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Besi Beton tentu bukan istilah yang asing lagi di telinga kita? Namun walaupun sering mendengarnya, seringkali kita tidak bisa menjelaskan dengan baik pengertian dari istilah besi beton tersebut.

Besi beton berbeda dengan besi – besi biasa. Besi beton adalah besi yang biasa digunakan untuk penulangan dalam konstruksi beton atau yang biasa dikenal dengan sebutan beton bertulang. Besi beton ini telah memiliki peran yang sangat penting dalam sebuah konstruksi. Beton pada prinsipnya telah mempunyai kekuatan yang terbatas untuk memikul beban. Oleh sebab itu, penulangan pada beton biasanya ditambah dengan beso beton agar konstruksinya menjadi lebih kuat dan akhirnya dapat memikul beban – beban atau gaya yang bekerja sehingga dikenal istilah beton bertulang.

Munculnya istilah beton bertulang karena terdiri dari dua material dalam instrumen pembuatannya yaitu beton dan besi tulangan. Fungsi tulangan dalam beton bertulang adalah untuk dapat menahan gaya atau tegangan tarik yang bekerja pada konstruksi.

Besi beton telah terdiri dari dua macam yaitu besi ulir dan besi dengan bentuk polos. Pada besi bentuk polos, bentuk penampangnya tidak bersirip, permukaannya lincin, dan berbentuk bundar. Sedangkan untuk jenis besi ulir identik dengan bentuk bersirip yang memanjang dengan pola tertentu. Pola tersebut bisa bermacam – macam, bisa sesuai dengan pilihan pola pada proses pembuatannya.

Besi beton sebenarnya bukan hal yang baru lagi dalam dunia konstruksi karena besi beton sudah digunakan sejak tahun 1950 sebagai elemen utama untuk pembangunan gedung – gedung tinggi. Pada awal abad ke-20, banyak gedung – gedung tinggi di Amerika yang menggunakan baja profil dalam struktur utamanya. Pada tahun 50an, konstruksi beton baru mulai ikut ambil bagian dalam konstruksi gedung tinggi.

Sementara itu, di Indonesia sendiri, besi beton biasa digunakan sebagai inti untuk pembangunan gedung karena besi beton lebih mudah didapat dan lebih ekonomis daripada konstruksi lainnya. Saat ini besi beton merupakan bahan yang paling penting dalam konstruksi karena digunakan dalam berbagai macam bentuk misalnya untuk jembatan, drainase, dinding penahan tanah, bendungan, bangunan, dll.

PENGERTIAN DAN FUNGSI BESI BETON

saco-indonesia.com, Meski masih berstatus awas di radius 10 kilometer, aktivitas Gunung Kelud pada 00.00 dinihari WIB hingga 06.00 pagi WIB, hari ini (18/2), telah terpantau normal. Namun, potensi lahar dingin masih telah menjadi ancaman bagi warga yang berada di sekitar bantaran sungai.

Dari pantauan Pos Pantau Gunung Kelud di Desa Sugihwaras, Dusun Margomulyo, Kecamatan Ngancar, Kabupaten Kediri, Jawa Timur, kondisi cuaca di atas gunung setinggi 1.731 mdpl dari permukaan air laut itu, berawan. Sedangkan embusan angin bertiup ke arah selatan. Suhu telah terpantau berkisar 19 hingga 21 derajat celsius dengan kelembapan udara 29 persen.

Untuk kegempaan, kata Kepala Pos Pantau Gunung Kelud di Desa Sugihwaras, Khoirul Huda, aktivitas tremor-nya telah terpantau berkekuatan 0,5 hingga 1 milimeter, amplitudo maksimal 0,5 hingga 1, kemudian satu kali gempa tektonik dan satu kali tektonik jauh.

"Meski aktivitas gunung terpantau normal, status Kelud masih awas. Sehingga, semua aktivitas di radius 10 kilometer masih tetap harus dikosongkan," terang Khoirul di Pos Pantau Gunung Kelud, Selasa (18/2).

Dia juga telah mengungkap, potensi ancaman lahar dingin pasca-erupsi Kelud, Kamis malam lalu, bisa terjadi di 28 sungai yang berada di wilayah Kabupaten Blitar dan enam sungai di Kabupaten Kediri.

"Ada banyak aliran sungai di Gunung Kelud, yang telah menjadi aliran lahar dingin. Hanya kita mengimbau kepada masyarakat di sepanjang bantaran sungai untuk tetap waspada jika melihat awan gelap di atas Kelud. Warga yang beraktivitas di bantaran sungai, harus mewaspadai awan gelap yang berpotensi bahaya lahar dingin," tandas dia mengimbau.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

AKTIVITAS GUNUNG KELUD HARI INI NORMAL

saco-indonesi.com, Mobil Toyota Avanza yang dipacu dengan kecepatan tinggi sebelum 'terbang' dan tenggelam masuk Kalimalang. Awalnya mobil melaju di jalan mulus sebelum oleng di jalan rusak berlubang.

