PAKET UMROH BULAN FEBRUARI MARET APRIL MEI 2018




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Tour & Travel

Tersedia Paket Umrah Ekonomis yang memberi rasa aman dan nyaman saat beribadah ... Kami Tour & Travel memiliki Izin dan Legalitas Resmi dari ... Tour & Travel

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umroh hotel bintang 3 di surabaya bulan desember tahun 2015 Ponsel 081280208172 Jl Tebet Barat Dalam Raya no 40C Tebet Jakarta Selatan 12810, 13250 DKI Jakarta Indonesia, menggambarkan sebelah produsen cotton wafer ringan karna pengen dibuat bahan yaitu Cotton bahan yang bisa terjadi Obesitas pada anak menawarkan Compute pelanggan karena berada Padahal fakta
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Tour & Travel

Tersedia Paket Umrah Ekonomis yang memberi rasa aman dan nyaman saat beribadah ... Kami Tour & Travel memiliki Izin dan Legalitas Resmi dari ... Tour & Travel

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Paket Umroh 2015

Biro Travel Umroh Jakarta Melayani Biaya Harga Paket Umroh Murah Promo Hemat dan Plus Turki Desember 2015 - Januari | Februari | Maret | April 2016. Paket Umroh 2015

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Ternyata 8 Makanan Tak Terduga Tinggi Kolesterol

Saco-Indonesia.com — Kolesterol tinggi dalam darah merupakan salah satu faktor risiko dari penyakit jantung. Namun, kolesterol tinggi tidak terbentuk dalam semalam, tetapi perlahan-lahan. Salah satunya akibat pola makan yang salah.

Meskipun Anda tidak memiliki tanda-tanda, gejala, ataupun riwayat keluarga dengan penyakit jantung, tetapi wajib hukumnya untuk menjaga diet sehat agar tetap memiliki kesehatan yang prima.

Mungkin Anda sudah menghindari makanan-makanan berlemak yang diketahui sebagai sumber kolesterol. Namun, ada juga makanan yang tak terduga mengandung kolesterol tinggi seperti berikut:

1. Daging unggas
Daging unggas memang dianggap lebih minim risiko dibanding daging merah karena memiliki kandungan lemak yang cenderung lebih rendah. Namun, jika dimakan dalam jumlah yang banyak atau terlalu sering, daging unggas juga akan memberikan efek negatif, salah satunya adalah peningkatan kadar kolesterol dalam darah.

2. Gula tambahan
Satu fakta yang cukup mengejutkan adalah gula tambahan ternyata berhubungan dengan penurunan kadar kolesterol "baik" atau high density lipoprotein (HDL) dalam darah. Jadi, pengurangan gula tambahan dalam diet, selain mengurangi risiko diabetes juga memperbaiki kadar kolesterol.

3. Kentang tumbuk
Kentang tumbuk atau mashed potato ternyata memiliki kandungan lemak yang tinggi. Terutama yang ditemukan di restoran karena mengandung mentega, krim, susu, keju yang berlebihan. Hal tesebut membuat salah satu sumber karbohidrat ini menjadi makanan tinggi lemak jenuh.

4. Pizza
Satu potong pizza mengandung 10 gram lemak dan 4,4 gram lemak jenuh. Angka itu belum termasuk topping yang mungkin mengandung lebih banyak lemak.

5. Kelapa
Produk kelapa seperti santan ataupun minyak kelapa mengandung lemak jenuh yang cukup tinggi. Namun, penggunaannya dalam skala sedang tidak terlalu berakibat buruk terhadap kadar kolesterol darah.

6. Produk susu
Produk susu memang mengandung banyak nutrisi yang penting seperti kalsium, protein, vitamin, dan mineral, tetapi juga mengandung lemak jenuh. Maka sebaiknya pilihlah produk yang rendah lemak.

7. Pai dan kue
Pai dan kue berbahan baku mentega, krim, susu, dan keju yang mengandung lemak jenuh. Maka satu gigitan pai dan kue sudah memberikan sumbangan kalori yang tinggi bagi tubuh.

8. Popcorn
Satu wadah popcorn ukuran sedang mengandung 60 gram lemak jenuh dan 1.200 kalori. Hal ini dikarenakan pengolahan popcorn membutuhkan minyak yang berpengaruh terhadap kadar kolesterol.

 

 

Editor : Liwon Maulana(galipat)
> Ternyata 8 Makanan Tak Terduga Tinggi Kolesterol

CARA MENINGKATKAN PENJUALAN ONLINE

Jadi, tunggu apa lagi langsung saja anda menuju sumber artikel dan mempelajari tehnik cara meningkatkan penjualan online yang kami bagikan tersebut. Harapan kami semoga memang benar-benar ampuh untuk mempromosikan produk anda secara online.

