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KARTOGRAFI merupakan bagian dari ilmu geografi yang berhubungan dengan pemetaan. Hal ini berkaitan erat dengan sistem komunikasi antara si pembuat peta dan si pengguna peta. Untuk menyampaikan berbagai informasi, baik berupa informasi grafis maupun informasi atribut, diperlukan media yang tepat untuk menyampaikannya, yaitu dengan menggunakan peta sebagai media komunikasi dalam bentuk hardcopy maupun dalam bentuk softcopy.
 
 
 
Peta-peta ini nantinya dapat digunakan sebagai data dan dokumen baik secara aktual maupun secara periodik untuk memberikan informasi geografis suatu wilayah. Dalam kartografi, baik sebgai salah satu bagian dari ilmu geografi dan dokumen ilmiah, kartografi juga merupakan teknik dan pengetahuan untuk menunjukkan suatu fenomena geografis pada suatu daerah yang dipilih dan digeneralisasi. Baca Artikel Lengkapnya
 
A. PENDAHULUAN
Kartografi adalah ilmu dan teknik pembuatan peta (Prihandito, 1989). Dalam kaitannya dengan survei arkeologi, pembahasan mengenai kartografi pada bab ini tidak langsung dikaitkan dengan ilmu dan teknik pembuatan peta, tetapi lebih berkaitan dengan pemanfaatan peta yang sudah dipublikasikan untuk kepentingan survei. Ulasan tentang teknik pemetaan secara garis besar sudah dibahas dalam Bab
 
Mengingat peta termasuk sebagai perlengkapan utama dalam kegiatan survei arkeologis, maka bab ini selain membahas pemanfaatan peta untuk survei arkeologis, juga akan membahas tentang jenis-jenis peta dan teknik pembacaan peta. Pemanfaatan peta yang dikemukakan dalam bab ini dapat melengkapi ?Pengumpulan Informasi untuk Interpretasi? yang dijelaskan di Bab IV dan survei situs arkeologis yang dijelaskan di Bab VII, VIII, dan IX.
 
Kesimpulan : Kartografi merupakan suatu seni, ilmu pengetahuan, dan teknologi pembuatan peta.
 
B. PENYAJIAN
1. Peta dan Pengenalan Jenis-jenis Peta
MenurutICA(International Cartographic Association), yang dimaksud peta adalah gambaran unsure-unsur permukaan bumi (yang berkaitan dengan permukaan bumi) dan benda-benda diangkasa.
 
Menurut Erwin Raiz, peta merupakan gambaran konvesional permukaan bumi yang terpencil Dan kenampakannya terlihat dari atas dan ditambah tulisan-tulisan sebagai penjelasnya. Gambaran konvesional adalah gambaran yang sudah umum dan sudah diatur dengan aturan tertentu yang diakui umum.
 
Menurut Soetarjo Soerjosumarmo, peta adalah lukisan dengan tinta dari seluruh atau sebagian permukaan bumi yang diperkecil denagn perbandingan ukuran yang disebut skala atau kadar.
 
Peta adalah gambaran permukaan bumi dua dimensi dalam bidang datar yang mempunyai koordinat dan diskalakan.
 
Peta Rupabumi: Peta yang didalamnya menggambarkan tentang informasi kebumian, seperti jenis penggunaan lahan yang digambarkan dalam simbol piktorial, abstrak dan asosiasi.
 
Peta dapat diklasifikasikan menurut jenis, skala, fungsi, dan macam persoalan (maksud dan tujuan). Ditinjau dari jenisnya peta dapat dibedakan menjadi dua, yaitu peta foto dan peta garis. Peta foto adalah ?peta yang dihasilkan dari mosaik foto udara / ortofoto yang dilengkapi garis kontur, nama, dan legenda? (Prihandito 1989: 3).
Peta ini meliputi peta foto yang sudah direktifikasi dan peta ortofoto. Adapun peta garis adalah ?peta yang menyajikan detil alam dan buatan manusia dalam bentuk titik, garis, dan luasan? (Prihandito 1989: 3). Peta ini terdiri atas peta topografi dan peta tematik.
Ditinjau dari skalanya, peta dapat dibedakan menjadi peta skala besar (1:50.000 atau lebih kecil, misalnya 1:25.000) dan peta skala kecil (1:500.000 atau lebih besar).
 
Adapun menurut klasifikasi berdasarkan fungsi, terdapat tiga macam peta, yaitu:
Peta umum, yang antara lain memuat jalan, bangunan, batas wilayah, garis pantai, dan elevasi. Peta umum skala besar dikenal sebagai peta topografi, sedangkan yang berskala kecil berupa atlas;
Peta tematik, yang menunjukkan hubungan ruang dalam bentuk atribut tunggal atau hubungan atribut; dan
Kart, yang didesain untuk keperluan navigasi, nautical dan aeronautical (Prihandito 1989: 3-4).
 
Adapun peta yang dapat diklasifikasikan menurut macam persoalan (maksud dan tujuan), anta
ra lain meliputi: peta kadaster, peta geologi, peta tanah, peta ekonomi, peta kependudukan, peta iklim, dan peta tata guna tanah (Prihandito 1989: 4).
Di antara macam-macam peta peta tersebut, yang sering digunakan dalam survei arkeologi adalah peta topografi. Peta topografi adalah peta yang menampilkan, semua unsur yang berada di atas permukaan bumi, baik unsur alam maupun buatan manusia, sehingga disebut juga peta umum. Unsur alam antara lain meliputi: relief muka bumi, unsur hidrografi (sungai, danau, bentuk garis pantai), tanaman, permukaan es, salju, dan pasir (Prihandito 1989: 23; Hascaryo dan Sonjaya 2000: 10).
 
Adapun unsur buatan manusia di antaranya adalah: sarana perhubungan (jalan, rel kereta api, jembatan, terowongan, kanal), konstruksi (gedung, bendungan, jalur pipa, jaringan listrik), daerah khusus (daerah yang ditanami tumbuhan, taman, makam, permukiman, lapangan olah raga), dan batas administratif (Prihandito 1989: 22; Hascaryo dan Sonjaya 2000: 10).
 
