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Apakah Anda termasuk yang bingung untuk memilih jenis bohlam lampu apa yang tepat untuk jenis aplikasi penggunaan pada ruangan Anda? Jika “Ya”  Anda tidak usah bingung dan sampai harus memanggil konsultan design interior segala kalau hanya sekedar untuk menentukan lampu apa yang cocok buat ruangan Anda. Kalau Anda pernah membaca tulisan saya terdahulu, Baca Tips Design Pencahayaan Lighting Ruang, sedikit pernah saya ulas kalau hakekat design pencahayaan lighting sebuah ruang sebenarnya adalah menganut kaidah siang dan malam.

Untuk dapat memilih lampu yang tepat atau sesuai dengan jenis aplikasi penggunaan pada ruangan Anda, Anda juga perlu melihat beberapa parameter serta jenis yang ada dalam spesifikasi lampunya. Berikut adalah beberapa parameter dan jenis yang ada dalam spesifikasi lampu, yang perlu Anda lihat karena berkaitan erat dengan aplikasi penggunannya:

1. Colour Rendering

Dalam katalog jenis lampu, satuan yang dipakai untuk dapat membedakan warna cahaya lighting atau biasa disebut Colour Rendering adalah Kelvin atau sering disingkat K. Semakin tinggi angka satuan Kelvin-nya, biasanya satuannya dalam ribuan, maka akan semakin putih kebiru-biruan warna cahaya lightingnya. Begitupun sebaliknya, semakin rendah angka Kelvin-nya maka akan semakin kuning kemerah-merahan warna cahaya lampunya. Untuk dapat menentukan warna apa yang tepat buat ruangan Anda maka jika ruangan Anda aplikasinya untuk bersantai, untuk kamar tidur, tempat makan, ruang keluarga, sebaiknya pilih yang warna cahayanya yang kuning. Jangan menggunakan warna putih. Karena apa? Karena warna kuning lebih soft, nyaman untuk nuansa santai dan beristirahat. Sebaliknya, jika aplikasinya buat ruang kerja yang bernuansa serius, pilihlah yang berwarna putih.

Pertanyaan saya bagaimana jika sebuah ruangan misalnya berfungsi ganda? Ya, berfungsi sebagai ruang santai juga ruang untuk bekerja Anda misalnya. Gampang, aturlah sistem pencahayaan ruangan tersebut menjadi dua grup, satu grup lampu dengan cahaya kuning dan satu grup lagi dengan cahaya putih lalu pasanglah saklar seri menjadi dua grup.

Sekedar contoh pada lampu yang ada di pasaran. Saya ambil contoh pada lampu Philips jenis esential type warm white (kuning) satuan Kelvin-nya sebesar 2700 K. Dan kalau type cool daylight (putih) satuan Kelvin-nya sebesar 6500 K.

2. Lumen

Satuan yang telah membedakan kekuatan cahaya bohlam lampu adalah Lumen. Semakin tinggi satuan Lumen sebuah lampu maka semakin terang atau tinggi pula Lux cahaya yang dipancarkannya. Lampu yang baik idealnya adalah ratio lumennya tinggi diatas 50 lm/W. Bahkan kini lampu-lampu Hemat Energi di pasaran sudah ada yang lumen per wattnya cukup tinggi, yaitu 60 lm/W. Untuk dapat menentukan berapa Lux yang tepat buat ruangan Anda maka jika ruangan Anda aplikasinya untuk bersantai, untuk kamar tidur, tempat makan, ruang keluarga, sebaiknya pilih yang watt dan lumen-nya tidak terlalu tinggi. Jangan menggunakan lampu yang terlalu terang pada ruangan tersebut. Karena apa? Karena cahaya yang lebih redup, soft atau tidak terlalu terang lebih nyaman untuk nuansa santai dan beristirahat. Sebaliknya, jika aplikasinya buat ruang kerja yang bernuansa serius, pilihlah yang watt dan lumennya yang tinggi.

Sebagai gambaran misalnya ruangan Anda berukuran 9 M2 dan berfungsi sebagai kamar tidur, kebutuhan lampunya sekitar 300 Lumen sudah cukup untuk dapat menerangi ruangan Anda.

3. Jenis Ballast dan Trafo

Di pasaran pada lampu tertentu, seperti jenis TL, PLC, Metal Halide dan spot ada yang masih menggunakan ballast dan trafo sebagai komponen lampunya. Dan tipe ballast dan trafo yang ada terbagi menjadi dua, konvensional (pakai kumparan/lilitan) dan elektronik. Dari kedua tipe ballast dan trafo tersebut, pilihlah yang dari jenis elektronik, jangan menggunakan yang jenis kumparan. Selain karena alasan Hemat Energi sebab ballast atau trafo elektronik terbukti lebih hemat energi, juga pada lampu yang ber-ballast atau trafo elektronik bentuknya lebih ramping sehingga tidak mengganggu estetika ruangan Anda.

4. Lampu Spot

Untuk obyek tertentu yang telah membutuhkan fokus penerangan seperti poster, lukisan atau obyek-obyek tertentu seperti patung, air mancur, atau pohon dan relief di taman misalnya, yang butuh sekali ditonjolkan, pasanglah lampu sorot yang mengarah ke obyek-obyek tersebut agar obyeknya nampak lebih menonjol dan hidup. Lampu seperti jenis ini dalam istilah design lighting disebut lampu spot. Untuk memilih lampu yang jenis seperti ini, pilihlah lampu yang berjenis PAR.

5. Lampu General Lighting

Untuk tipe general lightingnya, pilihlah yang jenis armaturenya dari downlight karena lebih fleksibel, yang titiknya bisa diatur menyebar mengikuti luas ceiling ruangan. Karena bentuknya yang tidak terlalu besar dan bisa inbow (masuk) ke dalam plafond membuat ruangan lebih indah secara estetika untuk mendukung design interior ruangan Anda.

6. Lampu Indirect Lighting

Untuk sistem pencahayaan ruang yang telah membutuhkan penerangan cahaya secara tidak langsung atau indirect, misal untuk koef ceiling (lekukan plafond) atau pada ornamen pada dinding, pilihlah lampu yang dari jenis TL karena bisa memberikan efek pencahayaan bayangan yang bagus. Lampu TL yang bentuknya memanjang lebih menghemat jumlah titik lampunya. Dan sekarang tersedia pilihan dengan bentuknya yang semakin kecil dan memanjang mirip dengan tubing neon sign yang dulu pada design interior lighting ruangan pernah dipakai juga sebagai lampu indirect lighting. Contoh lampu TL yang kecil seperti ini, pilih jenis lampu TL 5.

Demikian beberapa tips dari saya untuk memilih bohlam lampu yang tepat buat ruangan Anda. Semoga sharing tips ini bisa bermanfaat.