Menurut saksi mata Kardi, peristiwa tersebut telah terjadi Kamis (23) pukul 23.00 WIB malam. Sang sopir juga hendak mengantarkan mobil baru itu ke konsumen. Saat melewati Jalan Kalimalang tepatnya seberang Mal Grand Metropolitan, sopir yang belum dapat diketahui identitasnya telah memacu kendaraan dengan kecepatan yang tinggi.

Saat itu sopir melewati bagian jalan yang sudah dibeton. Tetapi sopir tak sadar di depan jalan beton itu ada turunan dan lantas disambut jalan rusak berlubang. Sopir kaget dan tak bisa menguasai keadaan.

"Mobil oleng ke kiri lantas terbang menabrak pagar dan tenggelam masuk Kalimalang. Sopir juga bisa berenang menyelamatkan diri," kata Kardi.

Saat ini petugas juga masih harus berusaha mencari mobil yang hilang dengan menyisir kali menggunakan perahu karet.

Seperti yang telah diketahui, mobil Toyota Avanza melaju dengan kencang dari arah Bekasi menuju Jakarta. Namun tiba-tiba mobil oleng menabrak pagar besi dan terbang masuk ke Kalimalang. Dalam peristiwa mengerikan itu pengemudi berhasil menyelamatkan diri dengan berenang


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

SEBELUM 'TERBANG' KE KALIMALANG, AVANZA HANTAM JALAN RUSAK

 

            Pada awal kehidaupan manusia, sampah belum menjadi masalah, tetapi dangan bertambahnya penduduk di mana ruang tetap, semakin hari maslahnya semakin besar. Hal ini jelas bila kita melihat moderenissasi kehidupan, perkembangan teknologi, sehingga meningkatkan aktivitas manusia. Sehubungan dengaan kegiatan manusia, maka permasalahan sampah akan berkaitan baik dari segi social ekonomi maupun budaya.
            Kesehatan seorang maupun masyarakat merupakan masalah social yang selalu berkaitan antara komponen-komponen yang ada dalam masyarakat. Sampah bila dapat diamankan tidak menjadi potensi yang berpengaruh terhadap lingkungan. Namun demikian sebagaimana telah diutarakan di atas, bahwa sampah yang dikelola tidak berada pada tempat yang menjamin keamanan lingkungan, sehingga mempunyai dampak terhadap kesehatan lingkungan. Sampah yang tidak dikelola dengan baik ini akan menjadi bermacam-macam fungsinya, Antara lain :
1.      Sebagai sarana penularana penyakit. Hal ini timbbul karena sampah basah (garbage) dapat menjadi tempat bersarangnya  dan berkembangbiaknya dari bermacam-macam Vektor penularan penyakit. Vektor yang dimaksud adalah: lalat, Kecoak, nyamuk, dan tikus.
·         Kebiasaan lalat: Lalat biasa hidup di tempat-tempat yang kotor dan tertarik akan bau yang busuk. Benda-benda yang ber bau busuk juga merupakan makanan lalat. Sampah, terutama sampah basah, cepat berbau busuk, sehingga merupakan tempat berkembangbiak dan tempat makanan lalat.
·         Kebiasaan kecoak: Kecoak senang tinggal di tempat-tempat yang lembab, berbau, dan keadaan gelap. Tumpukan sampah yang lembab, berbau, dan terdapat banyak celah-celah yang gelap merupakan tempat berkembang biaknya kecoak. Lalat  dan kecoak merupakan vector penularan penyakit saluran pencernaan (perut) seperti: diseentri, basiller, disentri amoeba, cholera, typhus abdominalis, diare karena bakteri, dsb.
·         Kebiasaan nyamuk: Nyamuk khususnya nyamuk aedes dan culex suka bersarang pada genangan air. Sampah dari barang- barang seperti kaleng, kantong plastic, pecahan gelas/botol menjadi tempat genagan air jika hujan turun, tempat ini sangat disenangi nyamuk aedes sebagai tempat ber kembangnya. Nyamuk merupakan vector penularan penyakit demam berdarah, kaki gajah, dan malaria.
·         Kebiasaan tikus: Tikus umumnya suka bersarang pada tempat yang banyak makanan, tempat-tempat yag lembab, dan celah-celaj yang gelap sebagai tempat persembunyiannya. Sampah basah masih banyak mengandung sisa makanan, agak lembab, dan terdapat celah-celah untuk bersembunyi edari ancama musuh tikus. Oleh karenanya tikus suka bersarang di tempat pembuangan sampah. Tikus merupakan vector penularan pes.
2.      Di samping penularan penyakit infeksi saluran pencernaan, di dalam tumpukan sampah basah kadang-kadang mengandung telur cacing. Apabila sampah basah ini diberikan untuk pakan ternak seperti babi tanpa dimasak terlebih dahulu, maka babi tersebut dapat terjangkit penyakit cacingan misalnya Trichinosis, penyababnya adalah cacing Trichinella spiralis. Jika daging babi tersebut tidak sempurna memasaknya kemudian dikonsumsi oleh manusia, maka manusia pun dapat terjangkit penyakit cacing Trichinella.
3.      Dari sampah juga juga dapat menjadi penyabab penyakit lain seperti penyakit kulit dan jamur.
4.      Kemudian selain itu, dampak dari pembuangan sampah yang tidak memenuhi syarat keamanan lingkungan dan kesehatan, misalnya membuang sampah secara sembarangan akan mengakibatkan pencemaran lingkungan meliputi pencemaran tanah, air, dan udara. Sampah-sampah yang dibuang sebagian besar merupakan sampah organic. Bahan-bahan organic ini mengalami pembusukan secara biologis oleh jasad-jasad renik/mikroba yang bersifat aerobic. Selain itu juga terjadi proses pembusukan sampah organic berlangsung secara anaerobic yang berlangsung lama dan akhirnya akan dapat menghasilkan humus yang sangat berguna untuk penyuburran tanah dan perbaikan kondisi tanah. Namun dampak negatifnya lebih banyak, di mana:
·         Sampah-sampah plastic, pecahan kaca, karet, dan bahan-bahan yang sukar membusuk akan mencemari tanah sehingga dalam waktu lama tidak dapat ditanami lagi (lahan kritis).
·         Hasil proses pembusukan sampah oleh jasad renik menghasilkan gas-gas seperti: CO2, H2S, CH4, dan NH3, maka udara tercemar oleh gas-gas tersebut dan menimbulkan bau yang tidak sedap. Disamping itu, jika ada sampah yang terbakar maka asap-asap yang mengepul ke udara mencemari udara kaena adanya gas CO2 danCO.
·         Air rembesan hasil dari proses pembusukan saampah akan mengalami perporasi yang mengandung bahan terlarut yang dapat berbahaya untuk kesehatan, dapat mencemari air tanah, serta badab-badan air yang berada dekat dengan tempat pembuangan akhir sampah apabila tidak dilakukan pengawasan yang baik.
      5. Hasil pembusukan sampah dapt juga menggangu keseimbangan ekosistem, terjadinya              &nb sp;              penyuburan pada badan-badan air karena menerima nutrien-nutrien hasil pembusukan sampah memungkinkan terjadinya ledakan populasi tumbuhan air seperti eceng gondok dan akan mengganggu biota lain.
 