Tinggalan-tinggalan arkeologis atau bersejarah seperti bangunan megalitik, candi, gereja, dan reruntuhan bangunan kuna, seringkali juga ditampilkan dalam peta topografi (lihat McIntosh, 1986: 44). Selain menyajikan data keruangan, peta topografi juga memuat data non-keruangan, antara lain grid, graticul (garis lintang dan bujur), arah utara, skala, dan legenda (keterangan mengenai simbol-simbol yang digunakan pada peta)
 
2. Pemanfaatan Peta
Peta topografi dapat digunakan untuk berbagai macam tujuan, serta dapat digunakan sebagai peta dasar (base map) dalam pembuatan peta tematik, seperti peta arkeologi dan peta turis (lihat Prihandito 1989: 17). Dalam survei arkeologi, peta topografi berguna untuk memperoleh gambaran umum tentang wilayah yang diteliti.
 
Dalam kondisi tertentu, misalnya medan survei yang terlalu berat, peta yang sudah ada dapat dipakai untuk memplotkan temuan arkeologis. Pemetaan tersebut, meskipun hanya bersifat sementara, sangat efektif untuk menyimpan dan menyelamatkan data arkeologis (Hascaryo dan Sonjaya 2000: 1).
 
Data dari peta topografi yang diambil untuk membuat peta arkeologi hanya satu atau dua unsur saja, tergantung dari skala dan tujuan pembuatan peta arkeologi itu. Data tersebut digunakan sebagai latar belakang penempatan dan orientasi secara geografis. Selain peta topografi, yang dapat digunakan sebagai peta dasar antara lain adalah foto udara, peta geologi, dan peta administratif (Hascaryo dan Sonjaya 2000: 10).
 
Besar skala peta dasar yang dibutuhkan untuk membuat peta arkeologi tergantung pada luas wilayah yang akan dipetakan, yaitu:
wilayah seluas provinsi memerlukan peta dasar berskala 1:100.000 sampai dengan 1:250.000;
wilayah seluas kabupaten memerlukan peta dasar berskala 1:50.000 sampai dengan 1:100.000;
wilayah setingkat kecamatan, desa, atau situs memerlukan peta dasar berskala 1:10.000 sampai dengan 1:25.000 (Wasisto 1998, dikutip dalam Hascaryo
dan Sonjaya 2000: 10).
 
Jenis Jenis Peta
Peta daat digolongkan menjadi beberapa dasar yaitu :
Penggolongan berdasarkan skalanya :
 
Peta skala besar dengan skala 1: 25.000. Peta ini isinya lebih detail contoh peta tofografi.
Peta skala sedang dengan skala 1: 25,000 – 1: 2.000.000 peta ini hanya memuat yang penting penting saja.
Peta skala kecil dengan skala lebih dari 1:200.000.
Penggolongan berdasarkan isi dan fungsinya:
 
Peta umum (General Map) yaitumpeta yang memuat kenampakan kenampkan umum (lebih dari satu jenis ) memuat kenampakan fisis lamiah da kenampakan budaya. Peta ini lebih berfungsi sebagai orintasi.
Peta tematik yaitu peta yang memuat satu jenis kenampakan saja peta tertentu baik kenampakan fisis maupun kenampakan budaya.
Peta kart yaitu peta yang di desain untuk keperluan navigasi, nautical, aeronautical.
Penggolongan berdasarkan tujuannya:
 
Peta geologi bertujuan untuk menunjukan formasi batuan atau aspek geologi lainnya di suatu daerah.
Peta iklim bertujuan untuk menunjukkan berbagai macam sifat iklim di suatu daerah.
Jenis jenis lainnya : misalnya peta tanah, peta kependudukan peta tata guna lahan dan sebaginya
Penggambaran keadaan muka bumi ke dalam bidang datar yang kemudian disebut peta, merupakan salah satu kebutuhan awal bagi para pengelola dan perencana sumber daya.
peta merupakan gambaran permukaan bumi yang berisi fenomena alam dan fenomena buatan memuat informasi yang diperlukan dalam pengelolaan sumberdaya di berbagai bidang pembangunan termasuk bidang perencanaan tata ruang, kehutanan, perkebunan, pertanian, kelautan, pertambangan dan lain sebagainya.
Secara umum peta diartikan sebagai gambaran konvensional dari pola bumi yang digambarkan seolah olah dilihat dari atas ada bidang datar melalui satu bidang proyeksi degan dilengkapi tulisan tulisan untuk identifiksinya
Peta mengandung arti komunikasi. Artinya merupakan suatu signal atau Channel antara sipengirim pesan ( pembuat peta) dengan si penerima pesan (pemakai peta). Dengan demikian peta digunakan untuk mengirim pesan berupa informasi tetang realita dari fenomena geografi.
Peta pada dasarnya adalah sebuah data yang didesain untuk mampu menghasilkan sebuah informasi geografis melalui proses pengorganisasian dari kolaborasi data lainnya yang berkaitan dengan bumi untuk menganalisis, memperkirakan dan menghasilkan gambaran kartografi.
 
 
Informasi ruang mengenai bumi sangat kompleks, tetapi pada umunmya data geografi mengandung 4 aspek penting, yaitu (Zhou, 1998):
 
Lokasi-lokasi yang berkenaan dengan ruang, merupakan objek-objek ruang yang khas pada sistem koordinat (projeksi sebuah peta)
Atribut (ciri bahan), informasi yang menerangkan mengenai objek-objek ruang yang diperlukan
Hubungan ruang, hubungan lojik atau kuantitatif diantara objek-objek ruang
Waktu, merupakan waktu untuk perolehan data, data atribut dan ruang.
Fungsi Peta
Peta mempunyai beberapa fungsi, yaitu :
 
Memperlihatkan posisi atau lokasi relatif dari suatu tempat.
Memperlihatkan ukuran dalam pengertian jarak dan arah.
Memperlihatkan bentuk atau unsur yang terdapat di permukaan bumi.
Menghimpun serta menselektif data permukaan bumi.
Jenis Peta
Berdasarkan jenisnya, peta dapat dikelompokkan sebagai berikut :
 
1. Peta Topografi
Peta Topografi merupakan peta yang memperlihatkan posisi horisontal serta vertikal dari unsur alam dan unsur buatan manusia dalam suatu bentuk tertentu, dengan memperhatikan sistem proyeksi peta yang digunakan serta skala peta. Umumnya peta topografi dibuat untuk keperluan perencanaan pembangunan, karena pada peta topografi disajikan unsur-unsur permukaan bumi yang sesuai dengan kondisi pada saat pembuatan petanya.
 
Peta Topografi disebut juga sebagai peta dasar, karena peta topografi digunakan sebagai dasar untuk pembuatan peta-peta lainnya, baik untuk pembuatan peta topografi dengan skala peta yang lebih kecil dari peta aslinya (original map), atau juga untuk pembuatan peta-peta tematik.
 
