PAKET UMROH BULAN FEBRUARI MARET APRIL MEI 2018





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Kecelakaan tunggal terjadi Tol Tangerang pada sekitar pukul 03.28 WIB pagi ini. Kecelakaan ini telah menimpa pengemudi mobil Honda Jazz yang bernomor polisi B 2226 QT. "Kecelakaan telah terjadi di KM 19 arah Karawaci ke Tangerang," jelas Putra Petugas Jasa Marga Traffic Information Center , Senin (10/3). Akibat dari kecelakaan tersebut, pengemudi diketahui telah mengalami luka berat. Meski begitu belum dapat diketahui identitas pengendara Jazz tersebut. "Ada korban luka berat karena kendaraan melintang di tengah jalan," tambah dia. Sampai saat ini belum pasti penyebab kecelakaan tersebut. Petugas sudah ada di lokasi untuk melakukan penanganan.KECELAKAAN DI TOL

Jaket kulit memiliki sifat kuat, tidak mudah ditembus oleh angin dan memiliki daya serap keringat yang baik. Jaket kulit memiliki daya tahan yang tinggi, apabila dibandingkan dengan yang imitasi.


Apapun modelnya, jaket kulit relatif tidak akan ketinggalan jaman. Jaket kulit akan cocok dikenakan dalam berbagai cuaca dan suasana, baik dalam cuaca panas ataupun dingin, siang ataupun malam, dan santai ataupun resmi.

KELEBIHAN JAKET KULIT DIBANDING JAKET JENIS LAINNYA

saco-indonesia.com, Kakek yang berusia 72 tahun, Robertus Hardjo Santoso, warga Desa Mojowangi, Kecamatan Mojowarno, Jombang, Jawa Timur tewas ditembak oleh polisi. Lelaki yang berusia 72 tahun itu tewas terkena peluru anggota Satreskoba Polres Jombang, Briptu Sofyan yang berusia (27) tahun , yang juga merupakan tetangga korban, yang telah meletus tanpa sengaja.

Menurut Kabid Humas Polda Jawa Timur, Kombes Pol Awi Setiyono, peristiwa itu telah terjadi pada Rabu (25/12) dini hari sekitar pukul 02.00 WIB. Saat itu Robertus dan Briptu Sofyan serta satu orang rekannya bertemu di Kafe 88 Desa Mojowangi dan mereka duduk satu meja.

Namun, secara tiba-tiba, pistol jenis revolver milik Briptu Sofyan yang telah diletakkan di atas meja meletus dan mengenai leher Robertus. Usai kejadian tersebut, korban juga sempat dilarikan ke Rumah Sakit Kristen (RSK) Mojowarno, yang berada tidak jauh dari lokasi kejadian tersebut . Kemudian, korban yang dirujuk ke RS Bhayangkara, Polda Jawa Timur dan akhirnya menghembuskan nafas terakhirnya.

Hingga kini, polisi juga masih menyelidiki penyebab meletusnya peluru milik Briptu Sofyan tersebut. Polda Jawa Timur juga mengaku masih harus menelusuri kejadian di malam Natal itu, apakah ada unsur kesengajaan atau karena kelalaian si pemilik pistol.

"Terkait apakah ada unsur kesengajaan, masih harus dibuktikan terlebih dahulu. Sejauh ini, bersangkutan (Briptu Sofyan) juga mengaku kalau pistolnya tidak sengaja terjatuh," sambung perwira dengan tiga melati di pundak itu.

Selain itu, Awi juga menegaskan, kalau dua orang tersangka Briptu Sofyan dan rekannya Teguh Jatmiko itu, akan dijerat dengan Pasal 338 dan 359 KUHP tentang pembunuhan serta kealpaan yang telah mengakibatkan orang lain meninggal. Tak hanya itu saja , keduanya juga bisa dikenakan pasal tambahan, yaitu Pasal 56 KUHP, yaitu membantu atau menyediakan sarana untuk dapat melakukan kejahatan.

Sementara tentang pelanggaran disiplin, kata Awi, arahnya sudah sangat jelas. "Sekali lagi ditegaskan, kita juga masih butuh pendalaman serta pembuktian. Namun, sebagai anggota polisi, dia dalam keadaan pengaruh miras di sebuah kafe dan sembarangan membawa senjatanya, hingga mengakibatkan orang lain meninggal dunia." katanya.