 
source : http://hizbussalam.blogspot.com
HUBUNGAN SAMPAH DAN KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT

Sudah satu tahun KakaoTalk hadir di Indonesia dan aplikasi chatting ini mengungkapkan jika mereka telah miliki 15 juta pengguna di Indonesia.

Seperti dilansir TechinAsia (21/1), keberhasilan KakoTalk dalam mendapatkan 15 juta pengguna yang ter-registrasi ini juga tidak lepas dari pesatnya pertumbuhan pengguna KakaoTalk dari handset iPhone di Indonesia.

Berdasarkan lansiran tersebut, tercatat dalam satu bulan terakhir pengguna KakaoTalk yang berbasis iOS naik pesat dengan mencapai persentase hingga 320 persen.

Keberhasilan KakaoTalk menaikkan jumlah penggunanya di Indonesia ini juga merupakan hasil dari bentuk promosi mereka seperti memberikan voucher gratis ke restoran cepat saji ataupun bioskop.

Sayangnya, meskipun tercatat mengalami kenaikan jumlah pengguna, namun untuk saat ini KakaoTalk masih harus mengakui keunggulan aplikasi chatting lain seperti BBM, WhatsApp, Line, maupun WeChat yang memiliki jumlah pengguna lebih banyak.

KAKAOTALK TELAH MEMILIKI 15 JUTA PENGGUNA DI INDONESIA
Joseph Lechleider

Mr. Lechleider helped invent DSL technology, which enabled phone companies to offer high-speed web access over their infrastructure of copper wires.

Joseph Lechleider, a Father of the DSL Internet Technology, Dies at 82
Children playing last week in Sandtown-Winchester, the Baltimore neighborhood where Freddie Gray was raised. One young resident called it “a tough community.”
Todd Heisler/The New York Times

Children playing last week in Sandtown-Winchester, the Baltimore neighborhood where Freddie Gray was raised. One young resident called it “a tough community.”

