PAKET UMROH BULAN FEBRUARI MARET APRIL MEI 2018




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Hello teman-teman yang masih muda, jaga diri kalian dari Narkoba. Karena Narkoba akan mengancam hidupmu. Nah, untuk teman-teman yang masih duduk di bangku pelajar/mahasiswa, kali ini admin akan membagikan artikel gratis untuk membantu menyelesaikan tugas tentang Contoh Karya Ilmiah Lengkap tentang Tentang Bahaya Narkoba Bagi Remaja. Untuk lebih jelasnya, mari kita baca artikelnya berikut ini.
 
 
 
     KATA PENGANTAR
 
           Dengan mengucapkan puja dan puji syukur kehadirat Allah SWT, maka kami bisa menyelesaikan makalah yang berjudul “Bahaya Narkoba ” dan dengan harapan semoga makalah ini bisa bermanfaat dan menjadikan referensi bagi kita sehinga lebih mengenal tentang apa itu narkoba sekaligus bahaya apabila kita mengkonsumsi barang haram itu.
           Makalah ini juga sebagai persyaratan tugas akhir pada Mata Kuliah Ilmu Sosial Dan Budaya Dasar.Akhir kata semoga bisa bermanfaat bagi Para Mahasiswa, Pelajar, Umum Khususnya pada diri saya sendiri dan semua yang membaca makalah ini semoga bisa di pergunakan dengan semestinya.makalah narkoba
 
 
 
                                                                                            Lalan, 22 April 2012
                                                                                                    Penulis
 
 
 
    DAFTAR ISI
    KATA PENGANTAR    ........................................................    i
    DAFTAR ISI               .......................................................    ii
    BAB  I     PENDAHULUAN                                                     1
        A. Latar Belakang                                                               1
        B. Pembatasan  Masalah                                                      1
        C. Rumusan Masalah                                                          1
        D. Tujuan Penulisan                                                            1
        E. Manfaat Penulisan                                                           2
        F. Metode Pengumpulan Data                                               2
    BAB II    PEMBAHASAN                                                        3
        A. Pengertian Narkotika atau Narkoba                                   3
        B. Jenis – jenis Narkotika atau Narkoba                                 4
            1. Opiat atau Opium                                                       4
            2. Morfin                                                                      4
            3. Heroin atau Puta                                                         5
            4. Ganja atau Kanabis                                                     6
            5. LSD                                                                         6
            6. Kokain                                                                      7
        C. Bahaya Bagi Pelajar                                                        7
        D. Bahaya Narkoba Bagi Remaja                                          8
        E. Upaya Pencegahan                                                         9
        F. Cara Pengobatan Narkoba                                               9
    BAB  III    PENUTUP                                                           11
        A. Kesimpulan                                                                 11
        B. Saran                                                                          11
    DAFTAR PUSTAKA                                                             12 
 
 
 
    BAB I
    PENDAHULUAN
 
 
    A. Latar Belakang Masalah
    Dikalangan para siswa, terutama bagi mereka yang secara formal berada dibangku SMP/MTs. Umumnya penggunaan pertama narkoba diawali pada anak usia sekolah dasar atau SMP/MTs. Hal ini terjadi biasanya karena penawaran, bujukan, atau tekanan seseoorang atau sekelompok orang kepadanya, misalnya oleh kawan sebayanya. Didorong rasa ingin tahu, ingin memcoba, atau ingin memakai, seseorsang mau menerima tawaran itu. Selanjutnya, tidak sulit baginya untuk menerima tawaran berikutnya. 
 
 
    B. Pembatasan Masalah
    Melihat dari latar belakang masalah serta memahami pembahasannya maka penulis dapat memberikan batasan-batasan pada :
    1.    Pengertian Narkotika/Narkoba
    2.    Jenis-jenis Narkotika/Narkoba
    3.    Cara Pengobatan Narkoba
 
 
    C. Rumusan Masalah
    Masalah yang dibahas dalam penulisan makalah ini adalah :
    1. Bagaimana Pengertian Narkotika/Narkoba?
    2. Bagaimana Jenis-jenis Narkotika/Narkoba?
    3. Bagaimana Cara Pengobatan Narkoba? 
 
 
    D. Tujuan Penulisan
    Tujuan daripada penulisan makalah ini adalah :
    1.    Mengetahui Pengertian Narkotika/Narkoba
    2.    Mengetahui Jenis-jenis Narkotika/Narkoba
    3.  Mengetahui Cara Pengobatan Narkoba
 
 
    E. Manfaat Penulisan
    Hasil dari penulisan ini diharapkan dapat memberikan manfaat kepada semua pihak, khususnya kepada siswa untuk tidak menggunakan Narkotika/Narkoba. Manfaat lain dari penulisan makalah ini adalah dengan adanya penulisan makalah ini diharapkan dapat dijadikan acuan didalam kehidupan sehari-hari.
 
 
    F. Metode Pengumpulan Data
    Data penulisan makalah ini diperoleh dari buku yang berjudul Menangkal Narkoba dan Kekerasan, Majalah Remaja Selain itu, tim penulis juga memperoleh data dari interne
 
 
    BAB II
    PEMBAHASAN
 
 
    A. Pengeritan Narkotika/Narkoba
    Narkotika/ Narkoba merupakan singkatan dari Narkotika dan Obat/Bahan berbahaya yang telah populer beredar dimasyarakat perkotaan maupun di pedesaan, termasuk bagi aparat hukum. Sebenarnya dahulu kala masyarakat juga mengenal istilah madat sebagai sebutan untuk candu atau opium, suatu golongan narkotika yang berasal dari getah kuncup bunga tanaman Poppy yang banyak tumbuh di sekitar Thailand, Myanmar dan Laos (The Golden Triangle) maupun di Pakistan dan Afganistan.
 