Apalagi, masih kata dia, peristiwa itu telah terjadi pada malam Natal dan yang bersangkutan seharusnya bertugas untuk dapat melakukan pengamanan Natal dalam Ops Lilin Semeru 2013. Sedangkan untuk dapat membuktikan kesalahan kedua tersangka itu, Awi juga mengaku, kalau pihaknya kina sudah memeriksa tujuh orang saksi, termasuk dua tersangka.

"Selain itu, Polda Jatim juga masih harus menunggu hasil autopsi terhadap jenazah korban dari dokter forensik," tandas Awi.

Menurut mantan Wadirlantas Polda Jawa Timur itu, jika nantinya kasus pidan Briptu Sofyan sudah incraht, dan divonis hukuman penjara selama tiga bulan penjara atau lebih, maka sangat mungkin dikenakan sanksi pemberhentian tidak dengan hormat (PTDH).

"Nanti akan digelar sidang Komisi Kode Etik Polri (KKEP). Jika dalam kasus pidananya kena hukuman lebih dari tiga bulan, bisa saja direkomendasi PTDH dalam sidangnya," tegas Awi.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

KAKEK BERUSIA 72 TAHUN DITEMBAK POLISI

JAKARTA, Saco-Indonesia.com — Bus Transjakarta Koridor III (Kalideres-Harmoni) kembali stop beroperasi. Kepala Humas Unit Pengelola (UP) Transjakarta Sri Ulina Pinem menjelaskan, banyak penyebab yang mengakibatkan transjakarta Koridor III berhenti beroperasi.

"Halte Jembatan Baru kembali dijadikan tempat pengungsian warga setempat,di Jakarta, Selasa (4/2/2014).

Halte Transjakarta Jembatan Baru, Daan Mogot, Jakarta Barat, pada pekan sebelumnya juga pernah digunakan sebagai lokasi pengungsian warga. Menurut Ulina, warga memilih halte transjakarta karena sudah tidak memiliki pilihan lokasi lainnya. Sebab, pada tahun-tahun sebelumnya, mereka juga mengungsi di tempat yang sama.

Para pengungsi, kata Ulina, tetap menjaga fasilitas yang ada di halte. Selain itu, UP Transjakarta tetap menempatkan para petugas mereka seperti biasanya meskipun halte telah beralih fungsi. Halte tetap dijaga, baik saat siang maupun malam hari.

"Karena belum ada lokasi pengungsian dan banjir belum surut, ya kita kasih izin," kata Ulina.

Nantinya, apabila banjir di lingkungan mereka berangsur surut, akan diinformasikan kepada mereka untuk segera kembali ke rumah masing-masing. Sebab, halte transjakarta merupakan salah satu pelayanan publik yang selalu digunakan masyarakat.

Selain itu, penyebab lain transjakarta Koridor III berhenti beroperasi disebabkan tingginya genangan air di Jembatan Gantung setinggi 40-50 cm. Genangan juga terpantau di depan Dispenda setinggi 50 cm, Sumber Waras setinggi 20-30 cm, dan Taman Kota sekitar 30-35 cm.

Perbaikan jalan

Beberapa halte transjakarta juga tidak berfungsi disebabkan perbaikan jalan oleh Dinas Pekerjaan Umum DKI Jakarta di beberapa titik, seperti di Koridor I (Blok M-Kota), Halte Karet, Setiabudi, Hotel Indonesia, dan Bank Indonesia arah Kota tidak dapat digunakan. Selain itu, pintu penurunan penumpang di Halte Harmoni arah Kota juga tidak dapat dipergunakan. Namun, pelayanan tetap beroperasi normal.

Kemudian, di Koridor II (Harmoni-Pulogadung), Halte Balaikota dan Gambir 2 arah Pulogadung tidak dapat dipergunakan. Perjalanan tetap berjalan normal. Untuk Koridor IV (Pulogadung-Dukuh Atas), Halte Manggarai arah Dukuh Atas untuk sementara, kata Ulina, tidak dapat digunakan untuk menaikkan dan menurunkan penumpang karena ada pembongkaran jalan oleh Dinas PU. Sementara Koridor IX (Pinang Ranti-Pluit), Halte Semanggi arah Pinang Ranti ditutup.

