.        Untuk mengetahui apakah ada efek dari rumah kaca terhadap pemanasan global.
2.        Untuk mengetahui penyebab dari efek rumah kaca sehingga mengakibatkan pamanasan global.
3.        Untuk mengetahui upaya apa yang dapat di lakukan untuk mengurangi terjadinya pemasan global di Bumi.
 
D. Manfaat Penelitian
 
1.        Bagi penulis,penelitian ini dapat memberikan pemahaman yang lebih luas mengenai semua yang berhubungan dengan efek rumah kaca terhadap pemanasan global.
2.        Bagi Pembaca,penelitian ini dapat memberikan pengetahuan mengenai efek rumah kaca terhadap pemananasan global.
3.         Bagi Para Ilmuwan yang meneliti,Penelitian ini dapat memberikan tambahan data-data atau pernyataan-pernyataan mengenai efek rumah kaca terhadap pemanasan global.
 
 
BAB II
LANDASAN TEORI
 
A. Pengertian-pengertian
     1. Efek Rumah Kaca
       Efek rumah kaca adalah proses penghangatan bumi karena adanya penyerapan sinar infra merah.Tanpa adanya efek ini suhu bumi akan turun sekitar 30° C.Sinar yang datang ke bumi sebanya 30 % dipantulkan dan sisanya digunakan untuk menghangatkan daratan,lautan dan atmosfer.efek rumah kaca terjadi karena bumi relatif transparan terhadap sinar tampak,namun sangat menyerap sinar infra merah sehingga bumi akan menghangat karena adanya penyerapan energi tersebut. Efek rumah kaca juga merupakan efek alamiah untuk menjaga temperature  permukaan Bumi pada suhu normal sekitar 30°C,atau kalau tidak ada ,maka tentu saja tidak akan ada kehidupan dimuka Bumi ini.
        
2.Pemanasan Global
        Pemanasan global yaitu bertambah panasnya atmosfer Bumi serta samudra selama beberapa dekade terakhir.Menurut penelitian suhu bumidi ketahui meningkat 0,6 kurang lebih 0,2 °C selama 20 Abad terakhir.
(Nur Farida 2009 :53) Mengatakan, bahwa pemanasan global yaitu disebut juga global warming ,istilah tersebut digunakan untuk menggambarkan fenomena peningkatan suhu rata – rata atmosfer Bumi.Peningkatan suhu Bumi ini dianggap akan secara permanen mengubah iklim Bumi selamanya.
 
B. Dampak dari terjadinya Pemanasan Global
 
 
Editor by : OSHIMURA

- See more at: http://pbsstainmetro.blogspot.com/2014/02/contoh-karya-ilmiah-tentang-bahaya-efek.html#sthash.8nHxf7N3.dpuf

CONTOH KARYA ILMIAH TENTANG EFEK RUMAH KACA

Jasa kirim barang murah domestik di Indonesia sudah semakin berkembang dengan meningkatnya perekonomian, bisnis, industry di Indonesia  yang pada akhirnya setiap perusahaan yang sedang berkembang sudah pasti membutuhkan

mitra untuk kebutuhan jasa kirim barangnya.

Sehingga turut pula efeknya terhadap perusahaan jasa pengiriman yang banyak membuka layanan jasanya dengan berbagai service layanan  dan harga yang bersaing untuk di tawarkan kepada perusahaan yang membutuhkan layanan jasa pengiriman, pada akhirnya perusahaan yang membutuhkan

jasa pengiriman barang murah

layanan jasa pengiriman mendapatkan banyak pilihan untuk jasa kirim barang yang murah yang sesuai dengan yang di inginkan perusahan tersebut.

Saat ini Perusahaan jasa pengiriman atau perusahaan jasa angkutan barang atau Expedisi barang yang ada saat ini mulai mampu dan sudah banyak yang bisa menangani berbagai layanan jasa kirim barang dari tempat pengambilan barang sampai dengan tujuan kirim barang yang di inginkan perusahaan pemakai  jasa tersebut. Ada beberapa layanan yang di jasa kirim barang murah domestiktawarkan perusahan  jasa antara lain pengiriman kargo biasa, pengiriman mobil, pengiriman motor, serta pengiriman barang pindahan yang prosesnya dilakukan mulai dari pengambilan barang lalu proses pengepakan, pengukuran dan perhitungan barang dan sebagainya, dan juga pengiriman dokumen dalam kota ( city courier ) maupun antar propinsi.