6 TIPS MEMILIH BOHLAM LAMPU

Jika seorang muslim melakukan ihram haji atau umrah maka haram atasnya sebelas perkara sampai ia keluar dari ihramnya (tahallul):

    Mencabut rambut.
    Menggunting kuku.
    Memakai wangi-wangian.
    Membunuh binatang buruan (darat, adapun binatang laut maka dibolehkan).
    Mengenakan pakaian berjahit (bagi laki-laki dan tidak mengapa bagi wanita). Pakaian berjahit adalah pakaian yang membentuk badan, seperti baju, kaos, celana pendek, gamis, celana panjang, kaos tangan dan kaos kaki. Adapun sesuatu yang ada jahitannya tetapi tidak membentuk badan maka hal itu tidak membahayakan muhrim (orang yang sedang ihram), seperti sabuk, jam tangan, sepatu yang ada jahitan-nya dsb.
    Menutupi kepala atau wajah dengan sesuatu yang menempel (bagi laki-laki), seperti peci, penutup kepala, surban, topi dan yang sejenisnya. Tetapi dibolehkan berteduh di bawah payung, di dalam kemah dan mobil. Juga dibolehkan membawa barang di atas kepala jika tidak dimaksudkan untuk menutupinya.
    Memakai tutup muka dan kaos tangan (bagi wanita). Tetapi jika di depan laki-laki asing (bukan mahram) maka ia wajib menutupi wajah dan kedua tangannya, namun dengan selain tutup muka (cadar), misalnya dengan menurunkan kerudung ke wajah dan memasukkan tangan ke dalam baju kurung.
    Melangsungkan pernikahan.
    Bersetubuh.
    Bercumbu (bermesraan) dengan syahwat.
    Mengeluarkan mani dengan onani atau bercumbu.

Orang Yang Melakukan Hal-hal Yang Dilarang Memiliki Tiga Keadaan:

    Ia melakukannya tanpa udzur (alasan), maka ia berdosa dan wajib membayar fidyah (tebusan).
    Ia melakukannya untuk suatu keperluan, seperti memotong rambut karena sakit. Perbuatannya ter-sebut dibolehkan, tetapi ia wajib membayar fidyah.
    Ia melakukannya dalam keadaan tidur, lupa, tidak tahu atau dipaksa. Dalam keadaan seperti itu ia tidak berdosa dan tidak wajib membayar fidyah.

Kompilasi dari berbagai sumber.