Hard but Hopeful Home to ‘Lot of Freddies’

Hard but Hopeful Home to ‘Lot of Freddies’

Judge Patterson helped to protect the rights of Attica inmates after the prison riot in 1971 and later served on the Federal District Court in Manhattan.

Robert Patterson Jr., Lawyer and Judge Who Fought for the Accused, Dies at 91

UNITED NATIONS — Wearing pinstripes and a pince-nez, Staffan de Mistura, the United Nations envoy for Syria, arrived at the Security Council one Tuesday afternoon in February and announced that President Bashar al-Assad had agreed to halt airstrikes over Aleppo. Would the rebels, Mr. de Mistura suggested, agree to halt their shelling?

What he did not announce, but everyone knew by then, was that the Assad government had begun a military offensive to encircle opposition-held enclaves in Aleppo and that fierce fighting was underway. It would take only a few days for rebel leaders, having pushed back Syrian government forces, to outright reject Mr. de Mistura’s proposed freeze in the fighting, dooming the latest diplomatic overture on Syria.

Diplomacy is often about appearing to be doing something until the time is ripe for a deal to be done.

 

 

Now, with Mr. Assad’s forces having suffered a string of losses on the battlefield and the United States reaching at least a partial rapprochement with Mr. Assad’s main backer, Iran, Mr. de Mistura is changing course. Starting Monday, he is set to hold a series of closed talks in Geneva with the warring sides and their main supporters. Iran will be among them.

In an interview at United Nations headquarters last week, Mr. de Mistura hinted that the changing circumstances, both military and diplomatic, may have prompted various backers of the war to question how much longer the bloodshed could go on.

“Will that have an impact in accelerating the willingness for a political solution? We need to test it,” he said. “The Geneva consultations may be a good umbrella for testing that. It’s an occasion for asking everyone, including the government, if there is any new way that they are looking at a political solution, as they too claim they want.”

He said he would have a better assessment at the end of June, when he expects to wrap up his consultations. That coincides with the deadline for a final agreement in the Iran nuclear talks.

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Whether a nuclear deal with Iran will pave the way for a new opening on peace talks in Syria remains to be seen. Increasingly, though, world leaders are explicitly linking the two, with the European Union’s top diplomat, Federica Mogherini, suggesting last week that a nuclear agreement could spur Tehran to play “a major but positive role in Syria.”

It could hardly come soon enough. Now in its fifth year, the Syrian war has claimed 220,000 lives, prompted an exodus of more than three million refugees and unleashed jihadist groups across the region. “This conflict is producing a question mark in many — where is it leading and whether this can be sustained,” Mr. de Mistura said.

Part Italian, part Swedish, Mr. de Mistura has worked with the United Nations for more than 40 years, but he is more widely known for his dapper style than for any diplomatic coups. Syria is by far the toughest assignment of his career — indeed, two of the organization’s most seasoned diplomats, Lakhdar Brahimi and Kofi Annan, tried to do the job and gave up — and critics have wondered aloud whether Mr. de Mistura is up to the task.

He served as a United Nations envoy in Afghanistan and Iraq, and before that in Lebanon, where a former minister recalled, with some scorn, that he spent many hours sunbathing at a private club in the hills above Beirut. Those who know him say he has a taste for fine suits and can sometimes speak too soon and too much, just as they point to his diplomatic missteps and hyperbole.

They cite, for instance, a news conference in October, when he raised the specter of Srebrenica, where thousands of Muslims were massacred in 1995 during the Balkans war, in warning that the Syrian border town of Kobani could fall to the Islamic State. In February, he was photographed at a party in Damascus, the Syrian capital, celebrating the anniversary of the Iranian revolution just as Syrian forces, aided by Iran, were pummeling rebel-held suburbs of Damascus; critics seized on that as evidence of his coziness with the government.

Mouin Rabbani, who served briefly as the head of Mr. de Mistura’s political affairs unit and has since emerged as one of his most outspoken critics, said Mr. de Mistura did not have the background necessary for the job. “This isn’t someone well known for his political vision or political imagination, and his closest confidants lack the requisite knowledge and experience,” Mr. Rabbani said.

As a deputy foreign minister in the Italian government, Mr. de Mistura was tasked in 2012 with freeing two Italian marines detained in India for shooting at Indian fishermen. He made 19 trips to India, to little effect. One marine was allowed to return to Italy for medical reasons; the other remains in India.

He said he initially turned down the Syria job when the United Nations secretary general approached him last August, only to change his mind the next day, after a sleepless, guilt-ridden night.

Mr. de Mistura compared his role in Syria to that of a doctor faced with a terminally ill patient. His goal in brokering a freeze in the fighting, he said, was to alleviate suffering. He settled on Aleppo as the location for its “fame,” he said, a decision that some questioned, considering that Aleppo was far trickier than the many other lesser-known towns where activists had negotiated temporary local cease-fires.