- See more at: http://pbsstainmetro.blogspot.com/2014/02/contoh-karya-ilmiah-lengkap-tentang_27.html#.dpuf

CONTOH KARYA ILMIAH LENGKAP TENTANG BAHAYA NARKOBA BAGI REMAJA



Hai Sobat Blogger thukan Anda dengan Kalibrasi Baterai Laptop bisa menghemat Batrai Laptop kita. Jika dulu ada beberapa laptop yang memiliki aplikasi untuk melakukan kalibrasi baterai. Namun kini hampir tidak ada vendor laptop yang menyediakannya. Padahal fasilitas ini lumayan penting agar kemampuan baterai tetap prima. Walaupun aplikasi bawaan tersebut tidak lagi disertakan, kamu masih bisa melakukan kalibrasi manual. Bagaimana caranya:

Cara Kalibrasi Baterai Laptop adalah sebagai berikut:
 

1. Buatlah sebuah profil daya baru dengan menjalankan Control Panel melalui menu Start > Control Panel > Hardware and Sound > Power Options.

2. Klik Create a power plan pada panel kiri jendela.

3. Beri nama Calibration pada kolom Plan name.

4. Pada semua opsi yang tersedia, pilih Never dan klik tombol Create.

5. Sekarang, aktifkan profil daya yang telah dibuat dan isi ulang notebook sampai 100%.

6. Setelah baterai terisi penuh, cabut catu daya dan biarkan notebook idle. Saat baterai hampir habis dan minta diisi ulang, abaikan perintah tersebut. Biarkan sampai notebook mati kehabisan daya.

7. Jika proses di atas berhasil dilalui, berarti kamu sudah berhasil mengalibrasi baterai notebook. Silakan charge kembali dan gunakan seperti biasa.

selamat mencoba...Semoga BIsa Irit Batrai tanpa beli lagi kaya saya heheheh mantap Komenya ya hehhehe

KALIBRASI BATERAI LAPTOP AGAR BATRAI TAHAN LAMA

saco-indonesia.com, Banyak orang yang telah bingung ketika saat menghidupkan mesin kendaraannya tiba-tiba ngadat. Hal ini bisa telah terjadi karena berbagai hal, salah satunya adalah karena aki yang sudah tidak berfungsi dengan baik. Aki juga merupakan sumber energi yang biasanya digunakan untuk alat-alat elektronik, kendaraan dan lain sebagainya. Aki itu sendiri telah terbagi menjadi dua yaitu aki basah dan aki kering. Tentunya keduanya juga telah memiliki kelebihan dan kekurangannya sendiri-sendiri. Jika Aki basah dibutuhkan perawatan yang lebih telaten dibandingkan dengan aki kering, tetapi jika kita tahu cara merawat aki basah, maka aki basah akan mempunyai umur yang lebih lama jika dibandingkan aki kering.

Sebagai salah satu sumber kelistrikan pada kendaraan, tentunya kita juga tidak ingin aki kendaraan kita gampang mati. Karena itu disini kita akan mengulas salah satunya saja, yaitu bagaimana cara untuk merawat aki basah agar awet dan bisa dipakai dalam kurun waktu yang lama.
Cara Merawat Aki Basah Yang Benar

Langkah-langkah cara merawat aki basah :

    Anda jangan malas untuk selalu memeriksa air aki. Pemeriksaan juga bisa dilakukan secara berkala, dan air aki juga harus lebih tinggi dari batas Low dan juga berada di bawah batas Upper Level.
    Tambah air aki jika air aki sudah berkurang dan berada di bawah level Low. Gunakan air aki biasa, jangan menggunakan air aki zuur, karena air aki zuur telah digunakan saat pertama saja.
    Penambahan air aki sebaiknya pada pagi hari sebelum mesin dinyalakan.
    Penggunaan arus listrik Aki juga harus sewajarnya. Anda juga harus membatasi pemakaian arus sesuai kapasitas dari aki yang digunakan, karena jika over maka aki akan mudah mati.
    Hati-hati terhadap hubungan pendek antara kutub positif dan negatif, karena hal tersebut juga bisa menyebabkan kerusakan pada sel aki.
    Periksa katup krem yang ada di aki, jika Anda telah mendapati dalam keadaan longgar maka segera kencangkan.
    Aki yang telah mendapat goncangan terlalu keras juga dapat mempengaruhi umur aki tersebut, maka pastikan aki terlindungi dengan memperhatikan penjepit aki/braket aki tetap kokoh.
    Bersihkan aki dari debu dan berikan sedikit gemuk pada kutupnya agar tidak mudah berkarat atau berjamur.
    Periksa secara keseluruhan fisik aki, apakah ada keretakan pada fisik, plug aki yang tidak tertutup dengan baik dan juga jangan lupa memperhatikan bagian ventplug, mampet atau tidaknya.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

CARA MERAWAT AKI BASAH

Saco-Indonesia.com - Setelah perjuangan panjang, Asosiasi Televisi Jaringan Indonesia akhirnya merasa lega. Mahkamah Agung membatalkan peraturan Menteri Komunikasi dan Informatika Tifatul Sembiring soal penyelenggaraan penyiaran televisi digital terestrial penerimaan tetap tidak berbayar berisi 22 pasal mengatur tentang televisi digital.

