PAKET UMROH BULAN FEBRUARI MARET APRIL MEI 2018





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Saat ini, banyak tersedia buku dan tabel yang berisi tentang berat besi beton dengan diameternya, dalam tabel tersebut berat besi beton dihitung tiap 1 (satu) meter panjang (kg/m), yang jadi pertanyaan, apakah tiap waktu kita mesti bawa itu tabel / buku ?? gak kan !!..keliatan gak profesional dech ( amatiran he..he..he)
Mengetahui berat besi beton sangat mutlak diperlukan, dalam analisa pengerjaan Beton, tingginya harga per m3 beton faktor penentunya adalah koefesien berat besi beton tiap m³ Beton dan harga satuan dasar besi beton / kg di pasaran.

Untuk proyek-proyek pemerintah yang ditenderkan biasanya sudah disediakan draft analisa pekerjaan beton di dokumen lelang. CEK ULANG !! APAKAH KOEFISIEN BOBOT BESI SESUAI DENGAN BOBOT REAL LAPANGAN ( Panitia kadang membuat analisa berdasarkan BOW tanpa merubah koefisien Bobot Besi Beton)
Ini ada cara menghitung berat besi beton tanpa tabel, tapi yang jelas masih pake hitungan (he..he..he )
Rumus yang sudah jadi :
Berat per m' (kg/m') = 0,006162 x ز
Berat per batang (kg) = 0,006162 x 12 m' (panjang besi asli, dipasaran gak nyampek 12 m cuma 11.7 untuk besi marking )
Asal rumus :
Dengan menggunakan pendekatan rumus volume tabung.
Volume tabung = (0,25 x 3,14 x ز) x P x BJ
Keterangan :
Ø = diameter besi beton
P = panjang besi beton
BJ = berat jenis besi beton (7.850 kg/m³)
Rumus ini disederhanakan, sehingga menjadi :
Volume = 0.25 x 3.14 x ز (m²) x Panjang (m') x 7.850 kg/m³
               = 6.162,25 kg/m³ x ز (m²) x Panjang (m')
Contoh Perhitungan :
Menghitung berat besi Ø 10 mm per m' :
>>10 mm = 0,01 m
Sehingga menjadi :
= 6.162,25 kg/m³ x 0,01² (m²)
= 0,616225 kg/m'
Untuk 1 lonjor besi Ø 10 :
asumsi panjang 1 lonjor = 12 m
= 0,616225 kg/m' x 12 m
= 7,3947 kg
Demikian Cara Menghitung Berat Besi Beton, semoga bermanfaat

CARA MENGHITUNG BERAT BESI BETON
Tiga pencuri motor dengan sasaran tempat parkir dan perumahan diringkus Buser Polsek Cipondoh. Dua tersangka penadah motor curian ikut diamankan. Kelima tersangka kini telah mendekam di sel tahanan Polsek Cipondoh yakni berinisial TB,19, TL, 20, DE, 23, dan dua penadah motor curian Ra,30, Ch,25. Menurut Kapolsek Cipondoh Kompol Maryanto, para pelaku telah tergabung dalam tiga kelompok curanmor Pandeglang, Cengkareng dan Cipondoh. Mereka telah melengkapi diri pakai kunci leter T dan perangkat lainnya, seperti obeng dan tang. Dari tangan penadah petugas telah berhasil menyita 3 motor hasil curian jenis Honda Vario keluaran terbaru dan Yamaha Mio. “Kini kasusnya masih kami kembangkan karena tiga kelompok ini pelakunya banyak,” tegas kapolsek didampingi Kanit Reskrim AKP Abdul Jana.TIGA PENCURI MOTOR DAN DUA PENADAH DIBEKUK

LONDON, Saco-Indonesia.com - Inilah yang terjadi ketika anda terkena turbulensi ekstrem sesaat setelah sarapan disajikan. Para penumpang sebuah penerbangan Singapure Airlines baru-baru ini mengalami kekacauan di kabin setelah penerbangan mereka mengalami guncangan keras dan mendadak terhempas (kehilangan ketinggian).

Sebanyak 11 penumpang dan seorang awak terluka dalam insiden yang dialami penumpang bernomor penerbangan SQ308 dari Singapura menuju London itu.

Seorang penumpang pada penerbangan itu, yang melihat kopinya berakhir di langit-langit kabin, berhasil mengambil sejumlah gambar yang ia posting ke Instagram. Penumpang bernama Alan Cross itu mengatakan kepada ABC News bahwa para penumpang dalam penerbangan itu telah diperingatkan akan mengalami turbulensi dan bahwa layanan sarapan akan dihentikan sementara.

Beberapa saat kemudian tanda sabuk dikenakan muncul. Kapten pun mengeluarkan perintah agar semua awak kabin segera kembali ke tempat duduk. Cross mengatakan, turbulensi yang kemudian terjadi terasa 'seperti berada dalam lift yang kabelnya terpotong atau seperti terjun bebas dari komedi putar."