Dalam memilih perusahaan jasa kirim barang yang menawarkan dengan layanan harga murah, perusahaan harus juga memilih yang berkualitas dan terpercaya karena apabila hanya mencari jasa pengiriman yang memiliki tarif yang murah saja, tetapi dalapm proses pengiriman telah mengalami kerusakan apalagi mengalami kehilangan barang akan memberikan dampak kerugian terhadap perusahaan pengguna layan jasa tersebut.

Oleh karena itu pililah perusahaan jasa pengiriman yang memiliki tanggung jawab terhadap layanannya dan tepat waktu dalam pengiriman serta memiliki costomer service yang berkualitas dalam melayani pelanggannya dalam informasi status kirim barangnya.

JASA PENGIRIMAN BARANG MURAH DOMESTIK

Ms. Rendell was a prolific writer of intricately plotted mystery novels that combined psychological insight, social conscience and teeth-chattering terror.

Ruth Rendell, Novelist Who Thrilled and Educated, Dies at 85

Ms. Pryor, who served more than two decades in the State Department, was the author of well-regarded biographies of the founder of the American Red Cross and the Confederate commander.

Elizabeth Brown Pryor, Biographer of Clara Barton and Robert E. Lee, Dies at 64

The 2015 Met Gala has only officially begun, but there's a clear leader in the race for best couple, no small feat at an event that threatens to sap Hollywood of every celebrity it has for the duration of an East Coast evening.

That would be Marc Jacobs and his surprise guest (who, by some miracle, remained under wraps until their red carpet debut), Cher.

“This has been a dream of mine for a very, very long time,” Mr. Jacobs said.

It is Cher's first appearance at the Met Gala since 1997, when she arrived on the arm of Donatella Versace.

– MATTHEW SCHNEIER

Cher and Marc Jacobs

As he reflected on the festering wounds deepened by race and grievance that have been on painful display in America’s cities lately, President Obama on Monday found himself thinking about a young man he had just met named Malachi.

A few minutes before, in a closed-door round-table discussion at Lehman College in the Bronx, Mr. Obama had asked a group of black and Hispanic students from disadvantaged backgrounds what could be done to help them reach their goals. Several talked about counseling and guidance programs.

“Malachi, he just talked about — we should talk about love,” Mr. Obama told a crowd afterward, drifting away from his prepared remarks. “Because Malachi and I shared the fact that our dad wasn’t around and that sometimes we wondered why he wasn’t around and what had happened. But really, that’s what this comes down to is: Do we love these kids?”

Many presidents have governed during times of racial tension, but Mr. Obama is the first to see in the mirror a face that looks like those on the other side of history’s ledger. While his first term was consumed with the economy, war and health care, his second keeps coming back to the societal divide that was not bridged by his election. A president who eschewed focusing on race now seems to have found his voice again as he thinks about how to use his remaining time in office and beyond.

Continue reading the main story Video
Play Video|1:17

Obama Speaks of a ‘Sense of Unfairness’

Obama Speaks of a ‘Sense of Unfairness’

At an event announcing the creation of a nonprofit focusing on young minority men, President Obama talked about the underlying reasons for recent protests in Baltimore and other cities.

By Associated Press on Publish Date May 4, 2015. Photo by Stephen Crowley/The New York Times.

In the aftermath of racially charged unrest in places like Baltimore, Ferguson, Mo., and New York, Mr. Obama came to the Bronx on Monday for the announcement of a new nonprofit organization that is being spun off from his White House initiative called My Brother’s Keeper. Staked by more than $80 million in commitments from corporations and other donors, the new group, My Brother’s Keeper Alliance, will in effect provide the nucleus for Mr. Obama’s post-presidency, which will begin in January 2017.

“This will remain a mission for me and for Michelle not just for the rest of my presidency but for the rest of my life,” Mr. Obama said. “And the reason is simple,” he added. Referring to some of the youths he had just met, he said: “We see ourselves in these young men. I grew up without a dad. I grew up lost sometimes and adrift, not having a sense of a clear path. The only difference between me and a lot of other young men in this neighborhood and all across the country is that I grew up in an environment that was a little more forgiving.”