Tetapi, para pengusaha televisi daerah ini harus kembali gigit jari. Aturan lama hanya berubah nomor menjadi aturan nomor 32 tahun 2013 dengan substansi dan isi sama dengan aturan dibatalkan Mahkamah Agung . Harapan adanya pergantian seleksi tidak terwujud. Perubahan kentara cuma pada pergantian zona layanan. Awalnya dibagi berdasarkan wilayah berganti menjadi per provinsi sesuai jumlah provinsi di Indonesia. Juga tidak ada jangka waktu penutupan kanal analog.

Artinya, para pemilik televisi lama selain menikmati frekuensi analog juga memperoleh keuntungan dari frekuensi digital. Tetapi, bagi para pemilik televisi lokal tidak terkait taipan televisi di Jakarta, harus bersiap mengalokasikan dana gede tanpa perlindungan dalam transisi analog ke digital. Bahkan, beberapa pengusaha televisi analog diminta tidak menuntut ganti rugi kepada pemerintah.

MA ( Mahkamah Agung ) menilai Permen 22 tidak sah. Kehadiran Permen 32 hanya untuk melegalkan yang ilegal, kata Ketua Asosiasi Televisi Jaringan Indonesia Bambang Santoso beberapa waktu lalu dalam diskusi problematik televisi digital.

Menurut target ditetapkan awal tahun lalu, digitalisasi dunia penyiaran dalam negeri mestinya sudah dimulai bertahap. Pada 2015, seluruh televisi saat ini menggunakan jaringan analog harus berubah ke kanal digital.

Perubahan kanal dari analog ke digital ini sebagai kesepakatan Persatuan Telekomunikasi Internasional (ITU). Pada 17 Juni 2015 seluruh dunia wajib berpindah dari penyiaran televisi analog ke penyiaran televisi digital.

Pemerintah menyiapkan sekitar 227 wilayah layanan dibagi dalam dua kategori: daerah ekonomi maju dan daerah ekonomi kurang maju. Tetapi, publik mengkritik slot kanal disediakan oleh pemerintah habis dan dinikmati oleh para pemain lama, seperti MNC Group milik Hary Tanoesoedibjo , Metro TV kepunyaan Surya Paloh , keluarga Bakrie dengan Viva Group, Elang Teknologi (SCTV dan Indosiar) dimiliki keluarga Sariaatmadja, dan Trans Corp dipunyai Chairul Tandjung .

Hitungan kasar, dalam satu wilayah layanan bisa ada ratusan televisi beroperasi. Misalnya di Jawa Barat dengan wilayah paling luas. Dengan sebelas layanan akan hadir sekitar 549 kanal. Saat ini paling tidak ada 90 pemohon kanal televisi digital di Jawa Barat.

Secara substansial, isi aturan lama dan baru tidak jauh berbeda. Semua ini memperlihatkan permen 32 mempertahankan konsentrasi kepemilikan, ujar Direktur Lembaga Pemantau Regulasi dan Regulator Media (PR2Media) Amir Effendi Siregar.

Dia mewanti-wanti Menteri Komunikasi dan Informatika Tifatul Sembiring agar dunia penyiaran diatur dengan menjamin kebebasan dan demokrasi. Aturan juga mesti berprinsip efisiensi, frekuensi emas, peningkatan kualitas, dan munculnya banyak pemain baru.

Staf Ahli Menteri Komunikasi dan Informasi Hendry Subianto menegaskan pihaknya tetap akan melanjutkan proses digitalisasi dunia penyiaran. Pemerintah menilai putusan Mahkamah Agung tidak bersifat retroaktif. Keputusan MA tersebut tidak membatalkan proses migrasi teknologi sistem televisi analog ke sistem televisi digital, tuturnya.

Pemerintah, kata dia, harus mengupayakan payung hukum bagi perkembangan teknologi agar masyarakat tidak dirugikan. Dia mengimbau masyarakat dan pelaku industri televisi tidak resah karena aturan baru menteri segera terbit.

Editor : Maulana Lee

Sumber : merdeka.com

Berebut kanal digital

saco-indonesia.com, Artis senior Ikang Fauzi tadi pagi telah mengalami kecelakaan di kilometer 84 Tol Cipularang, Jawa Barat. Mobil yang telah ditumpanginya menabrak truk hingga mengakibatkan bagian depan mobil Ikang Fauzi ringsek.

Menurut Humas RS Thamrin, Purwakarta, dokter Nesya, Ikang Fauzi tiba di RS Thamrin Purwakarta sekitar pukul 9.45 WIB pagi . "Sampai rumah sakit sekitar pukul 9.45 WIB," kata dokter Nesya, Kamis (23/1).

Menurutnya, Ikang yang telah mengalami kecelakaan di kilometer 84 Tol Cipularang telah dibawa ke RS Thamrin oleh ambulans Jasa Marga. Mengenai kondisi suami Marissa Haque tersebut, Nesya juga mengatakan saat ini sudah stabil.

"Pada saat datang ada keluhan di bagian dada dan pinggang. Pada pemeriksaan alhamdulillah gak ada yang patah sehingga saat ini di UGD sedang observasi atau istirahat dan diinfus," imbuh dokter Nesya.

Hingga saat ini, imbuhnya, belum ada keluarga yang datang untuk menjenguk. "Keluarga sampai saat ini belum datang, dan insya Allah belum ada rencana rawat inap. Mungkin nanti bisa dibawa pulang kalau keluarganya sudah datang," ujarnya.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

IKANG FAUZI DIRAWAT DI RS THAMRIN

Even as a high school student, Dave Goldberg was urging female classmates to speak up. As a young dot-com executive, he had one girlfriend after another, but fell hard for a driven friend named Sheryl Sandberg, pining after her for years. After they wed, Mr. Goldberg pushed her to negotiate hard for high compensation and arranged his schedule so that he could be home with their children when she was traveling for work.