LARANGAN HAJI DAN UMRAH
Ikan mas merupakan jenis ikan konsumsi air tawar, berbadan memanjang pipih kesamping dan lunak. Ikan mas sudah dipelihara sejak tahun 475 sebelum masehi di Cina. Di Indonesia ikan mas mulai dipelihara sekitar tahun 1920. Ikan mas yang terdapat di Indonesia merupakan merupakan ikan mas yang dibawa dari Cina, Eropa, Taiwan dan Jepang. Ikan mas Punten dan Majalaya merupakan hasil seleksi di Indonesia. Sampai saat ini sudah terdapat 10 ikan mas yang dapat diidentifikasi berdasarkan karakteristik morfologisnya. Budidaya ikan mas telah berkembang pesat di kolam biasa, di sawah, waduk, sungai air deras, bahkan ada yang dipelihara dalam keramba di perairan umum Dalam ilmu taksonomi hewan, klasifikasi ikan mas adalah sebagai berikut: Kelas  : Osteichthyes Anak kelas : Actinopterygii Bangsa : Cypriniformes Suku  : Cyprinidae Marga  : Cyprinus Jenis  : Cyprinus carpio L. Saat ini ikan mas mempunyai banyak ras atau stain. Perbedaan sifat dan ciri dari ras disebabkan oleh adanya interaksi antara genotipe dan lingkungan kolam, musim dan cara pemeliharaan yang terlihat dari penampilan bentuk fisik, bentuk tubuh dan warnanya. Adapun ciri-ciri dari beberapa strain ikan mas adalah sebagai berikut: 1)Ikan mas punten: sisik berwarna hijau gelap; potongan badan paling pendek; bagian punggung tinggi melebar; mata agak menonjol; gerakannya gesit; perbandingan antara panjang badan dan tinggi badan antara 2,3:1. 2) Ikan mas majalaya: sisik berwarna hijau keabu-abuan dengan tepi sisik lebih gelap; punggung tinggi; badannya relatif pendek; gerakannya lamban, bila diberi makanan suka berenang di permukaan air; perbandingan panjang badan dengan tinggi badan antara 3,2:1. 3) Ikan mas si nyonya: sisik berwarna kuning muda; badan relatif panjang; mata pada ikan muda tidak menonjol, sedangkan ikan dewasa bermata sipit; gerakannya lamban, lebih suka berada di permukaan air; perbandingan panjang badan dengan tinggi badan antara 3,6:1. 4) Ikan mas taiwan: sisik berwarna hijau kekuning-kuningan; badan relatif panjang; penampang punggung membulat; mata agak menonjol; gerakan lebih gesit dan aktif; perbandingan panjang badan dengan tinggi badan antara 3,5:1. 5) Ikan mas koi: bentuk badan bulat panjang dan bersisisk penuh; warna sisik bermacam-macam seperti putih, kuning, merah menyala, atau kombinasi dari warna-warna tersebut. Beberapa ras koi adalah long tail Indonesian carp, long tail platinm nishikigoi, platinum nishikigoi, long tail shusui nishikigoi, shusi nishikigoi, kohaku hishikigoi, lonh tail hishikigoi, taishusanshoku nshikigoi dan long tail taishusanshoku nishikigoi. Budidaya Ikan Mas di Pandaisikek Budidaya ikan mas di Kenagaraian Pandaisikek masih menggunakan cara tradisonal. Dimana ikan dipelihara di kolam dengan berbagai ukuran sesuai ketersedian lahan. Biasanya kolam berada tidak jauh dari rumah pemilik.Usaha pemeliharan ikan hanya merupakan usaha sampingan, tidak di jumpai di Nagari ini masyarakat yang perekonimoannya ditopang sepenuhnya dari pembudidayaan ikan. Namun demikian pembudidayaan ikan cukup memberi konstribusi terhadap perekonomian pembudidaya karena dapat menghasilkan uang yang lumayan banyak pada sa’at tertentu atau saat panen. Pembudidayaan ikan ini tidak hanya terfokus pada ikan mas saja, dalam satu kolam bisa saja di jumpai jenis ikan lain seperti mujair/gurami, dan beberapa jenis ikan lainya. Ikan dipelihara secara alami yang mana tidak ada diberikan perlakuan khusus seperti pemberian pellet atau pemisahan bibit sesuai umur atau pertumbuhan. Makanan ikan bersumber dari sisa mencuci piring, ampas-ampas dapur, sayur rusak dari panen yang tidak memenuhi standar untuk di jual, kotoran manusia ( karena setip kolam di lengkapi dengan wc yang pembuangannya langsung ke kolam) dan jarang sekali pembudidaya yang member pellet untuk makan ikan peliharaanya. Akan tetapi harus di akui bahwa rasa daging ikan yang dipelihara dengan cara seperti ini jauh lebih enak dan lebih gurih ketimbang ikan yang diberi makan pellet. Air yang digunankan untuk menggenangi kolam bersumber dari air gunung, yaitu Gunung singgalang dan gunung Merapi ditambah dengan sumber dari mata air alam yang di Nagari Pandaisikek serta air buangan dari sawah penduduk. Tiap kolam mempunyai beberapa pembuangan air sesuai kondisi. Secara umum kolam mempunyai tiga pembuangan air. Pembuangan permukaan, bertujuan untuk menjaga ke stabilan tinggi air permukaan,agar  tidak terlalu tinggi dan tidak terlalu rendah. Permukaan air yang terlalu tinggi akan menyebabkan ikan gampang meloncat keluar kolam, sedangkan permukaan yang terlalau rendah akan menyebabkan ikan gampang di mangsa oleh hama seperti anjing dan kucing air (berang-berang). Pembuangan air yang kedua yaitu pembuangan air tengah , berada hampir mendekati dasar kolam, kira-kira se lutut dari dasar kolam. Pembuangan ini berguna untuk pengeringan kolam dan untuk mengurangi air kolam saat panen tiba. Pembuangan air yang ketiga terletak pada dasar kolam, ini berguna saat melakuan pembersihan dasar kolam ketika selesai panen. , menghanyut lumpur dan sampah sampah yang berada di dasar kolam. Panen dilakukan sekali dalam setahun, biasanya pada saat menjelang lebaran Idil Fitri, dimana pada saat itu permintaan pasar akan kebutuhan ikan sangat tinggi. Biasanya panen diserahkan kepada orang yang berprofesi sampingan sebagai tukang panen ikan. Tengah malam atau menjelang subuh tukang panen membuka tutup pembuangan air tengah dengan tujuan mengurangi air kolam sehingga yang tersisa hanya sebatas lutut, dengan demikian proses penangkapan ikan akan lebih mudah di lakukan. Pembuangan air tengah ini bisa dilakukan pengaturan agar air keluar  seimbang dengan air masuk. Setiap kolam memiliki kolam kecil yang terletak di punggang kolam atau posisinya berada sedikit di atas pembuangan air tengah, kolam kecil ini akan terlihat jika permukaan air sejajar dengan pembuangan air tengah. Fungsi kolam kecil ini adalah untuk menampung ikan kecil-kecil (anak ikan) yang dipisahkan saat panen. Panen dimulai setelah selesai sholat subuh atau kira-kira jam 5.30. Satu atau dua orang tukang panen masuk ke kolam dengan membawa alat panen yang disebut “tangguak”. Tangguak disisirkan ke kolam sehingga semua ikan berbagai jenis dan ukuran yang terkena akan masuk ke dalam tangguak. Kemudian tangguak yang sudah penuh ikan dibawa ke pinggir kolam dan selanjutnya dilakukan pemisahan ikan. Pemisahan dilakukan berdasarkan jenis ikan dan ukuran, ada ukuran besar dan ada ukuran sedang. Ikan yang kecil akan di masukan ke dalam kolam kecil (kolam penampung bibit)  yang sudah tersedia dan anak ikan ini akan dijadikan sebagai bibit untuk periode berikutnya. Proses ini dilakukan berulang-ulang sampai ikan yang ada dalam kolam habis. Setelah panen selesai, tahap selanjutnya adalah melakukan pembersihan kolam dari endapan lumpur dan sampah. Untuk itu perlu membuka tutup pembuangan dasar. Sebelum membuka tutup pembuangan dasar dipastikan dulu kalau debet air masuk cukup untuk menghanyutkan lumpur dan sampah. Dengan demikian proses pembuangan endapan lumpur akan lebih cepat dan mudah  dilakukan.  Setelah kolam bersih dari sampah dan endapan lumpur maka lobang pembuangan dasar dan lobang pembuangan tengah ditutup kembali dengan tujuan agar kolam terisi penuh lagi dengan air. Anak ikan (ikan bibit ) yang tadinya berada dalam kolam kecil penampung sementara, secara perlahan akan dapat berenang bebas sejalan dengan terendamnya kolam penampungan bibit tersebut. Jika bibit dirasa kurang dengan ukuran kolam yang ada maka dilakukan penaburan bibit tambahan yang di beli dari luar. Selesai sudah proses panen, pemilik kolam  menunggu sampai tahun depan hingga siap lagi untuk di panen.(EC-1266).MELIRIK BUDIDAYA IKAN DI PANDASIKEK

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saco-indonesia.com, Seorang perempuan lanjut usia telah ditemukan tewas bersimbah darah di kamar mandi rumahnya di Jalan Sungai Wera, Kelurahan Ujuna, Kecamatan Palu Barat, Kota Palu, Sulawesi Tengah, Minggu kemarin malam. Korban diduga kuat telah dibunuh oleh keponakannya sendiri yang berinisial Ns.

Setelah diperiksa di Rumah Sakit Anutapura, jenazah perempuan yang bernama Huja itu telah dikembalikan ke keluarganya untuk dapat dimakamkan. Huja tewas akibat dua luka menganga di kepala bagian belakang.

Hasil dari pemeriksaan sementara yang telah dilakukan oleh petugas Polsek Palu Barat dan Polres Palu, Huja diduga telah dihabisi oleh Ns karena pelaku kesal tidak diberi uang. Hingga Senin (10/2/2014) pagi, polisi masih memburu pelaku.

Yusuf Sidding, kerabat almarhumah, juga mengatakan, kejadian ini sangat disesalkan. Pasalnya, semasa hidupnya Huja juga sangat perhatian dan membela Ns. Huja juga kerap memberi uang terhadap pelaku.

Kasus ini juga masih harus ditangai petugas Polsek Palu Barat dan Polres Palu.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

KEPONAKAN BACOK TANTE HINGGA TEWAS

The 6-foot-10 Phillips played alongside the 6-11 Rick Robey on the Wildcats team that won the 1978 N.C.A.A. men’s basketball title.

Mike Phillips, Half of Kentucky’s ‘Twin Towers’ of Basketball, Dies at 59

Mr. Miller, of the firm Weil, Gotshal & Manges, represented companies including Lehman Brothers, General Motors and American Airlines, and mentored many of the top Chapter 11 practitioners today.

Harvey R. Miller, Renowned Bankruptcy Lawyer, Dies at 82

WASHINGTON — A decade after emergency trailers meant to shelter Hurricane Katrina victims instead caused burning eyes, sore throats and other more serious ailments, the Environmental Protection Agency is on the verge of regulating the culprit: formaldehyde, a chemical that can be found in commonplace things like clothes and furniture.