“Everybody, at least in Europe, are very familiar with the value of Aleppo,” Mr. de Mistura said. “So I was using that as an icebreaker.”

The cease-fire negotiations, to which he had devoted six months, fell apart quickly because of the government’s military offensive in Aleppo the very day of his announcement at the Security Council. Privately, United Nations diplomats said Mr. de Mistura had been manipulated. To this, Mr. de Mistura said only that he was “disappointed and concerned.”

Tarek Fares, a former rebel fighter, said after a recent visit to Aleppo that no Syrian would admit publicly to supporting Mr. de Mistura’s cease-fire proposal. “If anyone said they went to a de Mistura meeting in Gaziantep, they would be arrested,” is how he put it, referring to the Turkish city where negotiations between the two sides were held.

Secretary General Ban Ki-moon remains staunchly behind Mr. de Mistura’s efforts. His defenders point out that he is at the center of one of the world’s toughest diplomatic problems, charged with mediating a conflict in which two of the world’s most powerful nations — Russia, which supports Mr. Assad, and the United States, which has called for his ouster — remain deadlocked.

R. Nicholas Burns, a former State Department official who now teaches at Harvard, credited Mr. de Mistura for trying to negotiate a cease-fire even when the chances of success were exceedingly small — and the chances of a political deal even smaller. For his efforts to work, Professor Burns argued, the world powers will first have to come to an agreement of their own.

“He needs the help of outside powers,” he said. “It starts with backers of Assad. That’s Russia and Iran. De Mistura is there, waiting.”

With Iran Talks, a Tangled Path to Ending Syria’s War

Ms. Turner and her twin sister founded the Love Kitchen in 1986 in a church basement in Knoxville, Tenn., and it continues to provide clothing and meals.

Ellen Turner Dies at 87; Opened Kitchen to Feed the Needy of Knoxville

A former member of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Mr. Smedvig helped found the wide-ranging Empire Brass quintet.

Rolf Smedvig, Trumpeter in the Empire Brass, Dies at 62

Since a white police officer, Darren Wilson fatally shot unarmed black teenager, Michael Brown, in a confrontation last August in Ferguson, Mo., there have been many other cases in which the police have shot and killed suspects, some of them unarmed. Mr. Brown's death set off protests throughout the country, pushing law enforcement into the spotlight and sparking a public debate on police tactics. Here is a selection of police shootings that have been reported by news organizations since Mr. Brown's death. In some cases, investigations are continuing.

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The apartment complex northeast of Atlanta where Anthony Hill, 27, was fatally shot by a DeKalb County police officer. Credit Ben Gray/Atlanta Journal Constitution

Chamblee, Ga.
Fatal Police Shootings: Accounts Since Ferguson

The live music at the Vice Media party on Friday shook the room. Shane Smith, Vice’s chief executive, was standing near the stage — with a drink in his hand, pants sagging, tattoos showing — watching the rapper-cum-chef Action Bronson make pizzas.

The event was an after-party, a happy-hour bacchanal for the hundreds of guests who had come for Vice’s annual presentation to advertisers and agencies that afternoon, part of the annual frenzy for ad dollars called the Digital Content NewFronts. Mr. Smith had spoken there for all of five minutes before running a slam-bang highlight reel of the company’s shows that had titles like “Weediquette” and “Gaycation.”

In the last year, Vice has secured $500 million in financing and signed deals worth hundreds of millions of dollars with established media companies like HBO that are eager to engage the young viewers Vice attracts. Vice said it was now worth at least $4 billion, with nearly $1 billion in projected revenue for 2015. It is a long way from Vice’s humble start as a free magazine in 1994.

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At the Vice after-party, the rapper Action Bronson, a host of a Vice show, made a pizza. Credit Jesse Dittmar for The New York Times

But even as cash flows freely in Vice’s direction, the company is trying to keep its brash, insurgent image. At the party on Friday, it plied guests with beers and cocktails. Its apparently unrehearsed presentation to advertisers was peppered with expletives. At one point, the director Spike Jonze, a longtime Vice collaborator, asked on stage if Mr. Smith had been drinking.

“My assistant tried to cut me off,” Mr. Smith replied. “I’m on buzz control.”

Now, Vice is on the verge of getting its own cable channel, which would give the company a traditional outlet for its slate of non-news programming. If all goes as planned, A&E Networks, the television group owned by Hearst and Disney, will turn over its History Channel spinoff, H2, to Vice.

The deal’s announcement was expected last week, but not all of A&E’s distribution partners — the cable and satellite TV companies that carry the network’s channels — have signed off on the change, according to a person familiar with the negotiations who spoke on the condition of anonymity because the talks were private.