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Organizers said the new alliance already had financial pledges from companies like American Express, Deloitte, Discovery Communications and News Corporation. The money will be used to help companies address obstacles facing young black and Hispanic men, provide grants to programs for disadvantaged youths, and help communities aid their populations.

Joe Echevarria, a former chief executive of Deloitte, the accounting and consulting firm, will lead the alliance, and among those on its leadership team or advisory group are executives at PepsiCo, News Corporation, Sprint, BET and Prudential Group Insurance; former Secretary of State Colin L. Powell; Senator Cory Booker, Democrat of New Jersey; former Attorney General Eric H. Holder Jr.; the music star John Legend; the retired athletes Alonzo Mourning, Jerome Bettis and Shaquille O’Neal; and the mayors of Indianapolis, Sacramento and Philadelphia.

The alliance, while nominally independent of the White House, may face some of the same questions confronting former Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton as she begins another presidential campaign. Some of those donating to the alliance may have interests in government action, and skeptics may wonder whether they are trying to curry favor with the president by contributing.

“The Obama administration will have no role in deciding how donations are screened and what criteria they’ll set at the alliance for donor policies, because it’s an entirely separate entity,” Josh Earnest, the White House press secretary, told reporters on Air Force One en route to New York. But he added, “I’m confident that the members of the board are well aware of the president’s commitment to transparency.”

The alliance was in the works before the disturbances last week after the death of Freddie Gray, the black man who suffered fatal injuries while in police custody in Baltimore, but it reflected the evolution of Mr. Obama’s presidency. For him, in a way, it is coming back to issues that animated him as a young community organizer and politician. It was his own struggle with race and identity, captured in his youthful memoir, “Dreams From My Father,” that stood him apart from other presidential aspirants.

But that was a side of him that he kept largely to himself through the first years of his presidency while he focused on other priorities like turning the economy around, expanding government-subsidized health care and avoiding electoral land mines en route to re-election.

After securing a second term, Mr. Obama appeared more emboldened. Just a month after his 2013 inauguration, he talked passionately about opportunity and race with a group of teenage boys in Chicago, a moment aides point to as perhaps the first time he had spoken about these issues in such a personal, powerful way as president. A few months later, he publicly lamented the death of Trayvon Martin, a black Florida teenager, saying that “could have been me 35 years ago.”

Photo
 
President Obama on Monday with Darinel Montero, a student at Bronx International High School who introduced him before remarks at Lehman College in the Bronx. Credit Stephen Crowley/The New York Times

That case, along with public ruptures of anger over police shootings in Ferguson and elsewhere, have pushed the issue of race and law enforcement onto the public agenda. Aides said they imagined that with his presidency in its final stages, Mr. Obama might be thinking more about what comes next and causes he can advance as a private citizen.

That is not to say that his public discussion of these issues has been universally welcomed. Some conservatives said he had made matters worse by seeming in their view to blame police officers in some of the disputed cases.

“President Obama, when he was elected, could have been a unifying leader,” Senator Ted Cruz of Texas, a Republican candidate for president, said at a forum last week. “He has made decisions that I think have inflamed racial tensions.”

On the other side of the ideological spectrum, some liberal African-American activists have complained that Mr. Obama has not done enough to help downtrodden communities. While he is speaking out more, these critics argue, he has hardly used the power of the presidency to make the sort of radical change they say is necessary.

The line Mr. Obama has tried to straddle has been a serrated one. He condemns police brutality as he defends most officers as honorable. He condemns “criminals and thugs” who looted in Baltimore while expressing empathy with those trapped in a cycle of poverty and hopelessness.

In the Bronx on Monday, Mr. Obama bemoaned the death of Brian Moore, a plainclothes New York police officer who had died earlier in the day after being shot in the head Saturday on a Queens street. Most police officers are “good and honest and fair and care deeply about their communities,” even as they put their lives on the line, Mr. Obama said.

“Which is why in addressing the issues in Baltimore or Ferguson or New York, the point I made was that if we’re just looking at policing, we’re looking at it too narrowly,” he added. “If we ask the police to simply contain and control problems that we ourselves have been unwilling to invest and solve, that’s not fair to the communities, it’s not fair to the police.”

Moreover, if society writes off some people, he said, “that’s not the kind of country I want to live in; that’s not what America is about.”

His message to young men like Malachi Hernandez, who attends Boston Latin Academy in Massachusetts, is not to give up.

“I want you to know you matter,” he said. “You matter to us.”