But an unusual assortment of players, including furniture makers, the Chinese government, Republicans from states with a large base of furniture manufacturing and even some Democrats who championed early regulatory efforts, have questioned the E.P.A. proposal. The sustained opposition has held sway, as the agency is now preparing to ease key testing requirements before it releases the landmark federal health standard.

The E.P.A.’s five-year effort to adopt this rule offers another example of how industry opposition can delay and hamper attempts by the federal government to issue regulations, even to control substances known to be harmful to human health.

Continue reading the main story
 

Document: The Formaldehyde Fight

Formaldehyde is a known carcinogen that can also cause respiratory ailments like asthma, but the potential of long-term exposure to cause cancers like myeloid leukemia is less well understood.

The E.P.A.’s decision would be the first time that the federal government has regulated formaldehyde inside most American homes.

“The stakes are high for public health,” said Tom Neltner, senior adviser for regulatory affairs at the National Center for Healthy Housing, who has closely monitored the debate over the rules. “What we can’t have here is an outcome that fails to confront the health threat we all know exists.”

The proposal would not ban formaldehyde — commonly used as an ingredient in wood glue in furniture and flooring — but it would impose rules that prevent dangerous levels of the chemical’s vapors from those products, and would set testing standards to ensure that products sold in the United States comply with those limits. The debate has sharpened in the face of growing concern about the safety of formaldehyde-treated flooring imported from Asia, especially China.

What is certain is that a lot of money is at stake: American companies sell billions of dollars’ worth of wood products each year that contain formaldehyde, and some argue that the proposed regulation would impose unfair costs and restrictions.

Determined to block the agency’s rule as proposed, these industry players have turned to the White House, members of Congress and top E.P.A. officials, pressing them to roll back the testing requirements in particular, calling them redundant and too expensive.

“There are potentially over a million manufacturing jobs that will be impacted if the proposed rule is finalized without changes,” wrote Bill Perdue, the chief lobbyist at the American Home Furnishings Alliance, a leading critic of the testing requirements in the proposed regulation, in one letter to the E.P.A.

Industry opposition helped create an odd alignment of forces working to thwart the rule. The White House moved to strike out key aspects of the proposal. Subsequent appeals for more changes were voiced by players as varied as Senator Barbara Boxer, Democrat of California, and Senator Roger Wicker, Republican of Mississippi, as well as furniture industry lobbyists.

Hurricane Katrina in 2005 helped ignite the public debate over formaldehyde, after the deadly storm destroyed or damaged hundreds of thousands of homes along the Gulf of Mexico, forcing families into temporary trailers provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

The displaced storm victims quickly began reporting respiratory problems, burning eyes and other issues, and tests then confirmed high levels of formaldehyde fumes leaking into the air inside the trailers, which in many cases had been hastily constructed.

Public health advocates petitioned the E.P.A. to issue limits on formaldehyde in building materials and furniture used in homes, given that limits already existed for exposure in workplaces. But three years after the storm, only California had issued such limits.

Industry groups like the American Chemistry Council have repeatedly challenged the science linking formaldehyde to cancer, a position championed by David Vitter, the Republican senator from Louisiana, who is a major recipient of chemical industry campaign contributions, and whom environmental groups have mockingly nicknamed “Senator Formaldehyde.”

Continue reading the main story

Formaldehyde in Laminate Flooring

In laminate flooring, formaldehyde is used as a bonding agent in the fiberboard (or other composite wood) core layer and may also be used in glues that bind layers together. Concerns were raised in March when certain laminate flooring imported from China was reported to contain levels of formaldehyde far exceeding the limit permitted by California.

Typical

laminate

flooring

CLEAR FINISH LAYER

Often made of melamine resin

PATTERN LAYER

Paper printed to resemble wood,

or a thin wood veneer

GLUE

Layers may be bound using

formaldehyde-based glues

CORE LAYER

Fiberboard or other

composite, formed using

formaldehyde-based adhesives

BASE LAYER

Moisture-resistant vapor barrier

What is formaldehyde?

Formaldehyde is a common chemical used in many industrial and household products as an adhesive, bonding agent or preservative. It is classified as a volatile organic compound. The term volatile means that, at room temperature, formaldehyde will vaporize, or become a gas. Products made with formaldehyde tend to release this gas into the air. If breathed in large quantities, it may cause health problems.

WHERE IT IS COMMONLY FOUND

POTENTIAL HEALTH RISKS

Pressed-wood and composite wood products

Wallpaper and paints

Spray foam insulation used in construction

Commercial wood floor finishes

Crease-resistant fabrics

In cigarette smoke, or in the fumes from combustion of other materials, including wood, oil and gasoline.

Exposure to formaldehyde in sufficient amounts may cause eye, throat or skin irritation, allergic reactions, and respiratory problems like coughing, wheezing or asthma.

Long-term exposure to high levels has been associated with cancer in humans and laboratory animals.

Exposure to formaldehyde may affect some people more severely than others.

By 2010, public health advocates and some industry groups secured bipartisan support in Congress for legislation that ordered the E.P.A. to issue federal rules that largely mirrored California’s restrictions. At the time, concerns were rising over the growing number of lower-priced furniture imports from Asia that might include contaminated products, while also hurting sales of American-made products.

Maneuvering began almost immediately after the E.P.A. prepared draft rules to formally enact the new standards.

White House records show at least five meetings in mid-2012 with industry executives — kitchen cabinet makers, chemical manufacturers, furniture trade associations and their lobbyists, like Brock R. Landry, of the Venable law firm. These parties, along with Senator Vitter’s office, appealed to top administration officials, asking them to intervene to roll back the E.P.A. proposal.

The White House Office of Management and Budget, which reviews major federal regulations before they are adopted, apparently agreed. After the White House review, the E.P.A. “redlined” many of the estimates of the monetary benefits that would be gained by reductions in related health ailments, like asthma and fertility issues, documents reviewed by The New York Times show.

As a result, the estimated benefit of the proposed rule dropped to $48 million a year, from as much as $278 million a year. The much-reduced amount deeply weakened the agency’s justification for the sometimes costly new testing that would be required under the new rules, a federal official involved in the effort said.

“It’s a redlining blood bath,” said Lisa Heinzerling, a Georgetown University Law School professor and a former E.P.A. official, using the Washington phrase to describe when language is stricken from a proposed rule. “Almost the entire discussion of these potential benefits was excised.”

Senator Vitter’s staff was pleased.

“That’s a huge difference,” said Luke Bolar, a spokesman for Mr. Vitter, of the reduced estimated financial benefits, saying the change was “clearly highlighting more mismanagement” at the E.P.A.

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The review’s outcome galvanized opponents in the furniture industry. They then targeted a provision that mandated new testing of laminated wood, a cheaper alternative to hardwood. (The California standard on which the law was based did not require such testing.)