Pengalihan

Beberapa koridor transjakarta mengalami pengalihan arus lalu lintas akibat banjir yang menggenangi sejumlah jalan Ibu Kota. Seperti Koridor IX (Pinang Ranti-Pluit), beroperasi dari Halte Pinang Ranti sampai Halte Rumah Sakit Harapan Kita. Hal itu disebabkan adanya genangan air di Central Park arah Grogol, Jakarta Barat, setinggi 50-60 cm.

Untuk di Koridor V (Ancol-Kampung Melayu), pelayanan transjakarta beroperasi hanya sampai Halte Senen. Hal itu disebabkan tingginya titik genangan air di Jembatan Merah 30-40 cm dan Mangga Dua 20-30 cm.

Untuk Koridor VIII (Harmoni-Lebak Bulus), akibat banjir yang merendam kawasan Green Garden, perjalanan kembali dialihkan melalui Tol Kebon Jeruk-Tomang. Perjalanan tidak melalui empat halte, yakni Halte Grogol, Kedoya Green Garden, Kedoya Assidiqiyah, dan Duri Kepa.

"Untuk pelayanan operasional bus transjakarta dari koridor I,II,IV,VI,VII,VIII,X, XI, XII beroperasi normal," kata Ulina.

Sumber :kompas.com

Editor : Maulana Lee

Halte Transjakarta Koridor III Tak Beroperasi, karna jadi tempat Pengungsian

saco-indonesia.com,

Apa yang di maksud dengan Generator Set ?

Genset atau kepanjangan dari generator set adalah sebuah perangkat yang telah berfungsi dapat menghasilkan daya listrik. Disebut sebagai generator set dengan pengertian adalah satu set peralatan yang tergabung dari dua perangkat yang berbeda yaitu engine dan generator atau alternator. Engine sebagai perangkat pemutar sedangkan generator atau alternator sebagai perangkat pembangkit listrik.

Engine juga dapat berupa perangkat mesin diesel berbahan bakar solar atau mesin berbahan bakar bensin, sedangkan generator atau alternator juga merupakan kumparan atau gulungan tembaga yang telah terdiri dari stator ( kumparan statis ) dan rotor (kumparan berputar).

Dalam ilmu fisikia yang sederhana juga dapat dijelaskan bahwa engine dapat memutar rotor pada generator sehingga timbul medan magnit pada kumparan stator generator, medan magnit yang timbul pada stator dan berinteraksi dengan rotor yang berputar akan dapat menghasilkan arus listrik sesuai hukum Lorentz (ingat pelajaran fisika SMA dulu).

Arus listrik yang telah dihasilkan oleh generator akan memiliki perbedaan tegangan di antara kedua kutub generatornya sehingga apabila dihubungkan dengan beban akan menghasilkan daya listrik, atau dalam rumusan fisika sebagai
P (daya) = V (tegangan) x I (arus),
dengan satuan adalah VA atau Volt Ampere.
Rumusan fisika yang lebih kompleks lagi dijelaskan bahwa
P (daya) = V (tegangan) x I (arus) x CosPhi (faktor daya) dengan satuan Watt.

Apa saja type genset?
Genset juga dapat dibedakan dari jenis engine penggeraknya, dimana kita kenal tipe-tipe engine yaitu engine diesel dan engine non diesel /bensin. Engine diesel telah dikenali dari bahan bakarnya yang berupa solar, sedangkan engine non diesel berbahan bakar bensin premium.
Di pasaran, genset dengan engine non diesel atau berbahan bakar bensin biasa diaplikasikan pada genset yang berkapasitas kecil atau dalam kapasitas maksimum 10.000 VA atau 10 kVA, sedangkan genset diesel berbahan bakar solar diaplikasikan pada genset berkapasitas > 10 kVA. Mengapa demikian ? Hal tersebut terkait dengan tenaga yang telah dihasilkan oleh diesel lebih besar daripada engine non diesel, dimana cara kerja pembakaran diesel yang lebih sederhana yaitu tanpa busi, lebih hemat dalam pemeliharaan, lebih responsif dan bertenaga. Selain itu untuk aplikasi industri dimana bahan bakar diesel (solar) lebih murah daripada bensin (gasoline). Tulisan lebih dalam tentang cara kerja engine diesel akan kami sajikan dalam tulisan-tulisan berikutnya.