Mr. Goldberg, who died unexpectedly on Friday, was a genial, 47-year-old Silicon Valley entrepreneur who built his latest company, SurveyMonkey, from a modest enterprise to one recently valued by investors at $2 billion. But he was also perhaps the signature male feminist of his era: the first major chief executive in memory to spur his wife to become as successful in business as he was, and an essential figure in “Lean In,” Ms. Sandberg’s blockbuster guide to female achievement.

Over the weekend, even strangers were shocked at his death, both because of his relatively young age and because they knew of him as the living, breathing, car-pooling center of a new philosophy of two-career marriage.

“They were very much the role models for what this next generation wants to grapple with,” said Debora L. Spar, the president of Barnard College. In a 2011 commencement speech there, Ms. Sandberg told the graduates that whom they married would be their most important career decision.

In the play “The Heidi Chronicles,” revived on Broadway this spring, a male character who is the founder of a media company says that “I don’t want to come home to an A-plus,” explaining that his ambitions require him to marry an unthreatening helpmeet. Mr. Goldberg grew up to hold the opposite view, starting with his upbringing in progressive Minneapolis circles where “there was woman power in every aspect of our lives,” Jeffrey Dachis, a childhood friend, said in an interview.

The Goldberg parents read “The Feminine Mystique” together — in fact, Mr. Goldberg’s father introduced it to his wife, according to Ms. Sandberg’s book. In 1976, Paula Goldberg helped found a nonprofit to aid children with disabilities. Her husband, Mel, a law professor who taught at night, made the family breakfast at home.

Later, when Dave Goldberg was in high school and his prom date, Jill Chessen, stayed silent in a politics class, he chastised her afterward. He said, “You need to speak up,” Ms. Chessen recalled in an interview. “They need to hear your voice.”

Years later, when Karin Gilford, an early employee at Launch Media, Mr. Goldberg’s digital music company, became a mother, he knew exactly what to do. He kept giving her challenging assignments, she recalled, but also let her work from home one day a week. After Yahoo acquired Launch, Mr. Goldberg became known for distributing roses to all the women in the office on Valentine’s Day.

Ms. Sandberg, who often describes herself as bossy-in-a-good-way, enchanted him when they became friendly in the mid-1990s. He “was smitten with her,” Ms. Chessen remembered. Ms. Sandberg was dating someone else, but Mr. Goldberg still hung around, even helping her and her then-boyfriend move, recalled Bob Roback, a friend and co-founder of Launch. When they finally married in 2004, friends remember thinking how similar the two were, and that the qualities that might have made Ms. Sandberg intimidating to some men drew Mr. Goldberg to her even more.

Over the next decade, Mr. Goldberg and Ms. Sandberg pioneered new ways of capturing information online, had a son and then a daughter, became immensely wealthy, and hashed out their who-does-what-in-this-marriage issues. Mr. Goldberg’s commute from the Bay Area to Los Angeles became a strain, so he relocated, later joking that he “lost the coin flip” of where they would live. He paid the bills, she planned the birthday parties, and both often left their offices at 5:30 so they could eat dinner with their children before resuming work afterward.

Friends in Silicon Valley say they were careful to conduct their careers separately, politely refusing when outsiders would ask one about the other’s work: Ms. Sandberg’s role building Facebook into an information and advertising powerhouse, and Mr. Goldberg at SurveyMonkey, which made polling faster and cheaper. But privately, their work was intertwined. He often began statements to his team with the phrase “Well, Sheryl said” sharing her business advice. He counseled her, too, starting with her salary negotiations with Mark Zuckerberg.

“I wanted Mark to really feel he stretched to get Sheryl, because she was worth it,” Mr. Goldberg explained in a 2013 “60 Minutes” interview, his Minnesota accent and his smile intact as he offered a rare peek of the intersection of marriage and money at the top of corporate life.

 

 

While his wife grew increasingly outspoken about women’s advancement, Mr. Goldberg quietly advised the men in the office on family and partnership matters, an associate said. Six out of 16 members of SurveyMonkey’s management team are female, an almost unheard-of ratio among Silicon Valley “unicorns,” or companies valued at over $1 billion.

When Mellody Hobson, a friend and finance executive, wrote a chapter of “Lean In” about women of color for the college edition of the book, Mr. Goldberg gave her feedback on the draft, a clue to his deep involvement. He joked with Ms. Hobson that she was too long-winded, like Ms. Sandberg, but aside from that, he said he loved the chapter, she said in an interview.

By then, Mr. Goldberg was a figure of fascination who inspired a “where can I get one of those?” reaction among many of the women who had read the best seller “Lean In.” Some lamented that Ms. Sandberg’s advice hinged too much on marrying a Dave Goldberg, who was humble enough to plan around his wife, attentive enough to worry about which shoes his young daughter would wear, and rich enough to help pay for the help that made the family’s balancing act manageable.

Now that he is gone, and Ms. Sandberg goes from being half of a celebrated partnership to perhaps the business world’s most prominent single mother, the pages of “Lean In” carry a new sting of loss.

“We are never at 50-50 at any given moment — perfect equality is hard to define or sustain — but we allow the pendulum to swing back and forth between us,” she wrote in 2013, adding that they were looking forward to raising teenagers together.