Ia mengatakan, segala sesuatu yang tidak terikat, termasuk orang-orang, menghantam langit-langit.

Maskapai itiu mengatakan kepada Australia News seperti dikutip Mail Online, Senin, "Sebelas penumpang dan seorang awak menderita luka ringan saat pesawat itu tiba-tiba mengalami kehilangan ketinggian dan (mereka) menjalani perawatan medis saat tiba di Bandara Heathrow (London). Tanda-tanda kenakan sabuk pengaman telah muncul dan layanan makan sudah ditangguhkan."

Cross berkata, para awak kabin sangat mengagumkan setelah guncangan itu terjadi, mereka dengan tenang dan efisien melakukan bersih-bersih. Dia mengatakan para awak memeriksa yang cedera sebelum membersihkan kekacauan dan memberikan penumpang sejumlah kotak cokelat saat mereka di Heathrow, di mana mereka ditemui paramedis.

Menurut Mail Online, awal tahun ini, para ilmuwan sudah menyatakan bahwa perubahan iklim dapat mengakibatkan penerbangan dari London ke New York akan semakin menggucang di masa depan. Para peneliti dari universitas East Anglia dan Reading menganalisa simulasi superkomputer prihal kondisi atmosfer di atas Atlantik Utara dan mengklaim perubahan iklim akan meningkatkan turbulensi udara.

Editor :Liwon Maulana
Kekacauan di Area Penerbangan Setelah Kena Turbulensi

Saco-Indonesia.com - Anak-anak akan melewati beberapa tahap perkembangan yang ikut memengaruhi perilaku mereka. Tak jarang perubahan perilaku yang dialami anak dianggap sebagai sebuah fase yang akan berlalu dengan sendirinya.  Padahal, beberapa perubahan perilaku itu bisa menjadi gejala dari adanya gangguan mental yang dialami anak.

Para peneliti dari Harvard Medical School menemukan bahwa separuh dari kasus gangguan mental dimulai dari usia sangat muda, 14 tahun dan tigaperempatnya terjadi sejak usia 24 tahun.  Karena kemunculannya yang sangat dini itu, maka terapi dan penanganannya harus dilakukan sejak awal pula.

Pusat pengendalian dan pencegahan penyakit AS (CDC) menemukan bahwa satu dari lima anak di AS mengalami gangguan mental. Gangguan pemusatan perhatian (ADHD), anak pemberontak (oppositional defiant disorder/OOD), spektrum autisme, gangguan mood dan kecemasan, depresi, adalah jenis gangguan mental yang paling banyak ditemui.

Orangtua berperan besar dalam mengurangi keparahan gangguan tersebut dengan cara memberi perhatian pada perubahan perilaku anak. Orangtua juga bisa menggunakan intuisi mereka jika merasa "ada sesuatu yang salah" dengan anak mereka.

Berikut adalah 5 gejala yang perlu diwaspadai dari anak-anak dan remaja Anda.

1. Perubahan mood yang berlangsung lama

Perubahan mood yang berlangsung lebih dari dua minggu adalah indikator kuat adanya gangguan mental pada anak. Perubahan mood ini bisa bervariasi mulai dari hiperaktif sampai terlalu melankolis tanpa alasan yang kuat.

Menurut The National Institute of Mental Health, perilaku "sangat gembira" atau mania dan perasaan "down" atau depresi bisa menjadi tanda adanya gejala gangguan bipolar. Tetapi, perilaku hiperaktif pada anak yang tidak diikuti dengan gejala lesu setelahnya adalah karateristik normal pada anak.

2. Cemas dan takut berlebihan

Takut dan khawatir adalah hal yang wajar dialami anak usia dini. Normal saja mereka merasa takut pada gelap, membayangkan sosok monster, atau takut berpisah dengan orangtua. Untuk anak usia sekolah, cemas sebelum tampil di sekolah atau takut tak diterima teman-temannya, adalah respon yang sehat.

Namun, berhati-hatilah jika rasa takut yang dialami anak sudah berlebihan sehingga mengganggu aktivitas mereka. Mungkin sudah saatnya Anda melakukan intervensi.

3. Perubahan perilaku ekstrem

Mulai membangkang juga adalah fase yang akan dilalui dalam tahap perkembangan emosional anak untuk menuju kemandiriannya. Tetapi ada perilaku pembangkangan yang sangat ekstrem yang disebut dengan OOD. Biasanya gangguan ini dimulai saat anak berusia 8 tahun atau sebelum masuk usia remaja. Salah satu contoh perilaku tersebut adalah membeli beberapa games tanpa ada minat untuk memainkannya.

Gangguan mental yang erat kaitannya dengan perubahan perilaku adalah ADHD, kecemasan, depresi, atau gangguan bipolar.