A cable channel would be a further step in a transformation for Vice, from bad-boy digital upstart to mainstream media company.

Keen for the core audience of young men who come to Vice, media giants like 21st Century Fox, Time Warner and Disney all showed interest in the company last year. Vice ultimately secured $500 million in financing from A&E Networks and Technology Crossover Ventures, a Silicon Valley venture capital firm that has invested in Facebook and Netflix.

Those investments valued Vice at more than $2.5 billion. (In 2013, Fox bought a 5 percent stake for $70 million.)

Then in March, HBO announced that it had signed a multiyear deal to broadcast a daily half-hour Vice newscast. Vice already produces a weekly newsmagazine show, called “Vice,” for the network. That show will extend its run through 2018, with an increase to 35 episodes a year, from 14.

Michael Lombardo, HBO’s president for programming, said when the deal was announced that it was “certainly one of our biggest investments with hours on the air.”

Vice, based in Brooklyn, also recently signed a multiyear $100 million deal with Rogers Communications, a Canadian media conglomerate, to produce original content for TV, smartphone and desktop viewers.

Vice’s finances are private, but according to an internal document reviewed by The New York Times and verified by a person familiar with the company’s financials, the company is on track to make about $915 million in revenue this year.

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Vice showed a highlight reel of its TV series at the NewFronts last week in New York. Credit Jesse Dittmar for The New York Times

It brought in $545 million in a strong first quarter, which included portions of the new HBO deal and the Rogers deal, according to the document. More of its revenue now comes from these types of content partnerships, compared with the branded content deals that made up much of its revenue a year ago, the company said.

Mr. Smith said the company was worth at least $4 billion. If the valuation gets much higher, he said he would consider taking the company public.

“I don’t care about money; we have plenty of money,” Mr. Smith, who is Vice’s biggest shareholder, said in an interview after the presentation on Friday. “I care about strategic deals.”

In the United States, Vice Media had 35.2 million unique visitors across its sites in March, according to comScore.

The third season of Vice’s weekly HBO show has averaged 1.8 million viewers per episode, including reruns, through April 12, according to Brad Adgate, the director of research at Horizon Media. (Vice said the show attracted three million weekly viewers when repeat broadcasts, online and on-demand viewings were included.)

For years, Mr. Smith has criticized traditional TV, calling it slow and unable to draw younger viewers. But if all the deals Vice has struck are to work out, Mr. Smith may have to play more by the rules of traditional media. James Murdoch, Rupert Murdoch’s son and a member of Vice’s board, was at the company’s presentation on Friday, as were other top media executives.

“They know they need people like me to help them, but they can’t get out of their own way,” Mr. Smith said in the interview Friday. “My only real frustration is we’re used to being incredibly dynamic, and they’re not incredibly dynamic.”

With its own television channel in the United States, Vice would have something it has long coveted even as traditional media companies are looking beyond TV. Last year, Vice’s deal with Time Warner failed in part because the two companies could not agree on how much control Vice would have over a 24-hour television network.

Vice said it intended to fill its new channel with non-news programming. The company plans to have sports shows, fashion shows, food shows and the “Gaycation” travel show with the actress Ellen Page. It is also in talks with Kanye West about a show.

It remains to be seen whether Vice’s audience will watch a traditional cable channel. Still, Vice has effectively presold all of the ad spots to two of the biggest advertising agencies for the first three years, Mr. Smith said.

In the meantime, Mr. Smith is enjoying Vice’s newfound role as a potential savior of traditional media companies.

“I’m a C.E.O. of a content company,” Mr. Smith said before he caught a flight to Las Vegas for the boxing match on Saturday between Floyd Mayweather Jr. and Manny Pacquiao. “If it stops being fun, then why are you doing it?”

As Vice Moves More to TV, It Tries to Keep Brash Voice

As governor, Mr. Walker alienated Republicans and his fellow Democrats, particularly the Democratic powerhouse Richard J. Daley, the mayor of Chicago.

Dan Walker, 92, Dies; Illinois Governor and Later a U.S. Prisoner

Imagine an elite professional services firm with a high-performing, workaholic culture. Everyone is expected to turn on a dime to serve a client, travel at a moment’s notice, and be available pretty much every evening and weekend. It can make for a grueling work life, but at the highest levels of accounting, law, investment banking and consulting firms, it is just the way things are.

Except for one dirty little secret: Some of the people ostensibly turning in those 80- or 90-hour workweeks, particularly men, may just be faking it.

Many of them were, at least, at one elite consulting firm studied by Erin Reid, a professor at Boston University’s Questrom School of Business. It’s impossible to know if what she learned at that unidentified consulting firm applies across the world of work more broadly. But her research, published in the academic journal Organization Science, offers a way to understand how the professional world differs between men and women, and some of the ways a hard-charging culture that emphasizes long hours above all can make some companies worse off.