Berikut adalah contoh peta topografi : Bahan Bangunan
 
Peta Planimetrik
Peta yang menyjikan informasi tentang beberapa tipe unsur permukaan bumi, pada peta ini informasi ketinggian tidak disajikan.
HARGA BAHAN BANGUNAN MURAH

Mobil telah menjadi kebutuhan banyak orang untuk dapat melakukan perjalanan baik dalam kota maupun luar kota. Akan tetapi banyak juga masyarakat yang belum dapat memiliki mobil pribadi sendiri. Hal ini tidaklah jadi hambatan kita untuk bepergian menggunakan mobil, karena saat ini telah banyak jasa Sewa mobil yang terdapat disekitar kita.

Beberapa hal yang harus dimiliki penyedia jasa sewa mobil adalah mobil dengan kondisi yang bagus dan prima, serta telah memiliki fasilitas yang lengkap seperti full AC, full audio, dan GPS bila dibutuhkan. Selain fasilitas tersebut pengetahuan seorang supir tentang jalan-jalan di dalam dan luar kota juga menjadi hal yang penting, karena supir ini yang akan mentukan kelancaran dan kenyamanan perjalanan penyewa.

Dua tahun terakhir ini kami selalu berusaha untuk memberikan pelayanan yang maksimal kepada pelanggan kami, yaitu dengan cara yang telah kami jelaskan sebelumnya. Hasilnya begitu terasa, karena hampir semua yang telah menyewa di tempat kami datang kembali untuk menggunakan kembali jasa sewa mobil di Bekasi Barat murah kami.

Kami adalah penyedia jasa sewa mobil di Bekasi Barat. Kami siap untuk memberikan pelayanan terbaik kami bagi anda yang ingin menyewa mobil. Kami telah memiliki berbagai macam jenis mobil diantaranya adalah Avanza, APV, Kijang Innova, Xenia, dan lainnya. Sedikit informasi, kebanyakan dari penyewa kami memilih APV sebagai mobil yang disewa, karena kapasitas dari mobil ini cukup banyak. Bila anda tertarik untuk menggunakan jasa sewa mobil di Bekasi Barat milik kami, anda dapat menghubungi kami pada bagian informasi yang berada di bagian informasi pada web ini. Kami juga menawarkan harga sewa mobil murah khusus untuk para konsumen kami yang kami cintai.

LAYANAN JASA SEWA MOBIL BEKASI

Saco-Indonesia.com - Pemeriksaan colok dubur atau Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) menjadi langkah pencegahan terhadap penyakit kanker prostat. Langkah pencegahan ini sekaligus sebagai bentuk deteksi dini kemungkinan kanker prostat. Pada pemeriksaan ini, dokter akan meraba prostat anda melalui anus dengan sarung tangan.

"Memang hasilnya bersifat relatif, bergantung pada jari dokter dan seringnya dokter melakukan pemeriksaan. Tapi langkah ini paling mudah, murah, dan aplikatif," kata internist Dr.Aru Wisaksono Sudoyo, SpPD,KHOM,FACP pada seminar Kanker Prostat:Pembunuh Lelaki yang Datang Diam-Diam di Jakarta, Rabu (15/5).

Pemeriksaan ini, menurut Aru, tidak harus dilakukan spesialis. Dokter umum yang ada di seluruh wilayah Indonesia bisa melakukannya. Pemeriksaan DRE diharapkan bisa menjangkau dan mendeteksi lebih banyak masyarakat di pelosok Indonesia. Pada pemeriksaan DRE dokter akan memeriksa permukaan prostat.

"Apakah masih halus atau sudah ada benjolan. Dokter juga akan memeriksa apakah prostatnya sudah mengeras atau belum, sekaligus membedakannya dengan pembesaran prostat biasa," ujar Aru.

Menurut urolog Prof.dr.Rainy Umbas, PhD, SpU, pemeriksaan DRE bisa meningkatkan angka harapan hidup penderita kanker prostat hingga 60 persen. Hal ini dikarenakan penyakit bisa diketahui lebih awal, sehingga mempermudah proses penyembuhan.

"Pemeriksaan DRE ini penting karena kanker prostat tidak memiliki gejala yang khas. Deteksi dini tentu sangat bermanfaat bagi kelangsungan hidup pasien," kata Umbas.

Pemeriksaan DRE semakin penting bila melihat hasil studi National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guideline pada 2012. Pada studi ini 58,8 persen penderita kanker memeriksakan diri pada stadium lanjut. Sementara, angka penyebaran penyakit ini di Indonesia adalah 11 per 100 ribu penduduk.

Pemeriksaan DRE sebaiknya dilakukan sedini mungkin, terutama pada pria berusia di atas 50 tahun. Bila dalam keluarga ada riwayat kanker prostat, maka pemeriksaan DRE dilakukan pada pria ketika berusia 40 tahun. "Pengaruh gen sebetulnya kecil, hanya 6 persen. Namun orang dalam keluarga biasanya memiliki kebiasaan yang tidak jauh berbeda, sehingga faktor risikonya lebih besar," kata Umbas.

 

Editor :Liwon Maulana(galipat)
Colok Dubur, Cara Mudah Deteksi Kanker Prostat

saco-indonesia.com, Hidup ini adalah sebuah janji kita kepada Tuhan. Janji kita untuk menjadi yang terbaik dan melakukan semuanya sebagai sebuah ibadah kepada-Nya. Karena itu penuhilah janji tersebut.

Janji Kepada Tuhan
Mungkin banyak sekali tugas yang telah di berikan tugas oleh guru/dosen pengajar. Sehingga mahasiswa/murid membutuhkan bahan referensi di internet. Kali ini, admin akan memberikan informasi mengenai Contoh Karya Ilmiah Lengkap tentang Kelapa Sawit. Semoga Contoh Karya Ilmiah/makalah ini dapat membantu untuk menyelesaikan tugas yang diberikan oleh guru/dosen teman-teman.
 
 
 BAB 1
PENDAHULUAN
§  Latar Belakang
 
Di Indonesia, tanaman kelapa sawit banyak dikebunkan oleh perusahaan-perusahaan besar, baik pemerintah maupun swasta. Bahkan masyarakat pun banyak bertanam kelapa sawit. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa tanaman kelapa sawit sangat cocok tumbuh di Indonesia. Jika Indonesia ditargetkan untuk menjadi negara penghasil minyak kelapa sawit terbesar di dunia, tentunya banyak  orang-orang yang mengelolanya, mulai dari pembibitan, penanaman sampai ke teknik pengelolahan hasil panen harus berlaku profesional.
 