Obama Finds a Bolder Voice on Race Issues
Joseph Lechleider

Mr. Lechleider helped invent DSL technology, which enabled phone companies to offer high-speed web access over their infrastructure of copper wires.

Joseph Lechleider, a Father of the DSL Internet Technology, Dies at 82

Mr. Paczynski was one of the concentration camp’s longest surviving inmates and served as the personal barber to its Nazi commandant Rudolf Höss.

Jozef Paczynski, Inmate Barber to Auschwitz Commandant, Dies at 95

Ms. Turner and her twin sister founded the Love Kitchen in 1986 in a church basement in Knoxville, Tenn., and it continues to provide clothing and meals.

Ellen Turner Dies at 87; Opened Kitchen to Feed the Needy of Knoxville

The bottle Mr. Sokolin famously broke was a 1787 Château Margaux, which was said to have belonged to Thomas Jefferson. Mr. Sokolin had been hoping to sell it for $519,750.

William Sokolin, Wine Seller Who Broke Famed Bottle, Dies at 85

The magical quality Mr. Lesnie created in shooting the “Babe” films caught the eye of the director Peter Jackson, who chose him to film the fantasy epic.

Andrew Lesnie, Cinematographer of ‘Lord of the Rings,’ Dies at 59

WASHINGTON — A decade after emergency trailers meant to shelter Hurricane Katrina victims instead caused burning eyes, sore throats and other more serious ailments, the Environmental Protection Agency is on the verge of regulating the culprit: formaldehyde, a chemical that can be found in commonplace things like clothes and furniture.

But an unusual assortment of players, including furniture makers, the Chinese government, Republicans from states with a large base of furniture manufacturing and even some Democrats who championed early regulatory efforts, have questioned the E.P.A. proposal. The sustained opposition has held sway, as the agency is now preparing to ease key testing requirements before it releases the landmark federal health standard.

The E.P.A.’s five-year effort to adopt this rule offers another example of how industry opposition can delay and hamper attempts by the federal government to issue regulations, even to control substances known to be harmful to human health.

Continue reading the main story
 

Document: The Formaldehyde Fight

Formaldehyde is a known carcinogen that can also cause respiratory ailments like asthma, but the potential of long-term exposure to cause cancers like myeloid leukemia is less well understood.

The E.P.A.’s decision would be the first time that the federal government has regulated formaldehyde inside most American homes.

“The stakes are high for public health,” said Tom Neltner, senior adviser for regulatory affairs at the National Center for Healthy Housing, who has closely monitored the debate over the rules. “What we can’t have here is an outcome that fails to confront the health threat we all know exists.”

The proposal would not ban formaldehyde — commonly used as an ingredient in wood glue in furniture and flooring — but it would impose rules that prevent dangerous levels of the chemical’s vapors from those products, and would set testing standards to ensure that products sold in the United States comply with those limits. The debate has sharpened in the face of growing concern about the safety of formaldehyde-treated flooring imported from Asia, especially China.

What is certain is that a lot of money is at stake: American companies sell billions of dollars’ worth of wood products each year that contain formaldehyde, and some argue that the proposed regulation would impose unfair costs and restrictions.

Determined to block the agency’s rule as proposed, these industry players have turned to the White House, members of Congress and top E.P.A. officials, pressing them to roll back the testing requirements in particular, calling them redundant and too expensive.

“There are potentially over a million manufacturing jobs that will be impacted if the proposed rule is finalized without changes,” wrote Bill Perdue, the chief lobbyist at the American Home Furnishings Alliance, a leading critic of the testing requirements in the proposed regulation, in one letter to the E.P.A.

Industry opposition helped create an odd alignment of forces working to thwart the rule. The White House moved to strike out key aspects of the proposal. Subsequent appeals for more changes were voiced by players as varied as Senator Barbara Boxer, Democrat of California, and Senator Roger Wicker, Republican of Mississippi, as well as furniture industry lobbyists.

Hurricane Katrina in 2005 helped ignite the public debate over formaldehyde, after the deadly storm destroyed or damaged hundreds of thousands of homes along the Gulf of Mexico, forcing families into temporary trailers provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

The displaced storm victims quickly began reporting respiratory problems, burning eyes and other issues, and tests then confirmed high levels of formaldehyde fumes leaking into the air inside the trailers, which in many cases had been hastily constructed.