Dalam aplikasi kita akan jumpai bahwa genset yang terdiri dari genset 1 phasa atau 3 phasa, apa artinya ini ? Kita akan jelaskan lebih dalam lagi, bahwa pengertian 1 phasa atau 3 phasa adalah telah merujuk pada kapasitas tegangan yang telah dihasilkan oleh genset tersebut. Tegangan 1 phasa artinya tegangan yang telah dibentuk dari kutub L yang mengandung arus dengan kutub N yang tidak berarus, atau berarus Nol atau sering kita kenal sebagai Arde atau Ground. Sedangkan tegangan 3 phase telah dibentuk dari dua kutub yang bertegangan. Genset tiga phasa dapat menghasilkan tiga kali kapasitas genset 1 phasa. Pada sistem kelistrikan PLN kita, kapasitas 3 phasa yang dihasilkan untuk aplikasi rumah tangga adalah 380 Volt, sedangkan kapasitas 1 phasa adalah 220 Volt.

Daya listrik dalam ilmu fisika juga merupakan besaran vektor, artinya besaran yang telah memiliki besar dan arah, tegangan dan arus yang telah dihasilkan juga merupakan gelombang sinusoidal dengan frekuensi tertentu. Di Indonesia, frekuensi tegangan dan arus telah ditetapkan sebesar 50 Hz, dimana hal ini mengikuti standar frekuensi di Belanda atau negara-negara Eropa, sedangkan di negara Amerika Serikat dan Kanada menggunakan frekuensi 60 Hz.

Editor : Dian sukmawati
Sumber : jualgenset.co.id

 

APA GENERATOR SET ITU ?

Ms. Crough played the youngest daughter on the hit ’70s sitcom starring David Cassidy and Shirley Jones.

Suzanne Crough, Actress in ‘The Partridge Family,’ Dies at 52

Judge Patterson helped to protect the rights of Attica inmates after the prison riot in 1971 and later served on the Federal District Court in Manhattan.

Robert Patterson Jr., Lawyer and Judge Who Fought for the Accused, Dies at 91

Since a white police officer, Darren Wilson fatally shot unarmed black teenager, Michael Brown, in a confrontation last August in Ferguson, Mo., there have been many other cases in which the police have shot and killed suspects, some of them unarmed. Mr. Brown's death set off protests throughout the country, pushing law enforcement into the spotlight and sparking a public debate on police tactics. Here is a selection of police shootings that have been reported by news organizations since Mr. Brown's death. In some cases, investigations are continuing.

Photo
 
 
The apartment complex northeast of Atlanta where Anthony Hill, 27, was fatally shot by a DeKalb County police officer. Credit Ben Gray/Atlanta Journal Constitution

Chamblee, Ga.
Fatal Police Shootings: Accounts Since Ferguson

Ms. von Furstenberg made her debut in the movies and on the Broadway stage in the early 1950s as a teenager and later reinvented herself as a television actress, writer and philanthropist.

Betsy von Furstenberg, Baroness and Versatile Actress, Dies at 83

Mr. Mankiewicz, an Oscar-nominated screenwriter for “I Want to Live!,” also wrote episodes of television shows such as “Star Trek” and “Marcus Welby, M.D.”

Don Mankiewicz, Screenwriter in a Family Film Tradition, Dies at 93

The bottle Mr. Sokolin famously broke was a 1787 Château Margaux, which was said to have belonged to Thomas Jefferson. Mr. Sokolin had been hoping to sell it for $519,750.

William Sokolin, Wine Seller Who Broke Famed Bottle, Dies at 85

Though Robin and Joan Rolfs owned two rare talking dolls manufactured by Thomas Edison’s phonograph company in 1890, they did not dare play the wax cylinder records tucked inside each one.

The Rolfses, longtime collectors of Edison phonographs, knew that if they turned the cranks on the dolls’ backs, the steel phonograph needle might damage or destroy the grooves of the hollow, ring-shaped cylinder. And so for years, the dolls sat side by side inside a display cabinet, bearers of a message from the dawn of sound recording that nobody could hear.

In 1890, Edison’s dolls were a flop; production lasted only six weeks. Children found them difficult to operate and more scary than cuddly. The recordings inside, which featured snippets of nursery rhymes, wore out quickly.

Yet sound historians say the cylinders were the first entertainment records ever made, and the young girls hired to recite the rhymes were the world’s first recording artists.