“Fortunately, I have Dave to figure it out with me,” she wrote.

Dave Goldberg Was Lifelong Women’s Advocate

As he reflected on the festering wounds deepened by race and grievance that have been on painful display in America’s cities lately, President Obama on Monday found himself thinking about a young man he had just met named Malachi.

A few minutes before, in a closed-door round-table discussion at Lehman College in the Bronx, Mr. Obama had asked a group of black and Hispanic students from disadvantaged backgrounds what could be done to help them reach their goals. Several talked about counseling and guidance programs.

“Malachi, he just talked about — we should talk about love,” Mr. Obama told a crowd afterward, drifting away from his prepared remarks. “Because Malachi and I shared the fact that our dad wasn’t around and that sometimes we wondered why he wasn’t around and what had happened. But really, that’s what this comes down to is: Do we love these kids?”

Many presidents have governed during times of racial tension, but Mr. Obama is the first to see in the mirror a face that looks like those on the other side of history’s ledger. While his first term was consumed with the economy, war and health care, his second keeps coming back to the societal divide that was not bridged by his election. A president who eschewed focusing on race now seems to have found his voice again as he thinks about how to use his remaining time in office and beyond.

Continue reading the main story Video
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Obama Speaks of a ‘Sense of Unfairness’

Obama Speaks of a ‘Sense of Unfairness’

At an event announcing the creation of a nonprofit focusing on young minority men, President Obama talked about the underlying reasons for recent protests in Baltimore and other cities.

By Associated Press on Publish Date May 4, 2015. Photo by Stephen Crowley/The New York Times.

In the aftermath of racially charged unrest in places like Baltimore, Ferguson, Mo., and New York, Mr. Obama came to the Bronx on Monday for the announcement of a new nonprofit organization that is being spun off from his White House initiative called My Brother’s Keeper. Staked by more than $80 million in commitments from corporations and other donors, the new group, My Brother’s Keeper Alliance, will in effect provide the nucleus for Mr. Obama’s post-presidency, which will begin in January 2017.

“This will remain a mission for me and for Michelle not just for the rest of my presidency but for the rest of my life,” Mr. Obama said. “And the reason is simple,” he added. Referring to some of the youths he had just met, he said: “We see ourselves in these young men. I grew up without a dad. I grew up lost sometimes and adrift, not having a sense of a clear path. The only difference between me and a lot of other young men in this neighborhood and all across the country is that I grew up in an environment that was a little more forgiving.”

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Organizers said the new alliance already had financial pledges from companies like American Express, Deloitte, Discovery Communications and News Corporation. The money will be used to help companies address obstacles facing young black and Hispanic men, provide grants to programs for disadvantaged youths, and help communities aid their populations.

Joe Echevarria, a former chief executive of Deloitte, the accounting and consulting firm, will lead the alliance, and among those on its leadership team or advisory group are executives at PepsiCo, News Corporation, Sprint, BET and Prudential Group Insurance; former Secretary of State Colin L. Powell; Senator Cory Booker, Democrat of New Jersey; former Attorney General Eric H. Holder Jr.; the music star John Legend; the retired athletes Alonzo Mourning, Jerome Bettis and Shaquille O’Neal; and the mayors of Indianapolis, Sacramento and Philadelphia.

The alliance, while nominally independent of the White House, may face some of the same questions confronting former Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton as she begins another presidential campaign. Some of those donating to the alliance may have interests in government action, and skeptics may wonder whether they are trying to curry favor with the president by contributing.

“The Obama administration will have no role in deciding how donations are screened and what criteria they’ll set at the alliance for donor policies, because it’s an entirely separate entity,” Josh Earnest, the White House press secretary, told reporters on Air Force One en route to New York. But he added, “I’m confident that the members of the board are well aware of the president’s commitment to transparency.”

The alliance was in the works before the disturbances last week after the death of Freddie Gray, the black man who suffered fatal injuries while in police custody in Baltimore, but it reflected the evolution of Mr. Obama’s presidency. For him, in a way, it is coming back to issues that animated him as a young community organizer and politician. It was his own struggle with race and identity, captured in his youthful memoir, “Dreams From My Father,” that stood him apart from other presidential aspirants.

But that was a side of him that he kept largely to himself through the first years of his presidency while he focused on other priorities like turning the economy around, expanding government-subsidized health care and avoiding electoral land mines en route to re-election.

After securing a second term, Mr. Obama appeared more emboldened. Just a month after his 2013 inauguration, he talked passionately about opportunity and race with a group of teenage boys in Chicago, a moment aides point to as perhaps the first time he had spoken about these issues in such a personal, powerful way as president. A few months later, he publicly lamented the death of Trayvon Martin, a black Florida teenager, saying that “could have been me 35 years ago.”

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President Obama on Monday with Darinel Montero, a student at Bronx International High School who introduced him before remarks at Lehman College in the Bronx. Credit Stephen Crowley/The New York Times

That case, along with public ruptures of anger over police shootings in Ferguson and elsewhere, have pushed the issue of race and law enforcement onto the public agenda. Aides said they imagined that with his presidency in its final stages, Mr. Obama might be thinking more about what comes next and causes he can advance as a private citizen.

That is not to say that his public discussion of these issues has been universally welcomed. Some conservatives said he had made matters worse by seeming in their view to blame police officers in some of the disputed cases.

“President Obama, when he was elected, could have been a unifying leader,” Senator Ted Cruz of Texas, a Republican candidate for president, said at a forum last week. “He has made decisions that I think have inflamed racial tensions.”