Public health advocates petitioned the E.P.A. to issue limits on formaldehyde in building materials and furniture used in homes, given that limits already existed for exposure in workplaces. But three years after the storm, only California had issued such limits.

Industry groups like the American Chemistry Council have repeatedly challenged the science linking formaldehyde to cancer, a position championed by David Vitter, the Republican senator from Louisiana, who is a major recipient of chemical industry campaign contributions, and whom environmental groups have mockingly nicknamed “Senator Formaldehyde.”

Continue reading the main story

Formaldehyde in Laminate Flooring

In laminate flooring, formaldehyde is used as a bonding agent in the fiberboard (or other composite wood) core layer and may also be used in glues that bind layers together. Concerns were raised in March when certain laminate flooring imported from China was reported to contain levels of formaldehyde far exceeding the limit permitted by California.

Typical

laminate

flooring

CLEAR FINISH LAYER

Often made of melamine resin

PATTERN LAYER

Paper printed to resemble wood,

or a thin wood veneer

GLUE

Layers may be bound using

formaldehyde-based glues

CORE LAYER

Fiberboard or other

composite, formed using

formaldehyde-based adhesives

BASE LAYER

Moisture-resistant vapor barrier

What is formaldehyde?

Formaldehyde is a common chemical used in many industrial and household products as an adhesive, bonding agent or preservative. It is classified as a volatile organic compound. The term volatile means that, at room temperature, formaldehyde will vaporize, or become a gas. Products made with formaldehyde tend to release this gas into the air. If breathed in large quantities, it may cause health problems.

WHERE IT IS COMMONLY FOUND

POTENTIAL HEALTH RISKS

Pressed-wood and composite wood products

Wallpaper and paints

Spray foam insulation used in construction

Commercial wood floor finishes

Crease-resistant fabrics

In cigarette smoke, or in the fumes from combustion of other materials, including wood, oil and gasoline.

Exposure to formaldehyde in sufficient amounts may cause eye, throat or skin irritation, allergic reactions, and respiratory problems like coughing, wheezing or asthma.

Long-term exposure to high levels has been associated with cancer in humans and laboratory animals.

Exposure to formaldehyde may affect some people more severely than others.

By 2010, public health advocates and some industry groups secured bipartisan support in Congress for legislation that ordered the E.P.A. to issue federal rules that largely mirrored California’s restrictions. At the time, concerns were rising over the growing number of lower-priced furniture imports from Asia that might include contaminated products, while also hurting sales of American-made products.

Maneuvering began almost immediately after the E.P.A. prepared draft rules to formally enact the new standards.

White House records show at least five meetings in mid-2012 with industry executives — kitchen cabinet makers, chemical manufacturers, furniture trade associations and their lobbyists, like Brock R. Landry, of the Venable law firm. These parties, along with Senator Vitter’s office, appealed to top administration officials, asking them to intervene to roll back the E.P.A. proposal.

The White House Office of Management and Budget, which reviews major federal regulations before they are adopted, apparently agreed. After the White House review, the E.P.A. “redlined” many of the estimates of the monetary benefits that would be gained by reductions in related health ailments, like asthma and fertility issues, documents reviewed by The New York Times show.

As a result, the estimated benefit of the proposed rule dropped to $48 million a year, from as much as $278 million a year. The much-reduced amount deeply weakened the agency’s justification for the sometimes costly new testing that would be required under the new rules, a federal official involved in the effort said.

“It’s a redlining blood bath,” said Lisa Heinzerling, a Georgetown University Law School professor and a former E.P.A. official, using the Washington phrase to describe when language is stricken from a proposed rule. “Almost the entire discussion of these potential benefits was excised.”

Senator Vitter’s staff was pleased.

“That’s a huge difference,” said Luke Bolar, a spokesman for Mr. Vitter, of the reduced estimated financial benefits, saying the change was “clearly highlighting more mismanagement” at the E.P.A.

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The review’s outcome galvanized opponents in the furniture industry. They then targeted a provision that mandated new testing of laminated wood, a cheaper alternative to hardwood. (The California standard on which the law was based did not require such testing.)

But E.P.A. scientists had concluded that these laminate products — millions of which are sold annually in the United States — posed a particular risk. They said that when thin layers of wood, also known as laminate or veneer, are added to furniture or flooring in the final stages of manufacturing, the resulting product can generate dangerous levels of fumes from often-used formaldehyde-based glues.