Year after year, the Rolfses asked experts if there might be a safe way to play the recordings. Then a government laboratory developed a method to play fragile records without touching them.

Audio

The technique relies on a microscope to create images of the grooves in exquisite detail. A computer approximates — with great accuracy — the sounds that would have been created by a needle moving through those grooves.

In 2014, the technology was made available for the first time outside the laboratory.

“The fear all along is that we don’t want to damage these records. We don’t want to put a stylus on them,” said Jerry Fabris, the curator of the Thomas Edison Historical Park in West Orange, N.J. “Now we have the technology to play them safely.”

Last month, the Historical Park posted online three never-before-heard Edison doll recordings, including the two from the Rolfses’ collection. “There are probably more out there, and we’re hoping people will now get them digitized,” Mr. Fabris said.

The technology, which is known as Irene (Image, Reconstruct, Erase Noise, Etc.), was developed by the particle physicist Carl Haber and the engineer Earl Cornell at Lawrence Berkeley. Irene extracts sound from cylinder and disk records. It can also reconstruct audio from recordings so badly damaged they were deemed unplayable.

“We are now hearing sounds from history that I did not expect to hear in my lifetime,” Mr. Fabris said.

The Rolfses said they were not sure what to expect in August when they carefully packed their two Edison doll cylinders, still attached to their motors, and drove from their home in Hortonville, Wis., to the National Document Conservation Center in Andover, Mass. The center had recently acquired Irene technology.

Audio

Cylinders carry sound in a spiral groove cut by a phonograph recording needle that vibrates up and down, creating a surface made of tiny hills and valleys. In the Irene set-up, a microscope perched above the shaft takes thousands of high-resolution images of small sections of the grooves.

Stitched together, the images provide a topographic map of the cylinder’s surface, charting changes in depth as small as one five-hundredth the thickness of a human hair. Pitch, volume and timbre are all encoded in the hills and valleys and the speed at which the record is played.

At the conservation center, the preservation specialist Mason Vander Lugt attached one of the cylinders to the end of a rotating shaft. Huddled around a computer screen, the Rolfses first saw the wiggly waveform generated by Irene. Then came the digital audio. The words were at first indistinct, but as Mr. Lugt filtered out more of the noise, the rhyme became clearer.

“That was the Eureka moment,” Mr. Rolfs said.

In 1890, a girl in Edison’s laboratory had recited:

There was a little girl,

And she had a little curl

Audio

Right in the middle of her forehead.

When she was good,

She was very, very good.

But when she was bad, she was horrid.

Recently, the conservation center turned up another surprise.

In 2010, the Woody Guthrie Foundation received 18 oversize phonograph disks from an anonymous donor. No one knew if any of the dirt-stained recordings featured Guthrie, but Tiffany Colannino, then the foundation’s archivist, had stored them unplayed until she heard about Irene.

Last fall, the center extracted audio from one of the records, labeled “Jam Session 9” and emailed the digital file to Ms. Colannino.

“I was just sitting in my dining room, and the next thing I know, I’m hearing Woody,” she said. In between solo performances of “Ladies Auxiliary,” “Jesus Christ,” and “Dead or Alive,” Guthrie tells jokes, offers some back story, and makes the audience laugh. “It is quintessential Guthrie,” Ms. Colannino said.

The Rolfses’ dolls are back in the display cabinet in Wisconsin. But with audio stored on several computers, they now have a permanent voice.

Ghostly Voices From Thomas Edison’s Dolls Can Now Be Heard

The 2015 Met Gala has only officially begun, but there's a clear leader in the race for best couple, no small feat at an event that threatens to sap Hollywood of every celebrity it has for the duration of an East Coast evening.

That would be Marc Jacobs and his surprise guest (who, by some miracle, remained under wraps until their red carpet debut), Cher.

“This has been a dream of mine for a very, very long time,” Mr. Jacobs said.

It is Cher's first appearance at the Met Gala since 1997, when she arrived on the arm of Donatella Versace.

– MATTHEW SCHNEIER

Cher and Marc Jacobs

The career criminals in genre novels don’t have money problems. If they need some, they just go out and steal it. But such financial transactions can backfire, which is what happened back in 2004 when the Texas gang in Michael

Take the Money and Run

At the National Institutes of Health, Dr. Suzman’s signature accomplishment was the central role he played in creating a global network of surveys on aging.