But E.P.A. scientists had concluded that these laminate products — millions of which are sold annually in the United States — posed a particular risk. They said that when thin layers of wood, also known as laminate or veneer, are added to furniture or flooring in the final stages of manufacturing, the resulting product can generate dangerous levels of fumes from often-used formaldehyde-based glues.

Industry executives, outraged by what they considered an unnecessary and financially burdensome level of testing, turned every lever within reach to get the requirement removed. It would be particularly onerous, they argued, for small manufacturers that would have to repeatedly interrupt their work to do expensive new testing. The E.P.A. estimated that the expanded requirements for laminate products would cost the furniture industry tens of millions of dollars annually, while the industry said that the proposed rule over all would cost its 7,000 American manufacturing facilities over $200 million each year.

“A lot of people don’t seem to appreciate what a lot of these requirements do to a small operation,” said Dick Titus, executive vice president of the Kitchen Cabinet Manufacturers Association, whose members are predominantly small businesses. “A 10-person shop, for example, just really isn’t equipped to handle that type of thing.”

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Becky Gillette wants strong regulation of formaldehyde. Credit Beth Hall for The New York Times

Big industry players also weighed in. Executives from companies including La-Z-Boy, Hooker Furniture and Ashley Furniture all flew to Washington for a series of meetings with the offices of lawmakers including House Speaker John Boehner, Republican of Ohio, and about a dozen other lawmakers, asking several of them to sign a letter prepared by the industry to press the E.P.A. to back down, according to an industry report describing the lobbying visit.

Within a matter of weeks, two letters — using nearly identical language — were sent by House and Senate lawmakers to the E.P.A. — with the industry group forwarding copies of the letters to the agency as well, and then posting them on its website.

The industry lobbyists also held their own meeting at E.P.A. headquarters, and they urged Jim Jones, who oversaw the rule-making process as the assistant administrator for the agency’s Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention, to visit a North Carolina furniture manufacturing plant. According to the trade group, Mr. Jones told them that the visit had “helped the agency shift its thinking” about the rules and how laminated products should be treated.

The resistance was particularly intense from lawmakers like Mr. Wicker of Mississippi, whose state is home to major manufacturing plants owned by Ashley Furniture Industries, the world’s largest furniture maker, and who is one of the biggest recipients in Congress of donations from the industry’s trade association. Asked if the political support played a role, a spokesman for Mr. Wicker replied: “Thousands of Mississippians depend on the furniture manufacturing industry for their livelihoods. Senator Wicker is committed to defending all Mississippians from government overreach.”

Individual companies like Ikea also intervened, as did the Chinese government, which claimed that the new rule would create a “great barrier” to the import of Chinese products because of higher costs.

Perhaps the most surprising objection came from Senator Boxer, of California, a longtime environmental advocate, whose office questioned why the E.P.A.’s rule went further than her home state’s in seeking testing on laminated products. “We did not advocate an outcome, other than safety,” her office said in a statement about why the senator raised concerns. “We said ‘Take a look to see if you have it right.’ ”

Safety advocates say that tighter restrictions — like the ones Ms. Boxer and Mr. Wicker, along with Representative Doris Matsui, a California Democrat, have questioned — are necessary, particularly for products coming from China, where items as varied as toys and Christmas lights have been found to violate American safety standards.

While Mr. Neltner, the environmental advocate who has been most involved in the review process, has been open to compromise, he has pressed the E.P.A. not to back down entirely, and to maintain a requirement that laminators verify that their products are safe.

An episode of CBS’s “60 Minutes” in March brought attention to the issue when it accused Lumber Liquidators, the discount flooring retailer, of selling laminate products with dangerous levels of formaldehyde. The company has disputed the show’s findings and test methods, maintaining that its products are safe.

“People think that just because Congress passed the legislation five years ago, the problem has been fixed,” said Becky Gillette, who then lived in coastal Mississippi, in the area hit by Hurricane Katrina, and was among the first to notice a pattern of complaints from people living in the trailers. “Real people’s faces and names come up in front of me when I think of the thousands of people who could get sick if this rule is not done right.”

An aide to Ms. Matsui rejected any suggestion that she was bending to industry pressure.

“From the beginning the public health has been our No. 1 concern,” said Kyle J. Victor, an aide to Ms. Matsui.

But further changes to the rule are likely, agency officials concede, as they say they are searching for a way to reduce the cost of complying with any final rule while maintaining public health goals. The question is just how radically the agency will revamp the testing requirement for laminated products — if it keeps it at all.

“It’s not a secret to anybody that is the most challenging issue,” said Mr. Jones, the E.P.A. official overseeing the process, adding that the health consequences from formaldehyde are real. “We have to reduce those exposures so that people can live healthy lives and not have to worry about being in their homes.”

The Uphill Battle to Better Regulate Formaldehyde

Ms. Pryor, who served more than two decades in the State Department, was the author of well-regarded biographies of the founder of the American Red Cross and the Confederate commander.

Elizabeth Brown Pryor, Biographer of Clara Barton and Robert E. Lee, Dies at 64
Joseph Lechleider

Mr. Lechleider helped invent DSL technology, which enabled phone companies to offer high-speed web access over their infrastructure of copper wires.

Joseph Lechleider, a Father of the DSL Internet Technology, Dies at 82

The live music at the Vice Media party on Friday shook the room. Shane Smith, Vice’s chief executive, was standing near the stage — with a drink in his hand, pants sagging, tattoos showing — watching the rapper-cum-chef Action Bronson make pizzas.

The event was an after-party, a happy-hour bacchanal for the hundreds of guests who had come for Vice’s annual presentation to advertisers and agencies that afternoon, part of the annual frenzy for ad dollars called the Digital Content NewFronts. Mr. Smith had spoken there for all of five minutes before running a slam-bang highlight reel of the company’s shows that had titles like “Weediquette” and “Gaycation.”

In the last year, Vice has secured $500 million in financing and signed deals worth hundreds of millions of dollars with established media companies like HBO that are eager to engage the young viewers Vice attracts. Vice said it was now worth at least $4 billion, with nearly $1 billion in projected revenue for 2015. It is a long way from Vice’s humble start as a free magazine in 1994.

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At the Vice after-party, the rapper Action Bronson, a host of a Vice show, made a pizza. Credit Jesse Dittmar for The New York Times

But even as cash flows freely in Vice’s direction, the company is trying to keep its brash, insurgent image. At the party on Friday, it plied guests with beers and cocktails. Its apparently unrehearsed presentation to advertisers was peppered with expletives. At one point, the director Spike Jonze, a longtime Vice collaborator, asked on stage if Mr. Smith had been drinking.

“My assistant tried to cut me off,” Mr. Smith replied. “I’m on buzz control.”