§  Tujuan
 
Tujuan dari pembuatan makalah ini adalah sebagai berikut.
o   Sebagai bahan kajian siswa mengenai panen dan penanganan pasca panen pada tanaman kelapa sawit.
o   Sebagai cara untuk mempelajari berbagai cara panen dan penanganan pasca panen pada tanaman kelapa sawit.
o   Sebagai syarat untuk melaksanakan tugas individu dari guru pembimbing.
 
§  Rumusan Masalah
 
o   Apa itu Kelapa Sawit ?
o   Bagaimana karakteristik dari Kelapa Sawit ?
o   Bagaimana sejarah penyebaran Kelapa Sawit di Indonesia ?
o   Bagaimana cara pemasaran Kelapa Sawit ?
o   Apa saja kandungan yang terdapat dalam Kelapa Sawit ?
o   Apa saja manfaat Kelapa Sawit ?
o   Bagaimana cara pembudidayaan dan cara pemeliharaan Kelapa Sawit ?
o   Apa sajakah hasil olahan yang dihasilkan dari Kelapa Sawit ?
 
 
 
 
BAB 2
PEMBAHASAN
 
§  Pengertian Kelapa Sawit
 
Kelapa sawit (Elaeis) adalah tumbuhan industri penting penghasil minyak masak, minyak industri, maupun bahan bakar (biodiesel). Perkebunannya menghasilkan keuntungan besar sehingga banyak hutan dan perkebunan lama dikonversi menjadi perkebunan kelapa sawit.
 
§  Karakteristik Kelapa Sawit
 

- See more at: http://pbsstainmetro.blogspot.com/2014/02/contoh-karya-ilmiah-lengkap-tentang.html#.dpuf

CONTOH KARYA ILMIAH LENGKAP TENTANG KELAPA SAWIT

Fullmer, who reigned when fight clubs abounded and Friday night fights were a television staple, was known for his title bouts with Sugar Ray Robinson and Carmen Basilio.

Gene Fullmer, a Brawling Middleweight Champion, Dies at 83

As he reflected on the festering wounds deepened by race and grievance that have been on painful display in America’s cities lately, President Obama on Monday found himself thinking about a young man he had just met named Malachi.

A few minutes before, in a closed-door round-table discussion at Lehman College in the Bronx, Mr. Obama had asked a group of black and Hispanic students from disadvantaged backgrounds what could be done to help them reach their goals. Several talked about counseling and guidance programs.

“Malachi, he just talked about — we should talk about love,” Mr. Obama told a crowd afterward, drifting away from his prepared remarks. “Because Malachi and I shared the fact that our dad wasn’t around and that sometimes we wondered why he wasn’t around and what had happened. But really, that’s what this comes down to is: Do we love these kids?”

Many presidents have governed during times of racial tension, but Mr. Obama is the first to see in the mirror a face that looks like those on the other side of history’s ledger. While his first term was consumed with the economy, war and health care, his second keeps coming back to the societal divide that was not bridged by his election. A president who eschewed focusing on race now seems to have found his voice again as he thinks about how to use his remaining time in office and beyond.

Continue reading the main story Video
Play Video|1:17

Obama Speaks of a ‘Sense of Unfairness’

Obama Speaks of a ‘Sense of Unfairness’

At an event announcing the creation of a nonprofit focusing on young minority men, President Obama talked about the underlying reasons for recent protests in Baltimore and other cities.

By Associated Press on Publish Date May 4, 2015. Photo by Stephen Crowley/The New York Times.

In the aftermath of racially charged unrest in places like Baltimore, Ferguson, Mo., and New York, Mr. Obama came to the Bronx on Monday for the announcement of a new nonprofit organization that is being spun off from his White House initiative called My Brother’s Keeper. Staked by more than $80 million in commitments from corporations and other donors, the new group, My Brother’s Keeper Alliance, will in effect provide the nucleus for Mr. Obama’s post-presidency, which will begin in January 2017.

“This will remain a mission for me and for Michelle not just for the rest of my presidency but for the rest of my life,” Mr. Obama said. “And the reason is simple,” he added. Referring to some of the youths he had just met, he said: “We see ourselves in these young men. I grew up without a dad. I grew up lost sometimes and adrift, not having a sense of a clear path. The only difference between me and a lot of other young men in this neighborhood and all across the country is that I grew up in an environment that was a little more forgiving.”

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Organizers said the new alliance already had financial pledges from companies like American Express, Deloitte, Discovery Communications and News Corporation. The money will be used to help companies address obstacles facing young black and Hispanic men, provide grants to programs for disadvantaged youths, and help communities aid their populations.

Joe Echevarria, a former chief executive of Deloitte, the accounting and consulting firm, will lead the alliance, and among those on its leadership team or advisory group are executives at PepsiCo, News Corporation, Sprint, BET and Prudential Group Insurance; former Secretary of State Colin L. Powell; Senator Cory Booker, Democrat of New Jersey; former Attorney General Eric H. Holder Jr.; the music star John Legend; the retired athletes Alonzo Mourning, Jerome Bettis and Shaquille O’Neal; and the mayors of Indianapolis, Sacramento and Philadelphia.

The alliance, while nominally independent of the White House, may face some of the same questions confronting former Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton as she begins another presidential campaign. Some of those donating to the alliance may have interests in government action, and skeptics may wonder whether they are trying to curry favor with the president by contributing.

“The Obama administration will have no role in deciding how donations are screened and what criteria they’ll set at the alliance for donor policies, because it’s an entirely separate entity,” Josh Earnest, the White House press secretary, told reporters on Air Force One en route to New York. But he added, “I’m confident that the members of the board are well aware of the president’s commitment to transparency.”

The alliance was in the works before the disturbances last week after the death of Freddie Gray, the black man who suffered fatal injuries while in police custody in Baltimore, but it reflected the evolution of Mr. Obama’s presidency. For him, in a way, it is coming back to issues that animated him as a young community organizer and politician. It was his own struggle with race and identity, captured in his youthful memoir, “Dreams From My Father,” that stood him apart from other presidential aspirants.

But that was a side of him that he kept largely to himself through the first years of his presidency while he focused on other priorities like turning the economy around, expanding government-subsidized health care and avoiding electoral land mines en route to re-election.