4. Perubahan fisik, berat badan naik atau turun drastis

Diperkirakan 80 persen orang yang mengalami gangguan mental mengalami obesitas atau kegemukan. Perubahan fisik yang mendadak yang tidak terkait dengan pubertas bisa menjadi indikator anak menderita gangguan. Demikian pula halnya jika anak tampak tidak nafsu makan, bisa menjadi gejala depresi.

Perubahan fisik yang disebabkan oleh penggunaan alkohol atau obat terlarang juga merupakan gejala depresi pada anak. Para pakar menyebutkan, risiko anak menderita depresi lebih besar jika salah satu atau kedua orangtua juga menderita depresi.

5. Kurang konsentrasi

Anak yang sangat sulit berkonsentrasi juga perlu dicurigai mengalami gangguan mental. Tapi orangtua juga perlu membedakan anak yang memang ingin menonton TV ketimbang mengerjakan PR, dengan anak yang tidak mampu fokus pada acara favoritnya di TV.

Ketidakmampuan untuk berkonsentrasi pada tugas sederhana adalah gejala dari ADHD atau depresi. Kurang fokus juga bisa disebabkan karena pikiran mereka terpusat pada rasa malu, bersalah, atau kematian. Kurang konsentrasi pada anak akan tampak nyata pengaruhnya pada nilai akademik atau pergaulannya.

 

Editor:Liwon Maulana

5 Gejala Gangguan Mental Bagi Anak dan Remaja

JAKARTA, Saco-Indonesia.com — Partai Golkar berpendapat, rencana kenaikan harga bahan bakar minyak (BBM) bersubsidi terlambat. Seharusnya pemerintah sudah menaikkan harga BBM sejak beberapa tahun lalu.

"Menurut kami, kenaikan harga BBM relatif terlambat," kata Wakil Sekretaris Jenderal DPP Partai Golkar Harry Azhar Aziz saat diskusi di Jakarta, Sabtu (8/6/2013).

Harry mengatakan, pihaknya secara rasional menyikapi rencana kenaikan harga BBM saat ini. Jika tidak mendukung kenaikan harga BBM, kata dia, maka parpol membiarkan pemerintah melanggar undang-undang lantaran defisit anggaran akan melampaui batas, yakni tiga persen.

"Pertanyaannya, apakah kita tahan kenaikan harga BBM? Apakah itu strategi PKS (Partai Keadilan Sejahtera) dan partai yang lain?" tanya Wakil Ketua Komisi XI DPR itu.

Ketika disinggung sikap Golkar saat pemerintah hendak menaikkan harga BBM tahun 2011, Harry menyebut ketika itu Golkar tidak menolak. Hanya saja, menurut dia, pihaknya memberikan batasan bahwa pemerintah hanya bisa menaikkan harga BBM ketika harga minyak dunia menyentuh 120 dollar per barrel. Kenyataannya, harga minyak tidak menyentuh angka itu.

Harry lalu menyinggung kenaikan harga BBM tahun 2008. Kata dia, harga BBM malah diturunkan kembali menjelang Pemilu 2009. Menurut Harry, tiga kali menurunkan harga BBM dari Rp 6.000 per liter hingga Rp 4.500 per liter yang menyebabkan Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono terpilih kembali menjadi presiden pada Pilpres 2009.

"Pak SBY sangat cerdik sekali. Golkar kurang cerdik. Yang umumkan kenaikan harga BBM adalah Pak JK (Jusuf Kalla, ketika itu Wakil Presiden), tapi ketika mengumumkan harga BBM turun Pak SBY. Golkar waktu itu bela pemerintah, tapi yang dibela tidak sadar," kata Harry sambil tertawa.

 
Editor :Liwon Maulana
Sumber:http://nasional.kompas.com/read/2013/06/08/12464222/Golkar.Terlambat..Rencana.Ken aikan.Harga.BBM
Pendapat Golkar: Terlambat, Rencana Kenaikan Harga BBM

Ms. Plisetskaya, renowned for her fluidity of movement, expressive acting and willful personality, danced on the Bolshoi stage well into her 60s, but her life was shadowed by Stalinism.

Maya Plisetskaya, Ballerina Who Embodied Bolshoi, Dies at 89

A former member of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Mr. Smedvig helped found the wide-ranging Empire Brass quintet.

Rolf Smedvig, Trumpeter in the Empire Brass, Dies at 62

Mr. Miller, of the firm Weil, Gotshal & Manges, represented companies including Lehman Brothers, General Motors and American Airlines, and mentored many of the top Chapter 11 practitioners today.

Harvey R. Miller, Renowned Bankruptcy Lawyer, Dies at 82

BALTIMORE — In the afternoons, the streets of Locust Point are clean and nearly silent. In front of the rowhouses, potted plants rest next to steps of brick or concrete. There is a shopping center nearby with restaurants, and a grocery store filled with fresh foods.