Nah supaya anda tidak penasaran bagaimana cara meningkatkan penjualan online dengan menggunakan fasilitas facebook commerce ini maka kami mengajak anda untuk berkunjung dan membaca artikel kami dimana telah kami sertakan tautannya pada tulisan singkat kami di group ini.

Ketika kita berbicara tentang bisnis, entah itu bisnis online maupun offline, agen pulsa termurah, strategi marketing yang baik akan sangat berandil besar dalam kemajuan bisnis tersebut. Nah untuk i bisnis online, tentu saja marekting online yang baik lah yang akan menentukan kemajuan bisnis online tersebut.

Trik bagaimana cara meningkatkan penjualan secara online ini adalah sebuah fasilitas yang diadakan oleh lakubgt, yaitu facebook commerce. Facebook commerce ini adalah sebuah toko online di lakubgt yang terintegrasi dengan facebook sebagai sosial media paling besar di dunia.

> CARA MENINGKATKAN PENJUALAN ONLINE

TEMPAT WISATA MUSEUM SATRIA MANDALA

Museum Satria Mandala merupakan salah satu objek wisata sejarah yang berada di pusat pemerintahan negara Indonesia, Jakarta, tepatnya di Jalan Gatot Subroto. Museum ini di buka untuk umum mulai tahun 1972 yang pada saat itu peresmiannya telah dilakukan oleh presiden Soeharto dimana menurut sejarahnya, bangunan museum Satria Mandala awal mulanya sebagai rumah dari istri Soeharto yang bernama Ratna Sari Dewi Soekarno.

Museum milik Tentara Nasional Indonesia (TNI) ini juga telah menyajikan beragam peninggalan – peninggalam benda – benda perang mulai dari rudal, pesawat tempur, torpedo, ranjau, helicopter dan peralatan tempur lainnya. Sehingga objek wisata ini juga sangat cocok sekali dikunjungi oleh para pelajar yang ingin mengenal lebih jauh mengenai sejarah pertempuran bangsa Indonesia pada zaman dahulu.

Objek wisata Museum Satria Mandala mempunyai halaman depan yang cukup luas dan telah di tata sedemikian rupa sehingga suasananya akan tampak rapih sekali. Di beberapa sisi halaman depan-nya anda akan melihat sebuah benda “roket peluru kendali” yang mempunyai ukuran antara 7 hingga 8 meter, dan tidak jauh dari alat tempur tersebut anda juga akan melihat sebuah pesawat helicopter yang dahulu digunakan oleh TNI AU.

Koleksi Alat Perang Museum Satria Mandala

Hal yang tidak kalah menariknya untuk anda lihat selain di dalam Museum Satria Mandala yaitu sebuah ruang pameran alat – alat berat seperti tank – tank berlapis baja yang terdapat di sebelah samping dan belakang museum. Sebagian besar tank – tank tersebut adalah kendaraan pertama yang dimiliki oleh bangsa Indonesia buatan luar negeri. Namun dari sekian banyak koleksi kendaraan tersebut, tank amphibi milik TNI AL adalah yang paling di sukai oleh para pengunjung.

Koleksi Alat Perang Museum Satria Mandala

Museum Satria Mandala juga terlihat sangat sepi sekali dari keramaian para pengunjung, jadi ketika anda berkunjung ke tempat wisata ini, anda akan dapat dengan mudah melakukan berbagai macam aktivitas dengan lebih fleksibel dan mudah seperti berfoto – foto dekat dengan kendaraan tempur yang terdapat di Museum Satria Mandala.

Objek wisata Museum Satria Mandala juga sangat cocok sekali di kunjungi oleh keluarga yang ingin mengenalkan tentang sejarah dan alat – alat tempur yang digunakan oleh bangsa Indonesia dalam memperjuangkan kemerdekaannya pada masa lampau. Dan untuk memasuki objek wisata ini, anda juga akan dikenakan biaya sebesar 2500 rupiah untuk anak – anak dan 5 ribu rupiah untuk orang dewasa, harga yang cukup murah bukan.