After securing a second term, Mr. Obama appeared more emboldened. Just a month after his 2013 inauguration, he talked passionately about opportunity and race with a group of teenage boys in Chicago, a moment aides point to as perhaps the first time he had spoken about these issues in such a personal, powerful way as president. A few months later, he publicly lamented the death of Trayvon Martin, a black Florida teenager, saying that “could have been me 35 years ago.”

Photo
 
President Obama on Monday with Darinel Montero, a student at Bronx International High School who introduced him before remarks at Lehman College in the Bronx. Credit Stephen Crowley/The New York Times

That case, along with public ruptures of anger over police shootings in Ferguson and elsewhere, have pushed the issue of race and law enforcement onto the public agenda. Aides said they imagined that with his presidency in its final stages, Mr. Obama might be thinking more about what comes next and causes he can advance as a private citizen.

That is not to say that his public discussion of these issues has been universally welcomed. Some conservatives said he had made matters worse by seeming in their view to blame police officers in some of the disputed cases.

“President Obama, when he was elected, could have been a unifying leader,” Senator Ted Cruz of Texas, a Republican candidate for president, said at a forum last week. “He has made decisions that I think have inflamed racial tensions.”

On the other side of the ideological spectrum, some liberal African-American activists have complained that Mr. Obama has not done enough to help downtrodden communities. While he is speaking out more, these critics argue, he has hardly used the power of the presidency to make the sort of radical change they say is necessary.

The line Mr. Obama has tried to straddle has been a serrated one. He condemns police brutality as he defends most officers as honorable. He condemns “criminals and thugs” who looted in Baltimore while expressing empathy with those trapped in a cycle of poverty and hopelessness.

In the Bronx on Monday, Mr. Obama bemoaned the death of Brian Moore, a plainclothes New York police officer who had died earlier in the day after being shot in the head Saturday on a Queens street. Most police officers are “good and honest and fair and care deeply about their communities,” even as they put their lives on the line, Mr. Obama said.

“Which is why in addressing the issues in Baltimore or Ferguson or New York, the point I made was that if we’re just looking at policing, we’re looking at it too narrowly,” he added. “If we ask the police to simply contain and control problems that we ourselves have been unwilling to invest and solve, that’s not fair to the communities, it’s not fair to the police.”

Moreover, if society writes off some people, he said, “that’s not the kind of country I want to live in; that’s not what America is about.”

His message to young men like Malachi Hernandez, who attends Boston Latin Academy in Massachusetts, is not to give up.

“I want you to know you matter,” he said. “You matter to us.”

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Ms. Meadows was the older sister of Audrey Meadows, who played Alice Kramden on “The Honeymooners.”

Jayne Meadows, Actress and Steve Allen’s Wife and Co-Star, Dies at 95

HOBART, Tasmania — Few places seem out of reach for China’s leader, Xi Jinping, who has traveled from European capitals to obscure Pacific and Caribbean islands in pursuit of his nation’s strategic interests.

So perhaps it was not surprising when he turned up last fall in this city on the edge of the Southern Ocean to put down a long-distance marker in another faraway region, Antarctica, 2,000 miles south of this Australian port.

Standing on the deck of an icebreaker that ferries Chinese scientists from this last stop before the frozen continent, Mr. Xi pledged that China would continue to expand in one of the few places on earth that remain unexploited by humans.

He signed a five-year accord with the Australian government that allows Chinese vessels and, in the future, aircraft to resupply for fuel and food before heading south. That will help secure easier access to a region that is believed to have vast oil and mineral resources; huge quantities of high-protein sea life; and for times of possible future dire need, fresh water contained in icebergs.

It was not until 1985, about seven decades after Robert Scott and Roald Amundsen raced to the South Pole, that a team representing Beijing hoisted the Chinese flag over the nation’s first Antarctic research base, the Great Wall Station on King George Island.

But now China seems determined to catch up. As it has bolstered spending on Antarctic research, and as the early explorers, especially the United States and Australia, confront stagnant budgets, there is growing concern about its intentions.

China’s operations on the continent — it opened its fourth research station last year, chose a site for a fifth, and is investing in a second icebreaker and new ice-capable planes and helicopters — are already the fastest growing of the 52 signatories to the Antarctic Treaty. That gentlemen’s agreement reached in 1959 bans military activity on the continent and aims to preserve it as one of the world’s last wildernesses; a related pact prohibits mining.

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But Mr. Xi’s visit was another sign that China is positioning itself to take advantage of the continent’s resource potential when the treaty expires in 2048 — or in the event that it is ripped up before, Chinese and Australian experts say.

“So far, our research is natural-science based, but we know there is more and more concern about resource security,” said Yang Huigen, director general of the Polar Research Institute of China, who accompanied Mr. Xi last November on his visit to Hobart and stood with him on the icebreaker, Xue Long, or Snow Dragon.

With that in mind, the polar institute recently opened a new division devoted to the study of resources, law, geopolitics and governance in Antarctica and the Arctic, Mr. Yang said.

Australia, a strategic ally of the United States that has strong economic relations with China, is watching China’s buildup in the Antarctic with a mix of gratitude — China’s presence offers support for Australia’s Antarctic science program, which is short of cash — and wariness.

“We should have no illusions about the deeper agenda — one that has not even been agreed to by Chinese scientists but is driven by Xi, and most likely his successors,” said Peter Jennings, executive director of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute and a former senior official in the Australian Department of Defense.

“This is part of a broader pattern of a mercantilist approach all around the world,” Mr. Jennings added. “A big driver of Chinese policy is to secure long-term energy supply and food supply.”

That approach was evident last month when a large Chinese agriculture enterprise announced an expansion of its fishing operations around Antarctica to catch more krill — small, protein-rich crustaceans that are abundant in Antarctic waters.

“The Antarctic is a treasure house for all human beings, and China should go there and share,” Liu Shenli, the chairman of the China National Agricultural Development Group, told China Daily, a state-owned newspaper. China would aim to fish up to two million tons of krill a year, he said, a substantial increase from what it currently harvests.

Because sovereignty over Antarctica is unclear, nations have sought to strengthen their claims over the ice-covered land by building research bases and naming geographic features. China’s fifth station will put it within reach of the six American facilities, and ahead of Australia’s three.

Chinese mappers have also given Chinese names to more than 300 sites, compared with the thousands of locations on the continent with English names.

In the unspoken competition for Antarctica’s future, scientific achievement can also translate into influence. Chinese scientists are driving to be the first to drill and recover an ice core containing tiny air bubbles that provide a record of climate change stretching as far back as 1.5 million years. It is an expensive and delicate effort at which others, including the European Union and Australia, have failed.