And the National Guard and the police are largely absent. So, too, residents say, are worries about what happened a few miles away on April 27 when, in a space of hours, parts of this city became riot zones.

“They’re not our reality,” Ashley Fowler, 30, said on Monday at the restaurant where she works. “They’re not what we’re living right now. We live in, not to be racist, white America.”

As Baltimore considers its way forward after the violent unrest brought by the death of Freddie Gray, a 25-year-old black man who died of injuries he suffered while in police custody, residents in its predominantly white neighborhoods acknowledge that they are sometimes struggling to understand what beyond Mr. Gray’s death spurred the turmoil here. For many, the poverty and troubled schools of gritty West Baltimore are distant troubles, glimpsed only when they pass through the area on their way somewhere else.

Photo
 
Officers blocked traffic at Pennsylvania and West North Avenues after reports that a gun was discharged in the area. Credit Drew Angerer for The New York Times

And so neighborhoods of Baltimore are facing altogether different reckonings after Mr. Gray’s death. In mostly black communities like Sandtown-Winchester, where some of the most destructive rioting played out last week, residents are hoping businesses will reopen and that the police will change their strategies. But in mostly white areas like Canton and Locust Point, some residents wonder what role, if any, they should play in reimagining stretches of Baltimore where they do not live.

“Most of the people are kind of at a loss as to what they’re supposed to do,” said Dr. Richard Lamb, a dentist who has practiced in the same Locust Point office for nearly 39 years. “I listen to the news reports. I listen to the clergymen. I listen to the facts of the rampant unemployment and the lack of opportunities in the area. Listen, I pay my taxes. Exactly what can I do?”

And in Canton, where the restaurants have clever names like Nacho Mama’s and Holy Crepe Bakery and Café, Sara Bahr said solutions seemed out of reach for a proudly liberal city.

“I can only imagine how frustrated they must be,” said Ms. Bahr, 36, a nurse who was out with her 3-year-old daughter, Sally. “I just wish I knew how to solve poverty. I don’t know what to do to make it better.”

The day of unrest and the overwhelmingly peaceful demonstrations that followed led to hundreds of arrests, often for violations of the curfew imposed on the city for five consecutive nights while National Guard soldiers patrolled the streets. Although there were isolated instances of trouble in Canton, the neighborhood association said on its website, many parts of southeast Baltimore were physically untouched by the tumult.

Tensions in the city bubbled anew on Monday after reports that the police had wounded a black man in Northwest Baltimore. The authorities denied those reports and sent officers to talk with the crowds that gathered while other officers clutching shields blocked traffic at Pennsylvania and West North Avenues.

Lt. Col. Melvin Russell, a community police officer, said officers had stopped a man suspected of carrying a handgun and that “one of those rounds was spent.”

Colonel Russell said officers had not opened fire, “so we couldn’t have shot him.”

Photo
 
Lambi Vasilakopoulos, right, who runs a casual restaurant in Canton, said he was incensed by last week's looting and predicted tensions would worsen. Credit Drew Angerer for The New York Times

The colonel said the man had not been injured but was taken to a hospital as a precaution. Nearby, many people stood in disbelief, despite the efforts by the authorities to quash reports they described as “unfounded.”

Monday’s episode was a brief moment in a larger drama that has yielded anger and confusion. Although many people said they were familiar with accounts of the police harassing or intimidating residents, many in Canton and Locust Point said they had never experienced it themselves. When they watched the unrest, which many protesters said was fueled by feelings that they lived only on Baltimore’s margins, even those like Ms. Bahr who were pained by what they saw said they could scarcely comprehend the emotions associated with it.

But others, like Lambi Vasilakopoulos, who runs a casual restaurant in Canton, said they were incensed by what unfolded last week.

“What happened wasn’t called for. Protests are one thing; looting is another thing,” he said, adding, “We’re very frustrated because we’re the ones who are going to pay for this.”

There were pockets of optimism, though, that Baltimore would enter a period of reconciliation.

“I’m just hoping for peace,” Natalie Boies, 53, said in front of the Locust Point home where she has lived for 50 years. “Learn to love each other; be patient with each other; find justice; and care.”

A skeptical Mr. Vasilakopoulos predicted tensions would worsen.

“It cannot be fixed,” he said. “It’s going to get worse. Why? Because people don’t obey the laws. They don’t want to obey them.”

But there were few fears that the violence that plagued West Baltimore last week would play out on these relaxed streets. The authorities, Ms. Fowler said, would make sure of that.

“They kept us safe here,” she said. “I didn’t feel uncomfortable when I was in my house three blocks away from here. I knew I was going to be O.K. because I knew they weren’t going to let anyone come and loot our properties or our businesses or burn our cars.”

Baltimore Residents Away From Turmoil Consider Their Role

The 2015 Met Gala has only officially begun, but there's a clear leader in the race for best couple, no small feat at an event that threatens to sap Hollywood of every celebrity it has for the duration of an East Coast evening.