> TEMPAT WISATA MUSEUM SATRIA MANDALA

BERCOCOK TANAM JAGUNG

MEMILIH BENIH Benih bermutu merupakan syarat utama untuk mendapatkan panen yang maksimal. Disebut benih bermutu; jenisnya murni, bernas, kering, sehat, bebas penyakit dan campuran biji rumput yang tidak dikehendaki. Kriteria ini biasanya menghasilkan tanaman sehat, kekar, kokoh dan pertumbuhan yang seragam. PEMILIHAN LAHAN LAHAN YANG BAIK Lahan yang baik adalah lahan yang kering, berpengairan cukup, lahan tadah hujan, lahan gambut yang telah diperbaiki atau lahan basah bekas menanam padi. Agar tumbuh dan berproduksi dengan baik Jagung harus ditanam di lahan terbuka yang terkena sinar matahari penuh selama 8 jam. KADAR pH Meskipun idealnya memerlukan pH 6,8 tetapi jagung bisa toleran terhadap lahan tanaman pH 5,5 – 7.0. Apabila ada tanah yang pH nya terlalu rendah bisa dinaikkan dengan menaburkan kapur. Kemudian agar lebih efisien, aplikasinya bisa dilakukan bersama dengan pengolahan lahan. Setelah penaburan, lahan dicangkul dan disiram agar kapur bisa tercampur secara merata. Kebutuhan kapur sangat bergantung pada nilai pH awal lahan. Sebagai patokan, untuk satu hektar lahan yang memiliki pH 5,0 dibutuhkan kapur antara 2 sampai 4 ton. Apabila pH lahan terlalu tinggi atau basa, maka dapat diturunkan dengan menaburkan belerang. Namun hal ini dilakukan jika nilai pH lahan memang sangat tinggi yakni 8,0 atau 9,0 PENGOLAHAN LAHAN PEMBERSIHAN GULMA Sebelum jagung ditanam, lahan perlu dibersihkan dari gulma dan tanaman liar. Gulma seperti alang alang, rumput teki, semak dan pohon perdu disiangi sampai ke akar akarnya. Gulma itu dibakar, abunya ditaburkan ke lahan sebagai kompos untuk kesuburan tanah. Gulma jangan dikubur, karena dikawatirkan akan munculnya hama seperti rayap dan semut. Selain itu, alang alang dan rumput teki bisa tumbuh kembali apabila hanya dikubur di dalam tanah. Selain gulma, pohon pohon besar yang tumbuh di sekitar lahan dan berpotensi menghalangi masuknya sinar matahari; untuk jagung melakukan proses fotosintesis, juga perlu ditebang. PENCANGKULAN Pencangkulan dilakukan dengan memindahlkan tanah bagian bawah sedalam 15 s/d 20 cm ke atas permukaan lahan. Selain untuk menyeimbangkan ketersediaan unsur hara antara bagian bawah dan bagian atas lahan, pencangkulan juga dimaksudkan membuat tanah lebih remah dan gembur. Untuk lahan yang memiliki jenis tanah gembur atau bekas tanaman semusim, pencangkulan cukup dilakukan sekali saja. Sementara itu untuk lahan yang memiliki tanah berat, pencangkulan perlu dilakukan dua kali lalu digaru. Jika lahan yang digarap terlalu luas, pencangkulan bisa diganti dengan bajak agar pengerjaannya bisa lebih cepat. PEMBUATAN BEDENGAN Pembuatan bedengan untuk lokasi penanaman benih banyak dilakukan di dataran rendah pada lahan kering, lahan bekas sawah, atau lahan tadah hujan. Bedengan dibuat selebar 70 s/d 100 cm, dengan ketinggian antara 10 s/d 20 cm. Sedangkan untuk panjangnya disesuaikan dengan kondisi, kontur, lahan. Di daerah kering tinggi bedengan sebaiknya dibuat agak rendah untuk memudahkan penyiraman karena jika terlalu tinggi membutuhkan banyak air saat penyiraman. Di antara bedengan dibuat parit selebar 20 s/d 30 cm yang berfungsi untuk mengatur keluar masuknya air di bedengan agar akar jagung tidak tergenang. PEMUPUKAN Pemupukan dimaksudkan meningkatkan kandungan unsur hara di lahan tanam. Waktu pemberian pupuk RI1, yang paling efektif selain bersama dengan saat pencangkulan atau pembajakan bisa juga diberikan saat akan membuat lubang tanam. Dengan cara begitu, pupuk RI1 yang diberikan akan tercampur merata dengan lahan tanam. Sebagai pedoman untuk lahan 1 hektar diperlukan 12 – 15 liter pupuk RI 1. PENANAMAN PEMBUATAN LUBANG TANAM Lubang tanam dibuat sedalam antara 2 s/d 5 cm menggunakan tugal, yakni alat terbuat dari kayu bulat panjang ujungnya runcing. Jarak lubang adalah 20 x 20 cm atau 20 x 40 cm. Agar barisan lubang tanam yang dibuat menjadi teratur, bisa digunakan alat bantu berupa tali yang dibentangkan sepanjang bedengan. Sementara itu, untuk benih yang ditanam di parit bedengan, diperlukan jarak antar lubang sepanjang 20 cm. PENANAMAN BENIH Untuk menghindarkan hama dan jamur serta untuk merangsang