On the other side of the ideological spectrum, some liberal African-American activists have complained that Mr. Obama has not done enough to help downtrodden communities. While he is speaking out more, these critics argue, he has hardly used the power of the presidency to make the sort of radical change they say is necessary.

The line Mr. Obama has tried to straddle has been a serrated one. He condemns police brutality as he defends most officers as honorable. He condemns “criminals and thugs” who looted in Baltimore while expressing empathy with those trapped in a cycle of poverty and hopelessness.

In the Bronx on Monday, Mr. Obama bemoaned the death of Brian Moore, a plainclothes New York police officer who had died earlier in the day after being shot in the head Saturday on a Queens street. Most police officers are “good and honest and fair and care deeply about their communities,” even as they put their lives on the line, Mr. Obama said.

“Which is why in addressing the issues in Baltimore or Ferguson or New York, the point I made was that if we’re just looking at policing, we’re looking at it too narrowly,” he added. “If we ask the police to simply contain and control problems that we ourselves have been unwilling to invest and solve, that’s not fair to the communities, it’s not fair to the police.”

Moreover, if society writes off some people, he said, “that’s not the kind of country I want to live in; that’s not what America is about.”

His message to young men like Malachi Hernandez, who attends Boston Latin Academy in Massachusetts, is not to give up.

“I want you to know you matter,” he said. “You matter to us.”

Obama Finds a Bolder Voice on Race Issues

WASHINGTON — The last three men to win the Republican nomination have been the prosperous son of a president (George W. Bush), a senator who could not recall how many homes his family owned (John McCain of Arizona; it was seven) and a private equity executive worth an estimated $200 million (Mitt Romney).

The candidates hoping to be the party’s nominee in 2016 are trying to create a very different set of associations. On Sunday, Ben Carson, a retired neurosurgeon, joined the presidential field.

Senator Marco Rubio of Florida praises his parents, a bartender and a Kmart stock clerk, as he urges audiences not to forget “the workers in our hotel kitchens, the landscaping crews in our neighborhoods, the late-night janitorial staff that clean our offices.”

Gov. Scott Walker of Wisconsin, a preacher’s son, posts on Twitter about his ham-and-cheese sandwiches and boasts of his coupon-clipping frugality. His $1 Kohl’s sweater has become a campaign celebrity in its own right.

Senator Rand Paul of Kentucky laments the existence of “two Americas,” borrowing the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s phrase to describe economically and racially troubled communities like Ferguson, Mo., and Detroit.

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Senator Marco Rubio of Florida praises his parents, a bartender and a Kmart stock clerk. Credit Joe Raedle/Getty Images

“Some say, ‘But Democrats care more about the poor,’ ” Mr. Paul likes to say. “If that’s true, why is black unemployment still twice white unemployment? Why has household income declined by $3,500 over the past six years?”

We are in the midst of the Empathy Primary — the rhetorical battleground shaping the Republican presidential field of 2016.

Harmed by the perception that they favor the wealthy at the expense of middle-of-the-road Americans, the party’s contenders are each trying their hardest to get across what the elder George Bush once inelegantly told recession-battered voters in 1992: “Message: I care.”

Their ability to do so — less bluntly, more sincerely — could prove decisive in an election year when power, privilege and family connections will loom large for both parties.

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Questions of understanding and compassion cost Republicans in the last election. Mr. Romney, who memorably dismissed the “47 percent” of Americans as freeloaders, lost to President Obama by 63 percentage points among voters who cast their ballots for the candidate who “cares about people like me,” according to exit polls.

And a Pew poll from February showed that people still believe Republicans are indifferent to working Americans: 54 percent said the Republican Party does not care about the middle class.

That taint of callousness explains why Senator Ted Cruz of Texas declared last week that Republicans “are and should be the party of the 47 percent” — and why another son of a president, Jeb Bush, has made economic opportunity the centerpiece of his message.

With his pedigree and considerable wealth — since he left the Florida governor’s office almost a decade ago he has earned millions of dollars sitting on corporate boards and advising banks — Mr. Bush probably has the most complicated task making the argument to voters that he understands their concerns.

On a visit last week to Puerto Rico, Mr. Bush sounded every bit the populist, railing against “elites” who have stifled economic growth and innovation. In the kind of economy he envisions leading, he said: “We wouldn’t have the middle being squeezed. People in poverty would have a chance to rise up. And the social strains that exist — because the haves and have-nots is the big debate in our country today — would subside.”

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Who Is Running for President (and Who’s Not)?

Republicans’ emphasis on poorer and working-class Americans now represents a shift from the party’s longstanding focus on business owners and “job creators” as the drivers of economic opportunity.

This is intentional, Republican operatives said.

In the last presidential election, Republicans rushed to defend business owners against what they saw as hostility by Democrats to successful, wealthy entrepreneurs.

“Part of what you had was a reaction to the Democrats’ dehumanization of business owners: ‘Oh, you think you started your plumbing company? No you didn’t,’ ” said Grover Norquist, the conservative activist and president of Americans for Tax Reform.

But now, Mr. Norquist said, Republicans should move past that. “Focus on the people in the room who know someone who couldn’t get a job, or a promotion, or a raise because taxes are too high or regulations eat up companies’ time,” he said. “The rich guy can take care of himself.”

Democrats argue that the public will ultimately see through such an approach because Republican positions like opposing a minimum-wage increase and giving private banks a larger role in student loans would hurt working Americans.

“If Republican candidates are just repeating the same tired policies, I’m not sure that smiling while saying it is going to be enough,” said Guy Cecil, a Democratic strategist who is joining a “super PAC” working on behalf of Hillary Rodham Clinton.