That would be Marc Jacobs and his surprise guest (who, by some miracle, remained under wraps until their red carpet debut), Cher.

“This has been a dream of mine for a very, very long time,” Mr. Jacobs said.

It is Cher's first appearance at the Met Gala since 1997, when she arrived on the arm of Donatella Versace.

– MATTHEW SCHNEIER

Cher and Marc Jacobs

The career criminals in genre novels don’t have money problems. If they need some, they just go out and steal it. But such financial transactions can backfire, which is what happened back in 2004 when the Texas gang in Michael

Take the Money and Run

WASHINGTON — A decade after emergency trailers meant to shelter Hurricane Katrina victims instead caused burning eyes, sore throats and other more serious ailments, the Environmental Protection Agency is on the verge of regulating the culprit: formaldehyde, a chemical that can be found in commonplace things like clothes and furniture.

But an unusual assortment of players, including furniture makers, the Chinese government, Republicans from states with a large base of furniture manufacturing and even some Democrats who championed early regulatory efforts, have questioned the E.P.A. proposal. The sustained opposition has held sway, as the agency is now preparing to ease key testing requirements before it releases the landmark federal health standard.

The E.P.A.’s five-year effort to adopt this rule offers another example of how industry opposition can delay and hamper attempts by the federal government to issue regulations, even to control substances known to be harmful to human health.

Continue reading the main story
 

Document: The Formaldehyde Fight

Formaldehyde is a known carcinogen that can also cause respiratory ailments like asthma, but the potential of long-term exposure to cause cancers like myeloid leukemia is less well understood.

The E.P.A.’s decision would be the first time that the federal government has regulated formaldehyde inside most American homes.

“The stakes are high for public health,” said Tom Neltner, senior adviser for regulatory affairs at the National Center for Healthy Housing, who has closely monitored the debate over the rules. “What we can’t have here is an outcome that fails to confront the health threat we all know exists.”

The proposal would not ban formaldehyde — commonly used as an ingredient in wood glue in furniture and flooring — but it would impose rules that prevent dangerous levels of the chemical’s vapors from those products, and would set testing standards to ensure that products sold in the United States comply with those limits. The debate has sharpened in the face of growing concern about the safety of formaldehyde-treated flooring imported from Asia, especially China.

What is certain is that a lot of money is at stake: American companies sell billions of dollars’ worth of wood products each year that contain formaldehyde, and some argue that the proposed regulation would impose unfair costs and restrictions.

Determined to block the agency’s rule as proposed, these industry players have turned to the White House, members of Congress and top E.P.A. officials, pressing them to roll back the testing requirements in particular, calling them redundant and too expensive.

“There are potentially over a million manufacturing jobs that will be impacted if the proposed rule is finalized without changes,” wrote Bill Perdue, the chief lobbyist at the American Home Furnishings Alliance, a leading critic of the testing requirements in the proposed regulation, in one letter to the E.P.A.

Industry opposition helped create an odd alignment of forces working to thwart the rule. The White House moved to strike out key aspects of the proposal. Subsequent appeals for more changes were voiced by players as varied as Senator Barbara Boxer, Democrat of California, and Senator Roger Wicker, Republican of Mississippi, as well as furniture industry lobbyists.

Hurricane Katrina in 2005 helped ignite the public debate over formaldehyde, after the deadly storm destroyed or damaged hundreds of thousands of homes along the Gulf of Mexico, forcing families into temporary trailers provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

The displaced storm victims quickly began reporting respiratory problems, burning eyes and other issues, and tests then confirmed high levels of formaldehyde fumes leaking into the air inside the trailers, which in many cases had been hastily constructed.

Public health advocates petitioned the E.P.A. to issue limits on formaldehyde in building materials and furniture used in homes, given that limits already existed for exposure in workplaces. But three years after the storm, only California had issued such limits.

Industry groups like the American Chemistry Council have repeatedly challenged the science linking formaldehyde to cancer, a position championed by David Vitter, the Republican senator from Louisiana, who is a major recipient of chemical industry campaign contributions, and whom environmental groups have mockingly nicknamed “Senator Formaldehyde.”

Continue reading the main story

Formaldehyde in Laminate Flooring

In laminate flooring, formaldehyde is used as a bonding agent in the fiberboard (or other composite wood) core layer and may also be used in glues that bind layers together. Concerns were raised in March when certain laminate flooring imported from China was reported to contain levels of formaldehyde far exceeding the limit permitted by California.

Typical

laminate

flooring

CLEAR FINISH LAYER

Often made of melamine resin

PATTERN LAYER

Paper printed to resemble wood,

or a thin wood veneer

GLUE

Layers may be bound using

formaldehyde-based glues

CORE LAYER

Fiberboard or other

composite, formed using

formaldehyde-based adhesives

BASE LAYER

Moisture-resistant vapor barrier

What is formaldehyde?