In a breakthrough a decade ago, European scientists extracted an ice core nearly two miles long that revealed 800,000 years of climate history. But finding an ice core going back further would allow scientists to examine a change in the earth’s climate cycles believed to have occurred 900,000 to 1.2 million years ago.

China is betting it has found the best location to drill, at an area called Dome A, or Dome Argus, the highest point on the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Though it is considered one of the coldest places on the planet, with temperatures of 130 degrees below zero Fahrenheit, a Chinese expedition explored the area in 2005 and established a research station in 2009.

“The international community has drilled in lots of places, but no luck so far,” said Xiao Cunde, a member of the first party to reach the site and the deputy director of the Institute for Climate Change at the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences. “We think at Dome A we will have a straight shot at the one-million-year ice core.”

Mr. Xiao said China had already begun drilling and hoped to find what scientists are looking for in four to five years.

To support its Antarctic aspirations, China is building a sophisticated $300 million icebreaker that is expected to be ready in a few years, said Xia Limin, deputy director of the Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Administration in Beijing. It has also bought a high-tech fixed-wing aircraft, outfitted in the United States, for taking sensitive scientific soundings from the ice.

China has chosen the site for its fifth research station at Inexpressible Island, named by a group of British explorers who were stranded at the desolate site in 1912 and survived the winter by excavating a small ice cave.

Mr. Xia said the inhospitable spot was ideal because China did not have a presence in that part of Antarctica, and because the rocky site did not have much snow, making it relatively cheap to build there.

Anne-Marie Brady, a professor of political science at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand and the author of a soon-to-be-released book, “China as a Polar Great Power,” said Chinese scientists also believed they had a good chance of finding mineral and energy resources near the site.

“China is playing a long game in Antarctica and keeping other states guessing about its true intentions and interests are part of its poker hand,” she said. But she noted that China’s interest in finding minerals was presented “loud and clear to domestic audiences” as the main reason it was investing in Antarctica.

Because commercial drilling is banned, estimates of energy and mineral resources in Antarctica rely on remote sensing data and comparisons with similar geological environments elsewhere, said Millard F. Coffin, executive director of the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies in Hobart.

But the difficulty of extraction in such severe conditions and uncertainty about future commodity prices make it unlikely that China or any country would defy the ban on mining anytime soon.

Tourism, however, is already booming. Travelers from China are still a relatively small contingent in the Antarctic compared with the more than 13,000 Americans who visited in 2013, and as yet there are no licensed Chinese tour operators.

But that is about to change, said Anthony Bergin, deputy director of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute. “I understand very soon there will be Chinese tourists on Chinese vessels with all-Chinese crew in the Antarctic,” he said.

 

Top News China’s Intents Are Questioned as It Builds in Antarctica

Late in April, after Native American actors walked off in disgust from the set of Adam Sandler’s latest film, a western sendup that its distributor, Netflix, has defended as being equally offensive to all, a glow of pride spread through several Native American communities.

Tantoo Cardinal, a Canadian indigenous actress who played Black Shawl in “Dances With Wolves,” recalled thinking to herself, “It’s come.” Larry Sellers, who starred as Cloud Dancing in the 1990s television show “Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman,” thought, “It’s about time.” Jesse Wente, who is Ojibwe and directs film programming at the TIFF Bell Lightbox in Toronto, found himself encouraged and surprised. There are so few film roles for indigenous actors, he said, that walking off the set of a major production showed real mettle.

But what didn’t surprise Mr. Wente was the content of the script. According to the actors who walked off the set, the film, titled “The Ridiculous Six,” included a Native American woman who passes out and is revived after white men douse her with alcohol, and another woman squatting to urinate while lighting a peace pipe. “There’s enough history at this point to have set some expectations around these sort of Hollywood depictions,” Mr. Wente said.

The walkout prompted a rhetorical “What do you expect from an Adam Sandler film?,” and a Netflix spokesman said that in the movie, blacks, Mexicans and whites were lampooned as well. But Native American actors and critics said a broader issue was at stake. While mainstream portrayals of native peoples have, Mr. Wente said, become “incrementally better” over the decades, he and others say, they remain far from accurate and reflect a lack of opportunities for Native American performers. What’s more, as Native Americans hunger for representation on screen, critics say the absence of three-dimensional portrayals has very real off-screen consequences.

“Our people are still healing from historical trauma,” said Loren Anthony, one of the actors who walked out. “Our youth are still trying to figure out who they are, where they fit in this society. Kids are killing themselves. They’re not proud of who they are.” They also don’t, he added, see themselves on prime time television or the big screen. Netflix noted while about five people walked off the “The Ridiculous Six” set, 100 or so Native American actors and extras stayed.

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But in interviews, nearly a dozen Native American actors and film industry experts said that Mr. Sandler’s humor perpetuated decades-old negative stereotypes. Mr. Anthony said such depictions helped feed the despondency many Native Americans feel, with deadly results: Native Americans have the highest suicide rate out of all the country’s ethnicities.

The on-screen problem is twofold, Mr. Anthony and others said: There’s a paucity of roles for Native Americans — according to the Screen Actors Guild in 2008 they accounted for 0.3 percent of all on-screen parts (those figures have yet to be updated), compared to about 2 percent of the general population — and Native American actors are often perceived in a narrow way.

In his Peabody Award-winning documentary “Reel Injun,” the Cree filmmaker Neil Diamond explored Hollywood depictions of Native Americans over the years, and found they fell into a few stereotypical categories: the Noble Savage, the Drunk Indian, the Mystic, the Indian Princess, the backward tribal people futilely fighting John Wayne and manifest destiny. While the 1990 film “Dances With Wolves” won praise for depicting Native Americans as fully fleshed out human beings, not all indigenous people embraced it. It was still told, critics said, from the colonialists’ point of view. In an interview, John Trudell, a Santee Sioux writer, actor (“Thunderheart”) and the former chairman of the American Indian Movement, described the film as “a story of two white people.”

“God bless ‘Dances with Wolves,’ ” Michael Horse, who played Deputy Hawk in “Twin Peaks,” said sarcastically. “Even ‘Avatar.’ Someone’s got to come save the tribal people.”

Dan Spilo, a partner at Industry Entertainment who represents Adam Beach, one of today’s most prominent Native American actors, said while typecasting dogs many minorities, it is especially intractable when it comes to Native Americans. Casting directors, he said, rarely cast them as police officers, doctors or lawyers. “There’s the belief that the Native American character should be on reservations or riding a horse,” he said.