Photo
 
Credit Peter Arkle

Ms. Reid interviewed more than 100 people in the American offices of a global consulting firm and had access to performance reviews and internal human resources documents. At the firm there was a strong culture around long hours and responding to clients promptly.

“When the client needs me to be somewhere, I just have to be there,” said one of the consultants Ms. Reid interviewed. “And if you can’t be there, it’s probably because you’ve got another client meeting at the same time. You know it’s tough to say I can’t be there because my son had a Cub Scout meeting.”

Some people fully embraced this culture and put in the long hours, and they tended to be top performers. Others openly pushed back against it, insisting upon lighter and more flexible work hours, or less travel; they were punished in their performance reviews.

The third group is most interesting. Some 31 percent of the men and 11 percent of the women whose records Ms. Reid examined managed to achieve the benefits of a more moderate work schedule without explicitly asking for it.

They made an effort to line up clients who were local, reducing the need for travel. When they skipped work to spend time with their children or spouse, they didn’t call attention to it. One team on which several members had small children agreed among themselves to cover for one another so that everyone could have more flexible hours.

A male junior manager described working to have repeat consulting engagements with a company near enough to his home that he could take care of it with day trips. “I try to head out by 5, get home at 5:30, have dinner, play with my daughter,” he said, adding that he generally kept weekend work down to two hours of catching up on email.

Despite the limited hours, he said: “I know what clients are expecting. So I deliver above that.” He received a high performance review and a promotion.

What is fascinating about the firm Ms. Reid studied is that these people, who in her terminology were “passing” as workaholics, received performance reviews that were as strong as their hyper-ambitious colleagues. For people who were good at faking it, there was no real damage done by their lighter workloads.

It calls to mind the episode of “Seinfeld” in which George Costanza leaves his car in the parking lot at Yankee Stadium, where he works, and gets a promotion because his boss sees the car and thinks he is getting to work earlier and staying later than anyone else. (The strategy goes awry for him, and is not recommended for any aspiring partners in a consulting firm.)

A second finding is that women, particularly those with young children, were much more likely to request greater flexibility through more formal means, such as returning from maternity leave with an explicitly reduced schedule. Men who requested a paternity leave seemed to be punished come review time, and so may have felt more need to take time to spend with their families through those unofficial methods.

The result of this is easy to see: Those specifically requesting a lighter workload, who were disproportionately women, suffered in their performance reviews; those who took a lighter workload more discreetly didn’t suffer. The maxim of “ask forgiveness, not permission” seemed to apply.

It would be dangerous to extrapolate too much from a study at one firm, but Ms. Reid said in an interview that since publishing a summary of her research in Harvard Business Review she has heard from people in a variety of industries describing the same dynamic.

High-octane professional service firms are that way for a reason, and no one would doubt that insane hours and lots of travel can be necessary if you’re a lawyer on the verge of a big trial, an accountant right before tax day or an investment banker advising on a huge merger.

But the fact that the consultants who quietly lightened their workload did just as well in their performance reviews as those who were truly working 80 or more hours a week suggests that in normal times, heavy workloads may be more about signaling devotion to a firm than really being more productive. The person working 80 hours isn’t necessarily serving clients any better than the person working 50.

In other words, maybe the real problem isn’t men faking greater devotion to their jobs. Maybe it’s that too many companies reward the wrong things, favoring the illusion of extraordinary effort over actual productivity.

How Some Men Fake an 80-Hour Workweek, and Why It Matters

Even as a high school student, Dave Goldberg was urging female classmates to speak up. As a young dot-com executive, he had one girlfriend after another, but fell hard for a driven friend named Sheryl Sandberg, pining after her for years. After they wed, Mr. Goldberg pushed her to negotiate hard for high compensation and arranged his schedule so that he could be home with their children when she was traveling for work.

Mr. Goldberg, who died unexpectedly on Friday, was a genial, 47-year-old Silicon Valley entrepreneur who built his latest company, SurveyMonkey, from a modest enterprise to one recently valued by investors at $2 billion. But he was also perhaps the signature male feminist of his era: the first major chief executive in memory to spur his wife to become as successful in business as he was, and an essential figure in “Lean In,” Ms. Sandberg’s blockbuster guide to female achievement.

Over the weekend, even strangers were shocked at his death, both because of his relatively young age and because they knew of him as the living, breathing, car-pooling center of a new philosophy of two-career marriage.

“They were very much the role models for what this next generation wants to grapple with,” said Debora L. Spar, the president of Barnard College. In a 2011 commencement speech there, Ms. Sandberg told the graduates that whom they married would be their most important career decision.