Formaldehyde is a common chemical used in many industrial and household products as an adhesive, bonding agent or preservative. It is classified as a volatile organic compound. The term volatile means that, at room temperature, formaldehyde will vaporize, or become a gas. Products made with formaldehyde tend to release this gas into the air. If breathed in large quantities, it may cause health problems.

WHERE IT IS COMMONLY FOUND

POTENTIAL HEALTH RISKS

Pressed-wood and composite wood products

Wallpaper and paints

Spray foam insulation used in construction

Commercial wood floor finishes

Crease-resistant fabrics

In cigarette smoke, or in the fumes from combustion of other materials, including wood, oil and gasoline.

Exposure to formaldehyde in sufficient amounts may cause eye, throat or skin irritation, allergic reactions, and respiratory problems like coughing, wheezing or asthma.

Long-term exposure to high levels has been associated with cancer in humans and laboratory animals.

Exposure to formaldehyde may affect some people more severely than others.

By 2010, public health advocates and some industry groups secured bipartisan support in Congress for legislation that ordered the E.P.A. to issue federal rules that largely mirrored California’s restrictions. At the time, concerns were rising over the growing number of lower-priced furniture imports from Asia that might include contaminated products, while also hurting sales of American-made products.

Maneuvering began almost immediately after the E.P.A. prepared draft rules to formally enact the new standards.

White House records show at least five meetings in mid-2012 with industry executives — kitchen cabinet makers, chemical manufacturers, furniture trade associations and their lobbyists, like Brock R. Landry, of the Venable law firm. These parties, along with Senator Vitter’s office, appealed to top administration officials, asking them to intervene to roll back the E.P.A. proposal.

The White House Office of Management and Budget, which reviews major federal regulations before they are adopted, apparently agreed. After the White House review, the E.P.A. “redlined” many of the estimates of the monetary benefits that would be gained by reductions in related health ailments, like asthma and fertility issues, documents reviewed by The New York Times show.

As a result, the estimated benefit of the proposed rule dropped to $48 million a year, from as much as $278 million a year. The much-reduced amount deeply weakened the agency’s justification for the sometimes costly new testing that would be required under the new rules, a federal official involved in the effort said.

“It’s a redlining blood bath,” said Lisa Heinzerling, a Georgetown University Law School professor and a former E.P.A. official, using the Washington phrase to describe when language is stricken from a proposed rule. “Almost the entire discussion of these potential benefits was excised.”

Senator Vitter’s staff was pleased.

“That’s a huge difference,” said Luke Bolar, a spokesman for Mr. Vitter, of the reduced estimated financial benefits, saying the change was “clearly highlighting more mismanagement” at the E.P.A.

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The review’s outcome galvanized opponents in the furniture industry. They then targeted a provision that mandated new testing of laminated wood, a cheaper alternative to hardwood. (The California standard on which the law was based did not require such testing.)

But E.P.A. scientists had concluded that these laminate products — millions of which are sold annually in the United States — posed a particular risk. They said that when thin layers of wood, also known as laminate or veneer, are added to furniture or flooring in the final stages of manufacturing, the resulting product can generate dangerous levels of fumes from often-used formaldehyde-based glues.

Industry executives, outraged by what they considered an unnecessary and financially burdensome level of testing, turned every lever within reach to get the requirement removed. It would be particularly onerous, they argued, for small manufacturers that would have to repeatedly interrupt their work to do expensive new testing. The E.P.A. estimated that the expanded requirements for laminate products would cost the furniture industry tens of millions of dollars annually, while the industry said that the proposed rule over all would cost its 7,000 American manufacturing facilities over $200 million each year.

“A lot of people don’t seem to appreciate what a lot of these requirements do to a small operation,” said Dick Titus, executive vice president of the Kitchen Cabinet Manufacturers Association, whose members are predominantly small businesses. “A 10-person shop, for example, just really isn’t equipped to handle that type of thing.”

Photo
 
Becky Gillette wants strong regulation of formaldehyde. Credit Beth Hall for The New York Times

Big industry players also weighed in. Executives from companies including La-Z-Boy, Hooker Furniture and Ashley Furniture all flew to Washington for a series of meetings with the offices of lawmakers including House Speaker John Boehner, Republican of Ohio, and about a dozen other lawmakers, asking several of them to sign a letter prepared by the industry to press the E.P.A. to back down, according to an industry report describing the lobbying visit.

Within a matter of weeks, two letters — using nearly identical language — were sent by House and Senate lawmakers to the E.P.A. — with the industry group forwarding copies of the letters to the agency as well, and then posting them on its website.

The industry lobbyists also held their own meeting at E.P.A. headquarters, and they urged Jim Jones, who oversaw the rule-making process as the assistant administrator for the agency’s Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention, to visit a North Carolina furniture manufacturing plant. According to the trade group, Mr. Jones told them that the visit had “helped the agency shift its thinking” about the rules and how laminated products should be treated.