Industry executives, outraged by what they considered an unnecessary and financially burdensome level of testing, turned every lever within reach to get the requirement removed. It would be particularly onerous, they argued, for small manufacturers that would have to repeatedly interrupt their work to do expensive new testing. The E.P.A. estimated that the expanded requirements for laminate products would cost the furniture industry tens of millions of dollars annually, while the industry said that the proposed rule over all would cost its 7,000 American manufacturing facilities over $200 million each year.

“A lot of people don’t seem to appreciate what a lot of these requirements do to a small operation,” said Dick Titus, executive vice president of the Kitchen Cabinet Manufacturers Association, whose members are predominantly small businesses. “A 10-person shop, for example, just really isn’t equipped to handle that type of thing.”

Photo
 
Becky Gillette wants strong regulation of formaldehyde. Credit Beth Hall for The New York Times

Big industry players also weighed in. Executives from companies including La-Z-Boy, Hooker Furniture and Ashley Furniture all flew to Washington for a series of meetings with the offices of lawmakers including House Speaker John Boehner, Republican of Ohio, and about a dozen other lawmakers, asking several of them to sign a letter prepared by the industry to press the E.P.A. to back down, according to an industry report describing the lobbying visit.

Within a matter of weeks, two letters — using nearly identical language — were sent by House and Senate lawmakers to the E.P.A. — with the industry group forwarding copies of the letters to the agency as well, and then posting them on its website.

The industry lobbyists also held their own meeting at E.P.A. headquarters, and they urged Jim Jones, who oversaw the rule-making process as the assistant administrator for the agency’s Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention, to visit a North Carolina furniture manufacturing plant. According to the trade group, Mr. Jones told them that the visit had “helped the agency shift its thinking” about the rules and how laminated products should be treated.

The resistance was particularly intense from lawmakers like Mr. Wicker of Mississippi, whose state is home to major manufacturing plants owned by Ashley Furniture Industries, the world’s largest furniture maker, and who is one of the biggest recipients in Congress of donations from the industry’s trade association. Asked if the political support played a role, a spokesman for Mr. Wicker replied: “Thousands of Mississippians depend on the furniture manufacturing industry for their livelihoods. Senator Wicker is committed to defending all Mississippians from government overreach.”

Individual companies like Ikea also intervened, as did the Chinese government, which claimed that the new rule would create a “great barrier” to the import of Chinese products because of higher costs.

Perhaps the most surprising objection came from Senator Boxer, of California, a longtime environmental advocate, whose office questioned why the E.P.A.’s rule went further than her home state’s in seeking testing on laminated products. “We did not advocate an outcome, other than safety,” her office said in a statement about why the senator raised concerns. “We said ‘Take a look to see if you have it right.’ ”

Safety advocates say that tighter restrictions — like the ones Ms. Boxer and Mr. Wicker, along with Representative Doris Matsui, a California Democrat, have questioned — are necessary, particularly for products coming from China, where items as varied as toys and Christmas lights have been found to violate American safety standards.

While Mr. Neltner, the environmental advocate who has been most involved in the review process, has been open to compromise, he has pressed the E.P.A. not to back down entirely, and to maintain a requirement that laminators verify that their products are safe.

An episode of CBS’s “60 Minutes” in March brought attention to the issue when it accused Lumber Liquidators, the discount flooring retailer, of selling laminate products with dangerous levels of formaldehyde. The company has disputed the show’s findings and test methods, maintaining that its products are safe.

“People think that just because Congress passed the legislation five years ago, the problem has been fixed,” said Becky Gillette, who then lived in coastal Mississippi, in the area hit by Hurricane Katrina, and was among the first to notice a pattern of complaints from people living in the trailers. “Real people’s faces and names come up in front of me when I think of the thousands of people who could get sick if this rule is not done right.”

An aide to Ms. Matsui rejected any suggestion that she was bending to industry pressure.

“From the beginning the public health has been our No. 1 concern,” said Kyle J. Victor, an aide to Ms. Matsui.

But further changes to the rule are likely, agency officials concede, as they say they are searching for a way to reduce the cost of complying with any final rule while maintaining public health goals. The question is just how radically the agency will revamp the testing requirement for laminated products — if it keeps it at all.