Republicans have already attacked Mrs. Clinton over the wealth and power she and her husband have accumulated, caricaturing her as an out-of-touch multimillionaire who earns hundreds of thousands of dollars per speech and has not driven a car since 1996.

Mr. Walker hit this theme recently on Fox News, pointing to Mrs. Clinton’s lucrative book deals and her multiple residences. “This is not someone who is connected with everyday Americans,” he said. His own net worth, according to The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, is less than a half-million dollars; Mr. Walker also owes tens of thousands of dollars on his credit cards.

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But showing off a cheap sweater or boasting of a bootstraps family background not only helps draw a contrast with Mrs. Clinton’s latter-day affluence, it is also an implicit argument against Mr. Bush.

Mr. Walker, who featured a 1998 Saturn with more than 100,000 miles on the odometer in a 2010 campaign ad during his first run for governor, likes to talk about flipping burgers at McDonald’s as a young person. His mother, he has said, grew up on a farm with no indoor plumbing until she was in high school.

Mr. Rubio, among the least wealthy members of the Senate, with an estimated net worth of around a half-million dollars, uses his working-class upbringing as evidence of the “exceptionalism” of America, “where even the son of a bartender and a maid can have the same dreams and the same future as those who come from power and privilege.”

Mr. Cruz alludes to his family’s dysfunction — his parents, he says, were heavy drinkers — and recounts his father’s tale of fleeing Cuba with $100 sewn into his underwear.

Gov. Chris Christie of New Jersey notes that his father paid his way through college working nights at an ice cream plant.

But sometimes the attempts at projecting authenticity can seem forced. Mr. Christie recently found himself on the defensive after telling a New Hampshire audience, “I don’t consider myself a wealthy man.” Tax returns showed that he and his wife, a longtime Wall Street executive, earned nearly $700,000 in 2013.

The story of success against the odds is a political classic, even if it is one the Republican Party has not been able to tell for a long time. Ronald Reagan liked to say that while he had not been born on the wrong side of the tracks, he could always hear the whistle. Richard Nixon was fond of reminding voters how he was born in a house his father had built.

“Probably the idea that is most attractive to an average voter, and an idea that both Republicans and Democrats try to craft into their messages, is this idea that you can rise from nothing,” said Charles C. W. Cooke, a writer for National Review.

There is a certain delight Republicans take in turning that message to their advantage now.

“That’s what Obama did with Hillary,” Mr. Cooke said. “He acknowledged it openly: ‘This is ridiculous. Look at me, this one-term senator with dark skin and all of America’s unsolved racial problems, running against the wife of the last Democratic president.”

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Ms. Meadows was the older sister of Audrey Meadows, who played Alice Kramden on “The Honeymooners.”

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Imagine an elite professional services firm with a high-performing, workaholic culture. Everyone is expected to turn on a dime to serve a client, travel at a moment’s notice, and be available pretty much every evening and weekend. It can make for a grueling work life, but at the highest levels of accounting, law, investment banking and consulting firms, it is just the way things are.

Except for one dirty little secret: Some of the people ostensibly turning in those 80- or 90-hour workweeks, particularly men, may just be faking it.

Many of them were, at least, at one elite consulting firm studied by Erin Reid, a professor at Boston University’s Questrom School of Business. It’s impossible to know if what she learned at that unidentified consulting firm applies across the world of work more broadly. But her research, published in the academic journal Organization Science, offers a way to understand how the professional world differs between men and women, and some of the ways a hard-charging culture that emphasizes long hours above all can make some companies worse off.

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Credit Peter Arkle

Ms. Reid interviewed more than 100 people in the American offices of a global consulting firm and had access to performance reviews and internal human resources documents. At the firm there was a strong culture around long hours and responding to clients promptly.

“When the client needs me to be somewhere, I just have to be there,” said one of the consultants Ms. Reid interviewed. “And if you can’t be there, it’s probably because you’ve got another client meeting at the same time. You know it’s tough to say I can’t be there because my son had a Cub Scout meeting.”

Some people fully embraced this culture and put in the long hours, and they tended to be top performers. Others openly pushed back against it, insisting upon lighter and more flexible work hours, or less travel; they were punished in their performance reviews.

The third group is most interesting. Some 31 percent of the men and 11 percent of the women whose records Ms. Reid examined managed to achieve the benefits of a more moderate work schedule without explicitly asking for it.

They made an effort to line up clients who were local, reducing the need for travel. When they skipped work to spend time with their children or spouse, they didn’t call attention to it. One team on which several members had small children agreed among themselves to cover for one another so that everyone could have more flexible hours.

A male junior manager described working to have repeat consulting engagements with a company near enough to his home that he could take care of it with day trips. “I try to head out by 5, get home at 5:30, have dinner, play with my daughter,” he said, adding that he generally kept weekend work down to two hours of catching up on email.

Despite the limited hours, he said: “I know what clients are expecting. So I deliver above that.” He received a high performance review and a promotion.

What is fascinating about the firm Ms. Reid studied is that these people, who in her terminology were “passing” as workaholics, received performance reviews that were as strong as their hyper-ambitious colleagues. For people who were good at faking it, there was no real damage done by their lighter workloads.

It calls to mind the episode of “Seinfeld” in which George Costanza leaves his car in the parking lot at Yankee Stadium, where he works, and gets a promotion because his boss sees the car and thinks he is getting to work earlier and staying later than anyone else. (The strategy goes awry for him, and is not recommended for any aspiring partners in a consulting firm.)