Now, Vice is on the verge of getting its own cable channel, which would give the company a traditional outlet for its slate of non-news programming. If all goes as planned, A&E Networks, the television group owned by Hearst and Disney, will turn over its History Channel spinoff, H2, to Vice.

The deal’s announcement was expected last week, but not all of A&E’s distribution partners — the cable and satellite TV companies that carry the network’s channels — have signed off on the change, according to a person familiar with the negotiations who spoke on the condition of anonymity because the talks were private.

A cable channel would be a further step in a transformation for Vice, from bad-boy digital upstart to mainstream media company.

Keen for the core audience of young men who come to Vice, media giants like 21st Century Fox, Time Warner and Disney all showed interest in the company last year. Vice ultimately secured $500 million in financing from A&E Networks and Technology Crossover Ventures, a Silicon Valley venture capital firm that has invested in Facebook and Netflix.

Those investments valued Vice at more than $2.5 billion. (In 2013, Fox bought a 5 percent stake for $70 million.)

Then in March, HBO announced that it had signed a multiyear deal to broadcast a daily half-hour Vice newscast. Vice already produces a weekly newsmagazine show, called “Vice,” for the network. That show will extend its run through 2018, with an increase to 35 episodes a year, from 14.

Michael Lombardo, HBO’s president for programming, said when the deal was announced that it was “certainly one of our biggest investments with hours on the air.”

Vice, based in Brooklyn, also recently signed a multiyear $100 million deal with Rogers Communications, a Canadian media conglomerate, to produce original content for TV, smartphone and desktop viewers.

Vice’s finances are private, but according to an internal document reviewed by The New York Times and verified by a person familiar with the company’s financials, the company is on track to make about $915 million in revenue this year.

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Vice showed a highlight reel of its TV series at the NewFronts last week in New York. Credit Jesse Dittmar for The New York Times

It brought in $545 million in a strong first quarter, which included portions of the new HBO deal and the Rogers deal, according to the document. More of its revenue now comes from these types of content partnerships, compared with the branded content deals that made up much of its revenue a year ago, the company said.

Mr. Smith said the company was worth at least $4 billion. If the valuation gets much higher, he said he would consider taking the company public.

“I don’t care about money; we have plenty of money,” Mr. Smith, who is Vice’s biggest shareholder, said in an interview after the presentation on Friday. “I care about strategic deals.”

In the United States, Vice Media had 35.2 million unique visitors across its sites in March, according to comScore.

The third season of Vice’s weekly HBO show has averaged 1.8 million viewers per episode, including reruns, through April 12, according to Brad Adgate, the director of research at Horizon Media. (Vice said the show attracted three million weekly viewers when repeat broadcasts, online and on-demand viewings were included.)

For years, Mr. Smith has criticized traditional TV, calling it slow and unable to draw younger viewers. But if all the deals Vice has struck are to work out, Mr. Smith may have to play more by the rules of traditional media. James Murdoch, Rupert Murdoch’s son and a member of Vice’s board, was at the company’s presentation on Friday, as were other top media executives.

“They know they need people like me to help them, but they can’t get out of their own way,” Mr. Smith said in the interview Friday. “My only real frustration is we’re used to being incredibly dynamic, and they’re not incredibly dynamic.”

With its own television channel in the United States, Vice would have something it has long coveted even as traditional media companies are looking beyond TV. Last year, Vice’s deal with Time Warner failed in part because the two companies could not agree on how much control Vice would have over a 24-hour television network.

Vice said it intended to fill its new channel with non-news programming. The company plans to have sports shows, fashion shows, food shows and the “Gaycation” travel show with the actress Ellen Page. It is also in talks with Kanye West about a show.

It remains to be seen whether Vice’s audience will watch a traditional cable channel. Still, Vice has effectively presold all of the ad spots to two of the biggest advertising agencies for the first three years, Mr. Smith said.

In the meantime, Mr. Smith is enjoying Vice’s newfound role as a potential savior of traditional media companies.

“I’m a C.E.O. of a content company,” Mr. Smith said before he caught a flight to Las Vegas for the boxing match on Saturday between Floyd Mayweather Jr. and Manny Pacquiao. “If it stops being fun, then why are you doing it?”

As Vice Moves More to TV, It Tries to Keep Brash Voice

As governor, Mr. Walker alienated Republicans and his fellow Democrats, particularly the Democratic powerhouse Richard J. Daley, the mayor of Chicago.

Dan Walker, 92, Dies; Illinois Governor and Later a U.S. Prisoner

Mr. Mankiewicz, an Oscar-nominated screenwriter for “I Want to Live!,” also wrote episodes of television shows such as “Star Trek” and “Marcus Welby, M.D.”

Don Mankiewicz, Screenwriter in a Family Film Tradition, Dies at 93

Public perceptions of race relations in America have grown substantially more negative in the aftermath of the death of a young black man who was injured while in police custody in Baltimore and the subsequent unrest, far eclipsing the sentiment recorded in the wake of turmoil in Ferguson, Mo., last summer.

Americans are also increasingly likely to say that the police are more apt to use deadly force against a black person, the latest New York Times/CBS News poll finds.

The poll findings highlight the challenges for local leaders and police officials in trying to maintain order while sustaining faith in the criminal justice system in a racially polarized nation.

Sixty-one percent of Americans now say race relations in this country are generally bad. That figure is up sharply from 44 percent after the fatal police shooting of Michael Brown and the unrest that followed in Ferguson in August, and 43 percent in December. In a CBS News poll just two months ago, 38 percent said race relations were generally bad. Current views are by far the worst of Barack Obama’s presidency.

The negative sentiment is echoed by broad majorities of blacks and whites alike, a stark change from earlier this year, when 58 percent of blacks thought race relations were bad, but just 35 percent of whites agreed. In August, 48 percent of blacks and 41 percent of whites said they felt that way.

Looking ahead, 44 percent of Americans think race relations are worsening, up from 36 percent in December. Forty-one percent of blacks and 46 percent of whites think so. Pessimism among whites has increased 10 points since December.

Continue reading the main story
Do you think race relations in the United States are generally good or generally bad?
60
40
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Black
May '14
May '15
Generally bad
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Do you think race relations in the United States are getting better, getting worse or staying about the same?
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The poll finds that profound racial divisions in views of how the police use deadly force remain. Blacks are more than twice as likely to say police in most communities are more apt to use deadly force against a black person — 79 percent of blacks say so compared with 37 percent of whites. A slim majority of whites say race is not a factor in a police officer’s decision to use deadly force.

Overall, 44 percent of Americans say deadly force is more likely to be used against a black person, up from 37 percent in August and 40 percent in December.

Blacks also remain far more likely than whites to say they feel mostly anxious about the police in their community. Forty-two percent say so, while 51 percent feel mostly safe. Among whites, 8 in 10 feel mostly safe.

One proposal to address the matter — having on-duty police officers wear body cameras — receives overwhelming support. More than 9 in 10 whites and blacks alike favor it.