The resistance was particularly intense from lawmakers like Mr. Wicker of Mississippi, whose state is home to major manufacturing plants owned by Ashley Furniture Industries, the world’s largest furniture maker, and who is one of the biggest recipients in Congress of donations from the industry’s trade association. Asked if the political support played a role, a spokesman for Mr. Wicker replied: “Thousands of Mississippians depend on the furniture manufacturing industry for their livelihoods. Senator Wicker is committed to defending all Mississippians from government overreach.”

Individual companies like Ikea also intervened, as did the Chinese government, which claimed that the new rule would create a “great barrier” to the import of Chinese products because of higher costs.

Perhaps the most surprising objection came from Senator Boxer, of California, a longtime environmental advocate, whose office questioned why the E.P.A.’s rule went further than her home state’s in seeking testing on laminated products. “We did not advocate an outcome, other than safety,” her office said in a statement about why the senator raised concerns. “We said ‘Take a look to see if you have it right.’ ”

Safety advocates say that tighter restrictions — like the ones Ms. Boxer and Mr. Wicker, along with Representative Doris Matsui, a California Democrat, have questioned — are necessary, particularly for products coming from China, where items as varied as toys and Christmas lights have been found to violate American safety standards.

While Mr. Neltner, the environmental advocate who has been most involved in the review process, has been open to compromise, he has pressed the E.P.A. not to back down entirely, and to maintain a requirement that laminators verify that their products are safe.

An episode of CBS’s “60 Minutes” in March brought attention to the issue when it accused Lumber Liquidators, the discount flooring retailer, of selling laminate products with dangerous levels of formaldehyde. The company has disputed the show’s findings and test methods, maintaining that its products are safe.

“People think that just because Congress passed the legislation five years ago, the problem has been fixed,” said Becky Gillette, who then lived in coastal Mississippi, in the area hit by Hurricane Katrina, and was among the first to notice a pattern of complaints from people living in the trailers. “Real people’s faces and names come up in front of me when I think of the thousands of people who could get sick if this rule is not done right.”

An aide to Ms. Matsui rejected any suggestion that she was bending to industry pressure.

“From the beginning the public health has been our No. 1 concern,” said Kyle J. Victor, an aide to Ms. Matsui.

But further changes to the rule are likely, agency officials concede, as they say they are searching for a way to reduce the cost of complying with any final rule while maintaining public health goals. The question is just how radically the agency will revamp the testing requirement for laminated products — if it keeps it at all.

“It’s not a secret to anybody that is the most challenging issue,” said Mr. Jones, the E.P.A. official overseeing the process, adding that the health consequences from formaldehyde are real. “We have to reduce those exposures so that people can live healthy lives and not have to worry about being in their homes.”

The Uphill Battle to Better Regulate Formaldehyde

As governor, Mr. Walker alienated Republicans and his fellow Democrats, particularly the Democratic powerhouse Richard J. Daley, the mayor of Chicago.

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Mr. Bartoszewski was given honorary Israeli citizenship for his work to save Jews during World War II and later surprised even himself by being instrumental in reconciling Poland and Germany.

Wladyslaw Bartoszewski, 93, Dies; Polish Auschwitz Survivor Aided Jews

Mr. Goldberg was a serial Silicon Valley entrepreneur and venture capitalist who was married to Sheryl Sandberg, the chief operating officer of Facebook.

Dave Goldberg Was Lifelong Women’s Advocate

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Though Robin and Joan Rolfs owned two rare talking dolls manufactured by Thomas Edison’s phonograph company in 1890, they did not dare play the wax cylinder records tucked inside each one.

The Rolfses, longtime collectors of Edison phonographs, knew that if they turned the cranks on the dolls’ backs, the steel phonograph needle might damage or destroy the grooves of the hollow, ring-shaped cylinder. And so for years, the dolls sat side by side inside a display cabinet, bearers of a message from the dawn of sound recording that nobody could hear.

In 1890, Edison’s dolls were a flop; production lasted only six weeks. Children found them difficult to operate and more scary than cuddly. The recordings inside, which featured snippets of nursery rhymes, wore out quickly.

Yet sound historians say the cylinders were the first entertainment records ever made, and the young girls hired to recite the rhymes were the world’s first recording artists.

Year after year, the Rolfses asked experts if there might be a safe way to play the recordings. Then a government laboratory developed a method to play fragile records without touching them.

Audio

The technique relies on a microscope to create images of the grooves in exquisite detail. A computer approximates — with great accuracy — the sounds that would have been created by a needle moving through those grooves.

In 2014, the technology was made available for the first time outside the laboratory.

“The fear all along is that we don’t want to damage these records. We don’t want to put a stylus on them,” said Jerry Fabris, the curator of the Thomas Edison Historical Park in West Orange, N.J. “Now we have the technology to play them safely.”