A second finding is that women, particularly those with young children, were much more likely to request greater flexibility through more formal means, such as returning from maternity leave with an explicitly reduced schedule. Men who requested a paternity leave seemed to be punished come review time, and so may have felt more need to take time to spend with their families through those unofficial methods.

The result of this is easy to see: Those specifically requesting a lighter workload, who were disproportionately women, suffered in their performance reviews; those who took a lighter workload more discreetly didn’t suffer. The maxim of “ask forgiveness, not permission” seemed to apply.

It would be dangerous to extrapolate too much from a study at one firm, but Ms. Reid said in an interview that since publishing a summary of her research in Harvard Business Review she has heard from people in a variety of industries describing the same dynamic.

High-octane professional service firms are that way for a reason, and no one would doubt that insane hours and lots of travel can be necessary if you’re a lawyer on the verge of a big trial, an accountant right before tax day or an investment banker advising on a huge merger.

But the fact that the consultants who quietly lightened their workload did just as well in their performance reviews as those who were truly working 80 or more hours a week suggests that in normal times, heavy workloads may be more about signaling devotion to a firm than really being more productive. The person working 80 hours isn’t necessarily serving clients any better than the person working 50.

In other words, maybe the real problem isn’t men faking greater devotion to their jobs. Maybe it’s that too many companies reward the wrong things, favoring the illusion of extraordinary effort over actual productivity.

How Some Men Fake an 80-Hour Workweek, and Why It Matters

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From sea to shining sea, or at least from one side of the Hudson to the other, politicians you have barely heard of are being accused of wrongdoing. There were so many court proceedings involving public officials on Monday that it was hard to keep up.

In Newark, two underlings of Gov. Chris Christie were arraigned on charges that they were in on the truly deranged plot to block traffic leading onto the George Washington Bridge.

Ten miles away, in Lower Manhattan, Dean G. Skelos, the leader of the New York State Senate, and his son, Adam B. Skelos, were arrested by the Federal Bureau of Investigation on accusations of far more conventional political larceny, involving a job with a sewer company for the son and commissions on title insurance and bond work.

The younger man managed to receive a 150 percent pay increase from the sewer company even though, as he said on tape, he “literally knew nothing about water or, you know, any of that stuff,” according to a criminal complaint the United States attorney’s office filed.

The success of Adam Skelos, 32, was attributed by prosecutors to his father’s influence as the leader of the Senate and as a potentate among state Republicans. The indictment can also be read as one of those unfailingly sad tales of a father who cannot stop indulging a grown son. The senator himself is not alleged to have profited from the schemes, except by being relieved of the burden of underwriting Adam.

The bridge traffic caper is its own species of crazy; what distinguishes the charges against the two Skeloses is the apparent absence of a survival instinct. It is one thing not to know anything about water or that stuff. More remarkable, if true, is the fact that the sewer machinations continued even after the former New York Assembly speaker, Sheldon Silver, was charged in January with taking bribes disguised as fees.

It was by then common gossip in political and news media circles that Senator Skelos, a Republican, the counterpart in the Senate to Mr. Silver, a Democrat, in the Assembly, could be next in line for the criminal dock. “Stay tuned,” the United States attorney, Preet Bharara said, leaving not much to the imagination.

Even though the cat had been unmistakably belled, Skelos father and son continued to talk about how to advance the interests of the sewer company, though the son did begin to use a burner cellphone, the kind people pay for in cash, with no traceable contracts.

That was indeed prudent, as prosecutors had been wiretapping the cellphones of both men. But it would seem that the burner was of limited value, because by then the prosecutors had managed to secure the help of a business executive who agreed to record calls with the Skeloses. It would further seem that the business executive was more attentive to the perils of pending investigations than the politician.

Through the end of the New York State budget negotiations in March, the hopes of the younger Skelos rested on his father’s ability to devise legislation that would benefit the sewer company. That did not pan out. But Senator Skelos did boast that he had haggled with Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo, a Democrat, in a successful effort to raise a $150 million allocation for Long Island to $550 million, for what the budget called “transformative economic development projects.” It included money for the kind of work done by the sewer company.

The lawyer for Adam Skelos said he was not guilty and would win in court. Senator Skelos issued a ringing declaration that he was unequivocally innocent.

THIS was also the approach taken in New Jersey by Bill Baroni, a man of great presence and eloquence who stopped outside the federal courthouse to note that he had taken risks as a Republican by bucking his party to support paid family leave, medical marijuana and marriage equality. “I would never risk my career, my job, my reputation for something like this,” Mr. Baroni said. “I am an innocent man.”

The lawyer for his co-defendant, Bridget Anne Kelly, the former deputy chief of staff to Mr. Christie, a Republican, said that she would strongly rebut the charges.

Perhaps they had nothing to do with the lane closings. But neither Mr. Baroni nor Ms. Kelly addressed the question of why they did not return repeated calls from the mayor of Fort Lee, N.J., begging them to stop the traffic tie-ups, over three days.

That silence was a low moment. But perhaps New York hit bottom faster. Senator Skelos, the prosecutors charged, arranged to meet Long Island politicians at the wake of Wenjian Liu, a New York City police officer shot dead in December, to press for payments to the company employing his son.

Sometimes it seems as though for some people, the only thing to be ashamed of is shame itself.

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Frontline  An installment of this PBS program looks at the effects of Ebola on Liberia and other countries, as well as the origins of the outbreak.
Frontline

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The program traces the outbreak to its origin, thought to be a tree full of bats in Guinea.

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