Continue reading the main story
How would you describe your feelings about the police in your community? Would you say they make you feel mostly safe or mostly anxious?
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Whites
Blacks
75%
21
3
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In general, do you think the police in most communities are more likely to use deadly force against a black person, or more likely to use it against a white person, or don’t you think race affects police use of deadly force?
Police more likely to use deadly force against a black person
Police more likely to use deadly force against a white person
Race DOES NOT affect police use of deadly force
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Asked specifically about the situation in Baltimore, most Americans expressed at least some confidence that the investigation by local authorities would be conducted fairly. But while nearly two-thirds of whites think so, fewer than half of blacks agree. Still, more blacks are confident now than were in August regarding the investigation in Ferguson. On Friday, six members of the police force involved in the arrest of Mr. Gray were charged with serious offenses, including manslaughter. The poll was conducted Thursday through Sunday; results from before charges were announced are similar to those from after.

Reaction to the recent turmoil in Baltimore, however, is similar among blacks and whites. Most Americans, 61 percent, say the unrest after Mr. Gray’s death was not justified. That includes 64 percent of whites and 57 percent of blacks.

Continue reading the main story
As you may know, a Baltimore man, Freddie Gray, recently died after being in the custody of the Baltimore police. How much confidence do you have that the investigation by local authorities into this matter will be conducted fairly?
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Blacks
29%
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In general, do you think the unrest in Baltimore after the death of Freddie Gray was justified, or do you think the unrest was not justified?
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28%
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6

Negative View of U.S. Race Relations Grows, Poll Finds

UNITED NATIONS — Wearing pinstripes and a pince-nez, Staffan de Mistura, the United Nations envoy for Syria, arrived at the Security Council one Tuesday afternoon in February and announced that President Bashar al-Assad had agreed to halt airstrikes over Aleppo. Would the rebels, Mr. de Mistura suggested, agree to halt their shelling?

What he did not announce, but everyone knew by then, was that the Assad government had begun a military offensive to encircle opposition-held enclaves in Aleppo and that fierce fighting was underway. It would take only a few days for rebel leaders, having pushed back Syrian government forces, to outright reject Mr. de Mistura’s proposed freeze in the fighting, dooming the latest diplomatic overture on Syria.

Diplomacy is often about appearing to be doing something until the time is ripe for a deal to be done.

 

 

Now, with Mr. Assad’s forces having suffered a string of losses on the battlefield and the United States reaching at least a partial rapprochement with Mr. Assad’s main backer, Iran, Mr. de Mistura is changing course. Starting Monday, he is set to hold a series of closed talks in Geneva with the warring sides and their main supporters. Iran will be among them.

In an interview at United Nations headquarters last week, Mr. de Mistura hinted that the changing circumstances, both military and diplomatic, may have prompted various backers of the war to question how much longer the bloodshed could go on.

“Will that have an impact in accelerating the willingness for a political solution? We need to test it,” he said. “The Geneva consultations may be a good umbrella for testing that. It’s an occasion for asking everyone, including the government, if there is any new way that they are looking at a political solution, as they too claim they want.”

He said he would have a better assessment at the end of June, when he expects to wrap up his consultations. That coincides with the deadline for a final agreement in the Iran nuclear talks.

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Whether a nuclear deal with Iran will pave the way for a new opening on peace talks in Syria remains to be seen. Increasingly, though, world leaders are explicitly linking the two, with the European Union’s top diplomat, Federica Mogherini, suggesting last week that a nuclear agreement could spur Tehran to play “a major but positive role in Syria.”

It could hardly come soon enough. Now in its fifth year, the Syrian war has claimed 220,000 lives, prompted an exodus of more than three million refugees and unleashed jihadist groups across the region. “This conflict is producing a question mark in many — where is it leading and whether this can be sustained,” Mr. de Mistura said.

Part Italian, part Swedish, Mr. de Mistura has worked with the United Nations for more than 40 years, but he is more widely known for his dapper style than for any diplomatic coups. Syria is by far the toughest assignment of his career — indeed, two of the organization’s most seasoned diplomats, Lakhdar Brahimi and Kofi Annan, tried to do the job and gave up — and critics have wondered aloud whether Mr. de Mistura is up to the task.

He served as a United Nations envoy in Afghanistan and Iraq, and before that in Lebanon, where a former minister recalled, with some scorn, that he spent many hours sunbathing at a private club in the hills above Beirut. Those who know him say he has a taste for fine suits and can sometimes speak too soon and too much, just as they point to his diplomatic missteps and hyperbole.

They cite, for instance, a news conference in October, when he raised the specter of Srebrenica, where thousands of Muslims were massacred in 1995 during the Balkans war, in warning that the Syrian border town of Kobani could fall to the Islamic State. In February, he was photographed at a party in Damascus, the Syrian capital, celebrating the anniversary of the Iranian revolution just as Syrian forces, aided by Iran, were pummeling rebel-held suburbs of Damascus; critics seized on that as evidence of his coziness with the government.

Mouin Rabbani, who served briefly as the head of Mr. de Mistura’s political affairs unit and has since emerged as one of his most outspoken critics, said Mr. de Mistura did not have the background necessary for the job. “This isn’t someone well known for his political vision or political imagination, and his closest confidants lack the requisite knowledge and experience,” Mr. Rabbani said.

As a deputy foreign minister in the Italian government, Mr. de Mistura was tasked in 2012 with freeing two Italian marines detained in India for shooting at Indian fishermen. He made 19 trips to India, to little effect. One marine was allowed to return to Italy for medical reasons; the other remains in India.

He said he initially turned down the Syria job when the United Nations secretary general approached him last August, only to change his mind the next day, after a sleepless, guilt-ridden night.

Mr. de Mistura compared his role in Syria to that of a doctor faced with a terminally ill patient. His goal in brokering a freeze in the fighting, he said, was to alleviate suffering. He settled on Aleppo as the location for its “fame,” he said, a decision that some questioned, considering that Aleppo was far trickier than the many other lesser-known towns where activists had negotiated temporary local cease-fires.

“Everybody, at least in Europe, are very familiar with the value of Aleppo,” Mr. de Mistura said. “So I was using that as an icebreaker.”

The cease-fire negotiations, to which he had devoted six months, fell apart quickly because of the government’s military offensive in Aleppo the very day of his announcement at the Security Council. Privately, United Nations diplomats said Mr. de Mistura had been manipulated. To this, Mr. de Mistura said only that he was “disappointed and concerned.”

Tarek Fares, a former rebel fighter, said after a recent visit to Aleppo that no Syrian would admit publicly to supporting Mr. de Mistura’s cease-fire proposal. “If anyone said they went to a de Mistura meeting in Gaziantep, they would be arrested,” is how he put it, referring to the Turkish city where negotiations between the two sides were held.