Richard Suzman, 72, Dies; Researcher Influenced Global Surveys on Aging

A lapsed seminarian, Mr. Chambers succeeded Saul Alinsky as leader of the social justice umbrella group Industrial Areas Foundation.

Edward Chambers, Early Leader in Community Organizing, Dies at 85

Mr. King sang for the Drifters and found success as a solo performer with hits like “Spanish Harlem.”

Ben E. King, Soulful Singer of ‘Stand by Me,’ Dies at 76

Mr. Haroche was a founder of Liberty Travel, which grew from a two-man operation to the largest leisure travel operation in the United States.

Gilbert Haroche, Builder of an Economy Travel Empire, Dies at 87

BEIJING (AP) — The head of Taiwan's Nationalists reaffirmed the party's support for eventual unification with the mainland when he met Monday with Chinese President Xi Jinping as part of continuing rapprochement between the former bitter enemies.

Nationalist Party Chairman Eric Chu, a likely presidential candidate next year, also affirmed Taiwan's desire to join the proposed Chinese-led Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank during the meeting in Beijing. China claims Taiwan as its own territory and doesn't want the island to join using a name that might imply it is an independent country.

Chu's comments during his meeting with Xi were carried live on Hong Kong-based broadcaster Phoenix Television.

The Nationalists were driven to Taiwan by Mao Zedong's Communists during the Chinese civil war in 1949, leading to decades of hostility between the sides. Chu, who took over as party leader in January, is the third Nationalist chairman to visit the mainland and the first since 2009.

Relations between the communist-ruled mainland and the self-governing democratic island of Taiwan began to warm in the 1990s, partly out of their common opposition to Taiwan's formal independence from China, a position advocated by the island's Democratic Progressive Party.

Despite increasingly close economic ties, the prospect of political unification has grown increasingly unpopular on Taiwan, especially with younger voters. Opposition to the Nationalists' pro-China policies was seen as a driver behind heavy local electoral defeats for the party last year that led to Taiwanese President Ma Ying-jeou resigning as party chairman.

Taiwan party leader affirms eventual reunion with China

HOBART, Tasmania — Few places seem out of reach for China’s leader, Xi Jinping, who has traveled from European capitals to obscure Pacific and Caribbean islands in pursuit of his nation’s strategic interests.

So perhaps it was not surprising when he turned up last fall in this city on the edge of the Southern Ocean to put down a long-distance marker in another faraway region, Antarctica, 2,000 miles south of this Australian port.

Standing on the deck of an icebreaker that ferries Chinese scientists from this last stop before the frozen continent, Mr. Xi pledged that China would continue to expand in one of the few places on earth that remain unexploited by humans.

He signed a five-year accord with the Australian government that allows Chinese vessels and, in the future, aircraft to resupply for fuel and food before heading south. That will help secure easier access to a region that is believed to have vast oil and mineral resources; huge quantities of high-protein sea life; and for times of possible future dire need, fresh water contained in icebergs.

It was not until 1985, about seven decades after Robert Scott and Roald Amundsen raced to the South Pole, that a team representing Beijing hoisted the Chinese flag over the nation’s first Antarctic research base, the Great Wall Station on King George Island.

But now China seems determined to catch up. As it has bolstered spending on Antarctic research, and as the early explorers, especially the United States and Australia, confront stagnant budgets, there is growing concern about its intentions.

China’s operations on the continent — it opened its fourth research station last year, chose a site for a fifth, and is investing in a second icebreaker and new ice-capable planes and helicopters — are already the fastest growing of the 52 signatories to the Antarctic Treaty. That gentlemen’s agreement reached in 1959 bans military activity on the continent and aims to preserve it as one of the world’s last wildernesses; a related pact prohibits mining.

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But Mr. Xi’s visit was another sign that China is positioning itself to take advantage of the continent’s resource potential when the treaty expires in 2048 — or in the event that it is ripped up before, Chinese and Australian experts say.

“So far, our research is natural-science based, but we know there is more and more concern about resource security,” said Yang Huigen, director general of the Polar Research Institute of China, who accompanied Mr. Xi last November on his visit to Hobart and stood with him on the icebreaker, Xue Long, or Snow Dragon.

With that in mind, the polar institute recently opened a new division devoted to the study of resources, law, geopolitics and governance in Antarctica and the Arctic, Mr. Yang said.