In the play “The Heidi Chronicles,” revived on Broadway this spring, a male character who is the founder of a media company says that “I don’t want to come home to an A-plus,” explaining that his ambitions require him to marry an unthreatening helpmeet. Mr. Goldberg grew up to hold the opposite view, starting with his upbringing in progressive Minneapolis circles where “there was woman power in every aspect of our lives,” Jeffrey Dachis, a childhood friend, said in an interview.

The Goldberg parents read “The Feminine Mystique” together — in fact, Mr. Goldberg’s father introduced it to his wife, according to Ms. Sandberg’s book. In 1976, Paula Goldberg helped found a nonprofit to aid children with disabilities. Her husband, Mel, a law professor who taught at night, made the family breakfast at home.

Later, when Dave Goldberg was in high school and his prom date, Jill Chessen, stayed silent in a politics class, he chastised her afterward. He said, “You need to speak up,” Ms. Chessen recalled in an interview. “They need to hear your voice.”

Years later, when Karin Gilford, an early employee at Launch Media, Mr. Goldberg’s digital music company, became a mother, he knew exactly what to do. He kept giving her challenging assignments, she recalled, but also let her work from home one day a week. After Yahoo acquired Launch, Mr. Goldberg became known for distributing roses to all the women in the office on Valentine’s Day.

Ms. Sandberg, who often describes herself as bossy-in-a-good-way, enchanted him when they became friendly in the mid-1990s. He “was smitten with her,” Ms. Chessen remembered. Ms. Sandberg was dating someone else, but Mr. Goldberg still hung around, even helping her and her then-boyfriend move, recalled Bob Roback, a friend and co-founder of Launch. When they finally married in 2004, friends remember thinking how similar the two were, and that the qualities that might have made Ms. Sandberg intimidating to some men drew Mr. Goldberg to her even more.

Over the next decade, Mr. Goldberg and Ms. Sandberg pioneered new ways of capturing information online, had a son and then a daughter, became immensely wealthy, and hashed out their who-does-what-in-this-marriage issues. Mr. Goldberg’s commute from the Bay Area to Los Angeles became a strain, so he relocated, later joking that he “lost the coin flip” of where they would live. He paid the bills, she planned the birthday parties, and both often left their offices at 5:30 so they could eat dinner with their children before resuming work afterward.

Friends in Silicon Valley say they were careful to conduct their careers separately, politely refusing when outsiders would ask one about the other’s work: Ms. Sandberg’s role building Facebook into an information and advertising powerhouse, and Mr. Goldberg at SurveyMonkey, which made polling faster and cheaper. But privately, their work was intertwined. He often began statements to his team with the phrase “Well, Sheryl said” sharing her business advice. He counseled her, too, starting with her salary negotiations with Mark Zuckerberg.

“I wanted Mark to really feel he stretched to get Sheryl, because she was worth it,” Mr. Goldberg explained in a 2013 “60 Minutes” interview, his Minnesota accent and his smile intact as he offered a rare peek of the intersection of marriage and money at the top of corporate life.

 

 

While his wife grew increasingly outspoken about women’s advancement, Mr. Goldberg quietly advised the men in the office on family and partnership matters, an associate said. Six out of 16 members of SurveyMonkey’s management team are female, an almost unheard-of ratio among Silicon Valley “unicorns,” or companies valued at over $1 billion.

When Mellody Hobson, a friend and finance executive, wrote a chapter of “Lean In” about women of color for the college edition of the book, Mr. Goldberg gave her feedback on the draft, a clue to his deep involvement. He joked with Ms. Hobson that she was too long-winded, like Ms. Sandberg, but aside from that, he said he loved the chapter, she said in an interview.

By then, Mr. Goldberg was a figure of fascination who inspired a “where can I get one of those?” reaction among many of the women who had read the best seller “Lean In.” Some lamented that Ms. Sandberg’s advice hinged too much on marrying a Dave Goldberg, who was humble enough to plan around his wife, attentive enough to worry about which shoes his young daughter would wear, and rich enough to help pay for the help that made the family’s balancing act manageable.

Now that he is gone, and Ms. Sandberg goes from being half of a celebrated partnership to perhaps the business world’s most prominent single mother, the pages of “Lean In” carry a new sting of loss.

“We are never at 50-50 at any given moment — perfect equality is hard to define or sustain — but we allow the pendulum to swing back and forth between us,” she wrote in 2013, adding that they were looking forward to raising teenagers together.

“Fortunately, I have Dave to figure it out with me,” she wrote.

Dave Goldberg Was Lifelong Women’s Advocate

Mr. Napoleon was a self-taught musician whose career began in earnest with the orchestra led by Chico Marx of the Marx Brothers.

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Mr. Bartoszewski was given honorary Israeli citizenship for his work to save Jews during World War II and later surprised even himself by being instrumental in reconciling Poland and Germany.

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