Last month, the Historical Park posted online three never-before-heard Edison doll recordings, including the two from the Rolfses’ collection. “There are probably more out there, and we’re hoping people will now get them digitized,” Mr. Fabris said.

The technology, which is known as Irene (Image, Reconstruct, Erase Noise, Etc.), was developed by the particle physicist Carl Haber and the engineer Earl Cornell at Lawrence Berkeley. Irene extracts sound from cylinder and disk records. It can also reconstruct audio from recordings so badly damaged they were deemed unplayable.

“We are now hearing sounds from history that I did not expect to hear in my lifetime,” Mr. Fabris said.

The Rolfses said they were not sure what to expect in August when they carefully packed their two Edison doll cylinders, still attached to their motors, and drove from their home in Hortonville, Wis., to the National Document Conservation Center in Andover, Mass. The center had recently acquired Irene technology.

Audio

Cylinders carry sound in a spiral groove cut by a phonograph recording needle that vibrates up and down, creating a surface made of tiny hills and valleys. In the Irene set-up, a microscope perched above the shaft takes thousands of high-resolution images of small sections of the grooves.

Stitched together, the images provide a topographic map of the cylinder’s surface, charting changes in depth as small as one five-hundredth the thickness of a human hair. Pitch, volume and timbre are all encoded in the hills and valleys and the speed at which the record is played.

At the conservation center, the preservation specialist Mason Vander Lugt attached one of the cylinders to the end of a rotating shaft. Huddled around a computer screen, the Rolfses first saw the wiggly waveform generated by Irene. Then came the digital audio. The words were at first indistinct, but as Mr. Lugt filtered out more of the noise, the rhyme became clearer.

“That was the Eureka moment,” Mr. Rolfs said.

In 1890, a girl in Edison’s laboratory had recited:

There was a little girl,

And she had a little curl

Audio

Right in the middle of her forehead.

When she was good,

She was very, very good.

But when she was bad, she was horrid.

Recently, the conservation center turned up another surprise.

In 2010, the Woody Guthrie Foundation received 18 oversize phonograph disks from an anonymous donor. No one knew if any of the dirt-stained recordings featured Guthrie, but Tiffany Colannino, then the foundation’s archivist, had stored them unplayed until she heard about Irene.

Last fall, the center extracted audio from one of the records, labeled “Jam Session 9” and emailed the digital file to Ms. Colannino.

“I was just sitting in my dining room, and the next thing I know, I’m hearing Woody,” she said. In between solo performances of “Ladies Auxiliary,” “Jesus Christ,” and “Dead or Alive,” Guthrie tells jokes, offers some back story, and makes the audience laugh. “It is quintessential Guthrie,” Ms. Colannino said.

The Rolfses’ dolls are back in the display cabinet in Wisconsin. But with audio stored on several computers, they now have a permanent voice.

Ghostly Voices From Thomas Edison’s Dolls Can Now Be Heard

Ms. von Furstenberg made her debut in the movies and on the Broadway stage in the early 1950s as a teenager and later reinvented herself as a television actress, writer and philanthropist.

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Under Mr. Michelin’s leadership, which ended when he left the company in 2002, the Michelin Group became the world’s biggest tire maker, establishing a big presence in the United States and other major markets overseas.

François Michelin, Head of Tire Company, Dies at 88

Mr. Tepper was not a musical child and had no formal training, but he grew up to write both lyrics and tunes, trading off duties with the other member of the team, Roy C. Bennett.

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BEIJING (AP) — The head of Taiwan's Nationalists reaffirmed the party's support for eventual unification with the mainland when he met Monday with Chinese President Xi Jinping as part of continuing rapprochement between the former bitter enemies.

Nationalist Party Chairman Eric Chu, a likely presidential candidate next year, also affirmed Taiwan's desire to join the proposed Chinese-led Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank during the meeting in Beijing. China claims Taiwan as its own territory and doesn't want the island to join using a name that might imply it is an independent country.

Chu's comments during his meeting with Xi were carried live on Hong Kong-based broadcaster Phoenix Television.

The Nationalists were driven to Taiwan by Mao Zedong's Communists during the Chinese civil war in 1949, leading to decades of hostility between the sides. Chu, who took over as party leader in January, is the third Nationalist chairman to visit the mainland and the first since 2009.

Relations between the communist-ruled mainland and the self-governing democratic island of Taiwan began to warm in the 1990s, partly out of their common opposition to Taiwan's formal independence from China, a position advocated by the island's Democratic Progressive Party.

Despite increasingly close economic ties, the prospect of political unification has grown increasingly unpopular on Taiwan, especially with younger voters. Opposition to the Nationalists' pro-China policies was seen as a driver behind heavy local electoral defeats for the party last year that led to Taiwanese President Ma Ying-jeou resigning as party chairman.

Taiwan party leader affirms eventual reunion with China
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