“It’s not a secret to anybody that is the most challenging issue,” said Mr. Jones, the E.P.A. official overseeing the process, adding that the health consequences from formaldehyde are real. “We have to reduce those exposures so that people can live healthy lives and not have to worry about being in their homes.”

The Uphill Battle to Better Regulate Formaldehyde

Since a white police officer, Darren Wilson fatally shot unarmed black teenager, Michael Brown, in a confrontation last August in Ferguson, Mo., there have been many other cases in which the police have shot and killed suspects, some of them unarmed. Mr. Brown's death set off protests throughout the country, pushing law enforcement into the spotlight and sparking a public debate on police tactics. Here is a selection of police shootings that have been reported by news organizations since Mr. Brown's death. In some cases, investigations are continuing.

Photo
 
 
The apartment complex northeast of Atlanta where Anthony Hill, 27, was fatally shot by a DeKalb County police officer. Credit Ben Gray/Atlanta Journal Constitution

Chamblee, Ga.
Fatal Police Shootings: Accounts Since Ferguson
Children playing last week in Sandtown-Winchester, the Baltimore neighborhood where Freddie Gray was raised. One young resident called it “a tough community.”
Todd Heisler/The New York Times

Children playing last week in Sandtown-Winchester, the Baltimore neighborhood where Freddie Gray was raised. One young resident called it “a tough community.”

Hard but Hopeful Home to ‘Lot of Freddies’

Hard but Hopeful Home to ‘Lot of Freddies’

BEIJING (AP) — The head of Taiwan's Nationalists reaffirmed the party's support for eventual unification with the mainland when he met Monday with Chinese President Xi Jinping as part of continuing rapprochement between the former bitter enemies.

Nationalist Party Chairman Eric Chu, a likely presidential candidate next year, also affirmed Taiwan's desire to join the proposed Chinese-led Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank during the meeting in Beijing. China claims Taiwan as its own territory and doesn't want the island to join using a name that might imply it is an independent country.

Chu's comments during his meeting with Xi were carried live on Hong Kong-based broadcaster Phoenix Television.

The Nationalists were driven to Taiwan by Mao Zedong's Communists during the Chinese civil war in 1949, leading to decades of hostility between the sides. Chu, who took over as party leader in January, is the third Nationalist chairman to visit the mainland and the first since 2009.

Relations between the communist-ruled mainland and the self-governing democratic island of Taiwan began to warm in the 1990s, partly out of their common opposition to Taiwan's formal independence from China, a position advocated by the island's Democratic Progressive Party.

Despite increasingly close economic ties, the prospect of political unification has grown increasingly unpopular on Taiwan, especially with younger voters. Opposition to the Nationalists' pro-China policies was seen as a driver behind heavy local electoral defeats for the party last year that led to Taiwanese President Ma Ying-jeou resigning as party chairman.

Taiwan party leader affirms eventual reunion with China

A former member of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Mr. Smedvig helped found the wide-ranging Empire Brass quintet.

Rolf Smedvig, Trumpeter in the Empire Brass, Dies at 62

Even as a high school student, Dave Goldberg was urging female classmates to speak up. As a young dot-com executive, he had one girlfriend after another, but fell hard for a driven friend named Sheryl Sandberg, pining after her for years. After they wed, Mr. Goldberg pushed her to negotiate hard for high compensation and arranged his schedule so that he could be home with their children when she was traveling for work.

Mr. Goldberg, who died unexpectedly on Friday, was a genial, 47-year-old Silicon Valley entrepreneur who built his latest company, SurveyMonkey, from a modest enterprise to one recently valued by investors at $2 billion. But he was also perhaps the signature male feminist of his era: the first major chief executive in memory to spur his wife to become as successful in business as he was, and an essential figure in “Lean In,” Ms. Sandberg’s blockbuster guide to female achievement.

Over the weekend, even strangers were shocked at his death, both because of his relatively young age and because they knew of him as the living, breathing, car-pooling center of a new philosophy of two-career marriage.

“They were very much the role models for what this next generation wants to grapple with,” said Debora L. Spar, the president of Barnard College. In a 2011 commencement speech there, Ms. Sandberg told the graduates that whom they married would be their most important career decision.

In the play “The Heidi Chronicles,” revived on Broadway this spring, a male character who is the founder of a media company says that “I don’t want to come home to an A-plus,” explaining that his ambitions require him to marry an unthreatening helpmeet. Mr. Goldberg grew up to hold the opposite view, starting with his upbringing in progressive Minneapolis circles where “there was woman power in every aspect of our lives,” Jeffrey Dachis, a childhood friend, said in an interview.