“We don’t see ourselves,” Mr. Horse said. “We’re still an antiquated culture to them, and to the rest of the world.”

Ms. Cardinal said she was once turned down for the role of the wife of a child-abusing cop because the filmmakers felt that casting her would somehow be “too political.”

Another sore point is the long run of white actors playing American Indians, among them Burt Lancaster, Rock Hudson, Audrey Hepburn and, more recently, Johnny Depp, whose depiction of Tonto in the 2013 film “Lone Ranger,” was viewed as racist by detractors. There are, of course, exceptions. The former A&E series “Longmire,” which, as it happens, will now be on Netflix, was roundly praised for its depiction of life on a Northern Cheyenne reservation, with Lou Diamond Phillips, who is of Cherokee descent, playing a Northern Cheyenne man.

Others also point to the success of Mr. Beach, who played a Mohawk detective in “Law & Order: Special Victims Unit” and landed a starring role in the forthcoming D C Comics picture “Suicide Squad.” Mr. Beach said he had come across insulting scripts backed by people who don’t see anything wrong with them.

“I’d rather starve than do something that is offensive to my ancestral roots,” Mr. Beach said. “But I think there will always be attempts to drawn on the weakness of native people’s struggles. The savage Indian will always be the savage Indian. The white man will always be smarter and more cunning. The cavalry will always win.”

The solution, Mr. Wente, Mr. Trudell and others said, lies in getting more stories written by and starring Native Americans. But Mr. Wente noted that while independent indigenous film has blossomed in the last two decades, mainstream depictions have yet to catch up. “You have to stop expecting for Hollywood to correct it, because there seems to be no ability or desire to correct it,” Mr. Wente said.

There have been calls to boycott Netflix but, writing for Indian Country Today Media Network, which first broke news of the walk off, the filmmaker Brian Young noted that the distributor also offered a number of films by or about Native Americans.

The furor around “The Ridiculous Six” may drive more people to see it. Then one of the questions that Mr. Trudell, echoing others, had about the film will be answered: “Who the hell laughs at this stuff?”

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Mr. King sang for the Drifters and found success as a solo performer with hits like “Spanish Harlem.”

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Mr. Napoleon was a self-taught musician whose career began in earnest with the orchestra led by Chico Marx of the Marx Brothers.

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Mr. Paczynski was one of the concentration camp’s longest surviving inmates and served as the personal barber to its Nazi commandant Rudolf Höss.

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From sea to shining sea, or at least from one side of the Hudson to the other, politicians you have barely heard of are being accused of wrongdoing. There were so many court proceedings involving public officials on Monday that it was hard to keep up.

In Newark, two underlings of Gov. Chris Christie were arraigned on charges that they were in on the truly deranged plot to block traffic leading onto the George Washington Bridge.

Ten miles away, in Lower Manhattan, Dean G. Skelos, the leader of the New York State Senate, and his son, Adam B. Skelos, were arrested by the Federal Bureau of Investigation on accusations of far more conventional political larceny, involving a job with a sewer company for the son and commissions on title insurance and bond work.

The younger man managed to receive a 150 percent pay increase from the sewer company even though, as he said on tape, he “literally knew nothing about water or, you know, any of that stuff,” according to a criminal complaint the United States attorney’s office filed.

The success of Adam Skelos, 32, was attributed by prosecutors to his father’s influence as the leader of the Senate and as a potentate among state Republicans. The indictment can also be read as one of those unfailingly sad tales of a father who cannot stop indulging a grown son. The senator himself is not alleged to have profited from the schemes, except by being relieved of the burden of underwriting Adam.

The bridge traffic caper is its own species of crazy; what distinguishes the charges against the two Skeloses is the apparent absence of a survival instinct. It is one thing not to know anything about water or that stuff. More remarkable, if true, is the fact that the sewer machinations continued even after the former New York Assembly speaker, Sheldon Silver, was charged in January with taking bribes disguised as fees.

It was by then common gossip in political and news media circles that Senator Skelos, a Republican, the counterpart in the Senate to Mr. Silver, a Democrat, in the Assembly, could be next in line for the criminal dock. “Stay tuned,” the United States attorney, Preet Bharara said, leaving not much to the imagination.

Even though the cat had been unmistakably belled, Skelos father and son continued to talk about how to advance the interests of the sewer company, though the son did begin to use a burner cellphone, the kind people pay for in cash, with no traceable contracts.

That was indeed prudent, as prosecutors had been wiretapping the cellphones of both men. But it would seem that the burner was of limited value, because by then the prosecutors had managed to secure the help of a business executive who agreed to record calls with the Skeloses. It would further seem that the business executive was more attentive to the perils of pending investigations than the politician.

Through the end of the New York State budget negotiations in March, the hopes of the younger Skelos rested on his father’s ability to devise legislation that would benefit the sewer company. That did not pan out. But Senator Skelos did boast that he had haggled with Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo, a Democrat, in a successful effort to raise a $150 million allocation for Long Island to $550 million, for what the budget called “transformative economic development projects.” It included money for the kind of work done by the sewer company.

The lawyer for Adam Skelos said he was not guilty and would win in court. Senator Skelos issued a ringing declaration that he was unequivocally innocent.

THIS was also the approach taken in New Jersey by Bill Baroni, a man of great presence and eloquence who stopped outside the federal courthouse to note that he had taken risks as a Republican by bucking his party to support paid family leave, medical marijuana and marriage equality. “I would never risk my career, my job, my reputation for something like this,” Mr. Baroni said. “I am an innocent man.”

The lawyer for his co-defendant, Bridget Anne Kelly, the former deputy chief of staff to Mr. Christie, a Republican, said that she would strongly rebut the charges.

Perhaps they had nothing to do with the lane closings. But neither Mr. Baroni nor Ms. Kelly addressed the question of why they did not return repeated calls from the mayor of Fort Lee, N.J., begging them to stop the traffic tie-ups, over three days.

That silence was a low moment. But perhaps New York hit bottom faster. Senator Skelos, the prosecutors charged, arranged to meet Long Island politicians at the wake of Wenjian Liu, a New York City police officer shot dead in December, to press for payments to the company employing his son.

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Public perceptions of race relations in America have grown substantially more negative in the aftermath of the death of a young black man who was injured while in police custody in Baltimore and the subsequent unrest, far eclipsing the sentiment recorded in the wake of turmoil in Ferguson, Mo., last summer.