Secretary General Ban Ki-moon remains staunchly behind Mr. de Mistura’s efforts. His defenders point out that he is at the center of one of the world’s toughest diplomatic problems, charged with mediating a conflict in which two of the world’s most powerful nations — Russia, which supports Mr. Assad, and the United States, which has called for his ouster — remain deadlocked.

R. Nicholas Burns, a former State Department official who now teaches at Harvard, credited Mr. de Mistura for trying to negotiate a cease-fire even when the chances of success were exceedingly small — and the chances of a political deal even smaller. For his efforts to work, Professor Burns argued, the world powers will first have to come to an agreement of their own.

“He needs the help of outside powers,” he said. “It starts with backers of Assad. That’s Russia and Iran. De Mistura is there, waiting.”

With Iran Talks, a Tangled Path to Ending Syria’s War

BEIJING (AP) — The head of Taiwan's Nationalists reaffirmed the party's support for eventual unification with the mainland when he met Monday with Chinese President Xi Jinping as part of continuing rapprochement between the former bitter enemies.

Nationalist Party Chairman Eric Chu, a likely presidential candidate next year, also affirmed Taiwan's desire to join the proposed Chinese-led Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank during the meeting in Beijing. China claims Taiwan as its own territory and doesn't want the island to join using a name that might imply it is an independent country.

Chu's comments during his meeting with Xi were carried live on Hong Kong-based broadcaster Phoenix Television.

The Nationalists were driven to Taiwan by Mao Zedong's Communists during the Chinese civil war in 1949, leading to decades of hostility between the sides. Chu, who took over as party leader in January, is the third Nationalist chairman to visit the mainland and the first since 2009.

Relations between the communist-ruled mainland and the self-governing democratic island of Taiwan began to warm in the 1990s, partly out of their common opposition to Taiwan's formal independence from China, a position advocated by the island's Democratic Progressive Party.

Despite increasingly close economic ties, the prospect of political unification has grown increasingly unpopular on Taiwan, especially with younger voters. Opposition to the Nationalists' pro-China policies was seen as a driver behind heavy local electoral defeats for the party last year that led to Taiwanese President Ma Ying-jeou resigning as party chairman.

Taiwan party leader affirms eventual reunion with China

With 12 tournament victories in his career, Mr. Peete was the most successful black professional golfer before Tiger Woods.

Calvin Peete, 71, a Racial Pioneer on the PGA Tour, Is Dead
Photo
 
Many bodies prepared for cremation last week in Kathmandu were of young men from Gongabu, a common stopover for Nepali migrant workers headed overseas. Credit Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

KATHMANDU, Nepal — When the dense pillar of smoke from cremations by the Bagmati River was thinning late last week, the bodies were all coming from Gongabu, a common stopover for Nepali migrant workers headed overseas, and they were all of young men.

Hindu custom dictates that funeral pyres should be lighted by the oldest son of the deceased, but these men were too young to have sons, so they were burned by their brothers or fathers. Sukla Lal, a maize farmer, made a 14-hour journey by bus to retrieve the body of his 19-year-old son, who had been on his way to the Persian Gulf to work as a laborer.

“He wanted to live in the countryside, but he was compelled to leave by poverty,” Mr. Lal said, gazing ahead steadily as his son’s remains smoldered. “He told me, ‘You can live on your land, and I will come up with money, and we will have a happy family.’ ”

Weeks will pass before the authorities can give a complete accounting of who died in the April 25 earthquake, but it is already clear that Nepal cannot afford the losses. The countryside was largely stripped of its healthy young men even before the quake, as they migrated in great waves — 1,500 a day by some estimates — to work as laborers in India, Malaysia or one of the gulf nations, leaving many small communities populated only by elderly parents, women and children. Economists say that at some times of the year, one-quarter of Nepal’s population is working outside the country.

Nepal’s Young Men, Lost to Migration, Then a Quake

Mr. Paczynski was one of the concentration camp’s longest surviving inmates and served as the personal barber to its Nazi commandant Rudolf Höss.

Jozef Paczynski, Inmate Barber to Auschwitz Commandant, Dies at 95

Judge Patterson helped to protect the rights of Attica inmates after the prison riot in 1971 and later served on the Federal District Court in Manhattan.

Robert Patterson Jr., Lawyer and Judge Who Fought for the Accused, Dies at 91
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promo umrah juni bogor
harga paket berangkat umroh awal tahun bekasi utara
biaya paket umroh ramadhan di Batuampar jakarta
harga paket umroh mei di Cakung Timur jakarta
biaya paket umroh juni di Bali Mester jakarta
biaya umrah mei di Makasar jakarta
promo berangkat umrah awal tahun di Kampung Gedong,Cijantung jakarta
paket berangkat umrah akhir tahun di Bidaracina jakarta
biaya berangkat umroh februari di Kampung Baru jakarta
harga paket berangkat umroh ramadhan di Pasar Rebo jakarta
biaya paket berangkat umroh awal tahun di Cipinang Muara jakarta
paket umrah maret di Cakung jakarta
paket promo umroh ramadhan di Makasar jakarta
biaya umrah akhir tahun di Pondok Kelapa jakarta
paket promo berangkat umroh awal tahun di Pal Meriam jakarta
harga berangkat umrah april di Cawang jakarta
biaya umroh desember di Pal Meriam jakarta
harga paket umroh awal tahun di Ciracas jakarta
harga umrah februari di Pondok Kopi jakarta
harga paket berangkat umroh desember di Jatinegara jakarta
promo berangkat umrah ramadhan di Pisangan Timur jakarta
biaya paket berangkat umrah juni di Batuampar jakarta
biaya paket umrah awal tahun di Pondok Kelapa jakarta
paket berangkat umroh maret depok
biaya umroh februari di Pinang Ranti jakarta
harga paket umroh desember di Cipinang Besar Selatan jakarta
biaya umrah mei bogor
harga umrah april di Cipinang Cempedak jakarta
biaya umrah mei di Batuampar jakarta
harga paket umroh juni depok
harga umrah awal tahun di Kampung Melayu jakarta
biaya umroh april di Susukan jakarta
biaya berangkat umrah juni di Cipayung jakarta
promo umroh februari bekasi utara
harga berangkat umrah ramadhan depok
biaya paket berangkat umroh januari di Cawang jakarta
paket promo berangkat umroh april di Cakung Barat jakarta
biaya paket umroh ramadhan bekasi barat
harga paket umroh juni di Kalisari jakarta
harga umrah maret di Kramat Jati jakarta
paket berangkat umrah juni di Cipinang jakarta
biaya paket umroh januari umrohdepag.com
promo berangkat umrah juni bekasi selatan
paket umrah desember di Lubang Buaya jakarta
paket promo berangkat umrah mei di Rawa Terate jakarta
paket umrah mei di Pondok Bambu jakarta
biaya paket berangkat umrah ramadhan di Klender jakarta