Australia, a strategic ally of the United States that has strong economic relations with China, is watching China’s buildup in the Antarctic with a mix of gratitude — China’s presence offers support for Australia’s Antarctic science program, which is short of cash — and wariness.

“We should have no illusions about the deeper agenda — one that has not even been agreed to by Chinese scientists but is driven by Xi, and most likely his successors,” said Peter Jennings, executive director of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute and a former senior official in the Australian Department of Defense.

“This is part of a broader pattern of a mercantilist approach all around the world,” Mr. Jennings added. “A big driver of Chinese policy is to secure long-term energy supply and food supply.”

That approach was evident last month when a large Chinese agriculture enterprise announced an expansion of its fishing operations around Antarctica to catch more krill — small, protein-rich crustaceans that are abundant in Antarctic waters.

“The Antarctic is a treasure house for all human beings, and China should go there and share,” Liu Shenli, the chairman of the China National Agricultural Development Group, told China Daily, a state-owned newspaper. China would aim to fish up to two million tons of krill a year, he said, a substantial increase from what it currently harvests.

Because sovereignty over Antarctica is unclear, nations have sought to strengthen their claims over the ice-covered land by building research bases and naming geographic features. China’s fifth station will put it within reach of the six American facilities, and ahead of Australia’s three.

Chinese mappers have also given Chinese names to more than 300 sites, compared with the thousands of locations on the continent with English names.

In the unspoken competition for Antarctica’s future, scientific achievement can also translate into influence. Chinese scientists are driving to be the first to drill and recover an ice core containing tiny air bubbles that provide a record of climate change stretching as far back as 1.5 million years. It is an expensive and delicate effort at which others, including the European Union and Australia, have failed.

In a breakthrough a decade ago, European scientists extracted an ice core nearly two miles long that revealed 800,000 years of climate history. But finding an ice core going back further would allow scientists to examine a change in the earth’s climate cycles believed to have occurred 900,000 to 1.2 million years ago.

China is betting it has found the best location to drill, at an area called Dome A, or Dome Argus, the highest point on the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Though it is considered one of the coldest places on the planet, with temperatures of 130 degrees below zero Fahrenheit, a Chinese expedition explored the area in 2005 and established a research station in 2009.

“The international community has drilled in lots of places, but no luck so far,” said Xiao Cunde, a member of the first party to reach the site and the deputy director of the Institute for Climate Change at the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences. “We think at Dome A we will have a straight shot at the one-million-year ice core.”

Mr. Xiao said China had already begun drilling and hoped to find what scientists are looking for in four to five years.

To support its Antarctic aspirations, China is building a sophisticated $300 million icebreaker that is expected to be ready in a few years, said Xia Limin, deputy director of the Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Administration in Beijing. It has also bought a high-tech fixed-wing aircraft, outfitted in the United States, for taking sensitive scientific soundings from the ice.

China has chosen the site for its fifth research station at Inexpressible Island, named by a group of British explorers who were stranded at the desolate site in 1912 and survived the winter by excavating a small ice cave.

Mr. Xia said the inhospitable spot was ideal because China did not have a presence in that part of Antarctica, and because the rocky site did not have much snow, making it relatively cheap to build there.

Anne-Marie Brady, a professor of political science at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand and the author of a soon-to-be-released book, “China as a Polar Great Power,” said Chinese scientists also believed they had a good chance of finding mineral and energy resources near the site.

“China is playing a long game in Antarctica and keeping other states guessing about its true intentions and interests are part of its poker hand,” she said. But she noted that China’s interest in finding minerals was presented “loud and clear to domestic audiences” as the main reason it was investing in Antarctica.

Because commercial drilling is banned, estimates of energy and mineral resources in Antarctica rely on remote sensing data and comparisons with similar geological environments elsewhere, said Millard F. Coffin, executive director of the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies in Hobart.

But the difficulty of extraction in such severe conditions and uncertainty about future commodity prices make it unlikely that China or any country would defy the ban on mining anytime soon.

Tourism, however, is already booming. Travelers from China are still a relatively small contingent in the Antarctic compared with the more than 13,000 Americans who visited in 2013, and as yet there are no licensed Chinese tour operators.

But that is about to change, said Anthony Bergin, deputy director of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute. “I understand very soon there will be Chinese tourists on Chinese vessels with all-Chinese crew in the Antarctic,” he said.

 

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