The Goldberg parents read “The Feminine Mystique” together — in fact, Mr. Goldberg’s father introduced it to his wife, according to Ms. Sandberg’s book. In 1976, Paula Goldberg helped found a nonprofit to aid children with disabilities. Her husband, Mel, a law professor who taught at night, made the family breakfast at home.

Later, when Dave Goldberg was in high school and his prom date, Jill Chessen, stayed silent in a politics class, he chastised her afterward. He said, “You need to speak up,” Ms. Chessen recalled in an interview. “They need to hear your voice.”

Years later, when Karin Gilford, an early employee at Launch Media, Mr. Goldberg’s digital music company, became a mother, he knew exactly what to do. He kept giving her challenging assignments, she recalled, but also let her work from home one day a week. After Yahoo acquired Launch, Mr. Goldberg became known for distributing roses to all the women in the office on Valentine’s Day.

Ms. Sandberg, who often describes herself as bossy-in-a-good-way, enchanted him when they became friendly in the mid-1990s. He “was smitten with her,” Ms. Chessen remembered. Ms. Sandberg was dating someone else, but Mr. Goldberg still hung around, even helping her and her then-boyfriend move, recalled Bob Roback, a friend and co-founder of Launch. When they finally married in 2004, friends remember thinking how similar the two were, and that the qualities that might have made Ms. Sandberg intimidating to some men drew Mr. Goldberg to her even more.

Over the next decade, Mr. Goldberg and Ms. Sandberg pioneered new ways of capturing information online, had a son and then a daughter, became immensely wealthy, and hashed out their who-does-what-in-this-marriage issues. Mr. Goldberg’s commute from the Bay Area to Los Angeles became a strain, so he relocated, later joking that he “lost the coin flip” of where they would live. He paid the bills, she planned the birthday parties, and both often left their offices at 5:30 so they could eat dinner with their children before resuming work afterward.

Friends in Silicon Valley say they were careful to conduct their careers separately, politely refusing when outsiders would ask one about the other’s work: Ms. Sandberg’s role building Facebook into an information and advertising powerhouse, and Mr. Goldberg at SurveyMonkey, which made polling faster and cheaper. But privately, their work was intertwined. He often began statements to his team with the phrase “Well, Sheryl said” sharing her business advice. He counseled her, too, starting with her salary negotiations with Mark Zuckerberg.

“I wanted Mark to really feel he stretched to get Sheryl, because she was worth it,” Mr. Goldberg explained in a 2013 “60 Minutes” interview, his Minnesota accent and his smile intact as he offered a rare peek of the intersection of marriage and money at the top of corporate life.

 

 

While his wife grew increasingly outspoken about women’s advancement, Mr. Goldberg quietly advised the men in the office on family and partnership matters, an associate said. Six out of 16 members of SurveyMonkey’s management team are female, an almost unheard-of ratio among Silicon Valley “unicorns,” or companies valued at over $1 billion.

When Mellody Hobson, a friend and finance executive, wrote a chapter of “Lean In” about women of color for the college edition of the book, Mr. Goldberg gave her feedback on the draft, a clue to his deep involvement. He joked with Ms. Hobson that she was too long-winded, like Ms. Sandberg, but aside from that, he said he loved the chapter, she said in an interview.

By then, Mr. Goldberg was a figure of fascination who inspired a “where can I get one of those?” reaction among many of the women who had read the best seller “Lean In.” Some lamented that Ms. Sandberg’s advice hinged too much on marrying a Dave Goldberg, who was humble enough to plan around his wife, attentive enough to worry about which shoes his young daughter would wear, and rich enough to help pay for the help that made the family’s balancing act manageable.

Now that he is gone, and Ms. Sandberg goes from being half of a celebrated partnership to perhaps the business world’s most prominent single mother, the pages of “Lean In” carry a new sting of loss.

“We are never at 50-50 at any given moment — perfect equality is hard to define or sustain — but we allow the pendulum to swing back and forth between us,” she wrote in 2013, adding that they were looking forward to raising teenagers together.

“Fortunately, I have Dave to figure it out with me,” she wrote.

Dave Goldberg Was Lifelong Women’s Advocate
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