Americans are also increasingly likely to say that the police are more apt to use deadly force against a black person, the latest New York Times/CBS News poll finds.

The poll findings highlight the challenges for local leaders and police officials in trying to maintain order while sustaining faith in the criminal justice system in a racially polarized nation.

Sixty-one percent of Americans now say race relations in this country are generally bad. That figure is up sharply from 44 percent after the fatal police shooting of Michael Brown and the unrest that followed in Ferguson in August, and 43 percent in December. In a CBS News poll just two months ago, 38 percent said race relations were generally bad. Current views are by far the worst of Barack Obama’s presidency.

The negative sentiment is echoed by broad majorities of blacks and whites alike, a stark change from earlier this year, when 58 percent of blacks thought race relations were bad, but just 35 percent of whites agreed. In August, 48 percent of blacks and 41 percent of whites said they felt that way.

Looking ahead, 44 percent of Americans think race relations are worsening, up from 36 percent in December. Forty-one percent of blacks and 46 percent of whites think so. Pessimism among whites has increased 10 points since December.

Continue reading the main story
Do you think race relations in the United States are generally good or generally bad?
60
40
20
0
White
Black
May '14
May '15
Generally bad
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Do you think race relations in the United States are getting better, getting worse or staying about the same?
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Staying the same
Getting better
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All adults
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44%
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The poll finds that profound racial divisions in views of how the police use deadly force remain. Blacks are more than twice as likely to say police in most communities are more apt to use deadly force against a black person — 79 percent of blacks say so compared with 37 percent of whites. A slim majority of whites say race is not a factor in a police officer’s decision to use deadly force.

Overall, 44 percent of Americans say deadly force is more likely to be used against a black person, up from 37 percent in August and 40 percent in December.

Blacks also remain far more likely than whites to say they feel mostly anxious about the police in their community. Forty-two percent say so, while 51 percent feel mostly safe. Among whites, 8 in 10 feel mostly safe.

One proposal to address the matter — having on-duty police officers wear body cameras — receives overwhelming support. More than 9 in 10 whites and blacks alike favor it.

Continue reading the main story
How would you describe your feelings about the police in your community? Would you say they make you feel mostly safe or mostly anxious?
Mostly safe
Mostly anxious
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All adults
Whites
Blacks
75%
21
3
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7
Continue reading the main story
In general, do you think the police in most communities are more likely to use deadly force against a black person, or more likely to use it against a white person, or don’t you think race affects police use of deadly force?
Police more likely to use deadly force against a black person
Police more likely to use deadly force against a white person
Race DOES NOT affect police use of deadly force
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79%
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Do you favor or oppose on-duty police officers wearing video cameras that would record events and actions as they occur?
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Asked specifically about the situation in Baltimore, most Americans expressed at least some confidence that the investigation by local authorities would be conducted fairly. But while nearly two-thirds of whites think so, fewer than half of blacks agree. Still, more blacks are confident now than were in August regarding the investigation in Ferguson. On Friday, six members of the police force involved in the arrest of Mr. Gray were charged with serious offenses, including manslaughter. The poll was conducted Thursday through Sunday; results from before charges were announced are similar to those from after.

Reaction to the recent turmoil in Baltimore, however, is similar among blacks and whites. Most Americans, 61 percent, say the unrest after Mr. Gray’s death was not justified. That includes 64 percent of whites and 57 percent of blacks.

Continue reading the main story
As you may know, a Baltimore man, Freddie Gray, recently died after being in the custody of the Baltimore police. How much confidence do you have that the investigation by local authorities into this matter will be conducted fairly?
A lot
Some
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Whites
Blacks
29%
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22
In general, do you think the unrest in Baltimore after the death of Freddie Gray was justified, or do you think the unrest was not justified?
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Blacks
28%
61
11
26
64
11
37
57
6

Negative View of U.S. Race Relations Grows, Poll Finds

Hired in 1968, a year before their first season, Mr. Fanning spent 25 years with the team, managing them to their only playoff appearance in Canada.

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Under Mr. Michelin’s leadership, which ended when he left the company in 2002, the Michelin Group became the world’s biggest tire maker, establishing a big presence in the United States and other major markets overseas.

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At the National Institutes of Health, Dr. Suzman’s signature accomplishment was the central role he played in creating a global network of surveys on aging.

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harga paket berangkat umrah ramadhan di Kebon Manggis jakarta
harga umrah juni di Cakung Timur jakarta
harga paket umroh awal tahun di Kebon Manggis jakarta
promo berangkat umroh ramadhan depok
biaya paket berangkat umroh januari di Cipinang Besar Selatan jakarta
biaya paket umrah april di Bidaracina jakarta
biaya berangkat umroh juni di Kampung Baru jakarta
harga paket umrah juni di Ceger jakarta
biaya berangkat umroh februari di Pinang Ranti jakarta
harga umroh awal tahun di Cakung jakarta
paket berangkat umrah januari di Bali Mester jakarta
paket berangkat umroh februari bekasi selatan
biaya umrah maret di Munjul jakarta
paket berangkat umrah februari di Munjul jakarta
harga paket berangkat umroh februari di Kramat Jati jakarta
biaya umrah juni di Kalisari jakarta
biaya umrah desember di Kampung Melayu jakarta
promo berangkat umrah juni di Munjul jakarta
promo umrah desember depok
harga paket umrah akhir tahun di Lubang Buaya jakarta
harga paket berangkat umrah awal tahun di Klender jakarta
biaya umrah april di Setu jakarta
biaya umrah februari di Matraman jakarta
harga paket berangkat umroh mei di Bambu Apus jakarta
paket berangkat umroh desember di Rawa Bunga jakarta
paket umrah april di Matraman jakarta
paket promo berangkat umroh juni di Pulo Gadung jakarta
biaya paket umroh akhir tahun di Cipinang jakarta
promo berangkat umrah awal tahun di Cililitan jakarta
paket promo berangkat umrah ramadhan di Pisangan Baru jakarta
promo umrah mei bogor
promo umrah mei di Susukan jakarta
harga paket berangkat umroh mei di Rawa Bunga jakarta
biaya paket umrah mei di Matraman jakarta
paket promo berangkat umroh ramadhan di Pondok Kelapa jakarta
promo berangkat umroh april di Utan Kayu Selatan jakarta
paket umroh ramadhan di Pekayon jakarta
harga paket berangkat umroh april di Pekayon jakarta
biaya paket umroh april di Munjul jakarta
biaya paket umrah februari di Malaka Sari jakarta