pertumbuhan dengan kualitas yang baik, sebelum ditanam benih direndam terlebih dahulu ke dalam air yang sudah dicampur pupuk RI1 selama 30 menit. Sesudah direndam perlu ditiriskan, tetapi tidak perlu diberi fungisida. Penanaman benih dilakukan pada pagi atau sore, saat matahari tidak begitu terik. Setelah benih masuk ke lubang, maka lubang itu harus ditutuip lagi dengan tanah secara ringan; tidak perlu dipadat padatkan. Waktu terbaik menanam benih adalah waktu akhir musim hujan agar saat masa pertumbuhan hingga memasuki masa mengeluarkan buah, tanaman masih mendapatkan pasokan air dan diharapkan saat panen tiba, musim kemarau telah datang sehingga memudahkan proses pengeringan. Mengingat dewasa ini kondisi dan situasi musim di Indonesia selalu berubah, untuk memastikan jadwal yang tepat, seyogyanya berkonsultasi terlebih dahulu dengan dinas pertanian setempat. PERAWATAN PENYULAMAN BENIH Satu minggu setelah tanam benih akan tumbuh dan muncul tanaman muda. Saat itu pengecekan harus dilakukan. Jika ada benih yang tidak tumbuh, mati, atau tanaman muda terserang penyakit, segera lakukan penyulaman yakni melakukan penanaman benih kembali yang proses dan tata caranya sama dengan penanaman benih sebelumnya. Penyulaman ini dimaksudkan agar tanaman tumbuh seragam, baik umur maupun sosoknya. Karena itu penyulaman tidak bisa dilakukan setelah tanaman berumur di atas 25 hari, dikarenakan pada usia itu sistem perakaran tanaman sudah tumbuh kuat sehingga benih sulaman tidak mampu bersaing memperebutkan unsur hara. PENYIANGAN GULMA Penyiangan dilakukan dua kali; pada saat tanaman berumur 14 hari dan 40 hari setelah tanam. Untuk gulma seperti rumput atau perdu lain, penyiangan dilakukan manual dengan cara mencabut seluruh bagian tanaman gulma sampai ke akar akarnya. Setelah itu gulma dikumpulkan dan dibakar sampai habis! Bersama penyiangan gulma yang kedua dilakukan juga pembubunan, yakni menutup akar tanaman yang muncul ke permukaan tanah dengan menggunakan tanah yang diambil di antara tanaman. Dengan menggunakan cangkul, tanah dipindahkan ke barisan jagung yang ada di kanan dan kiri hingga tercipta parit baru barisan tanaman. Hal ini dimaksudkan agar akar tanaman semakin mencengkeram tanah sehingga tanaman tidak akan roboh saat diterpa angin. PUPUK LANJUTAN Pada usia 15 s/d 30 hari setelah tanam atau setelah penyiangan pertama, tanaman perlu diberi pupuk lanjutan. Dengan tetap menggunakan RI1, pemberian pupuk ini dilanjutkan kembali setelah berusia 40 hari. PENGAIRAN Pengariran dilakukan dengan sistem leb; mengalirkan air ke dalam parit hingga meresap ke seluruh bagian bedengan. Cara ini lebih efisien dibanding penyiraman manual yang tentu memakan banyak waktu dan tenaga. Agar akar tanaman tetap mudah bernafas, usahakan saat melakukan pengairan air tidak sampai menggenangi bedengan. Untuk lahan yang tergolong kering atau saat tanaman mulai mengeluarkan buah, pengairan harus dilakukan dengan teratur dan terjadwal. Lahan yang terlalu kering atau kekurangan air saat proses pembuahan akan mengakibatkan tongkol tumbuh kecil sehingga mengurangi jumlah produksi pada saat panen. MASA PANEN Umur panen tergantung dari varietasnya. Tetapi ada beberapa ciri khusus, salah satunya adalah ketika daun jagung, kelobot, sudah berwarna putih kecoklatan dan tidak meninggalkan bekas apabila bijinya ditekan menggunakan kuku. Sebelum dipanen, daun jagung dikupas dan dipangkas bagian atasnya sehingga yang tersisa di pohon adalah buah jagung yang terkupas tetapi masih tersisa daunnya. Perlakuan ini dimaksudkan untuk mempercepat proses pengeringan jagung. Setelah beberapa hari di pohon dan bijinya tampak mengering, barulah dilakukan pemetikan dengan mengambil waktu pada siang hari, ketika cuaca terik, agar kadar air dalam biji tidak bertambah. Ingat, kadar air yang tinggi menyebabkan buah jagung mudah terserang penyakit. Pemetikan jagung bisa dilakukan dengan memetik buahnya saja, tongkolan, atau sekaligus dengan daun keringnya. Jika jagung yang dipanen buahnya saja akan lebih mudah diangkut menggunakan keranjang atau karung, maka jagung yang dipanen dengan daunnya akan memudahkan pengangkutan bila menggunakan pikulan. Setelah jagung dipanen, selanjutnya perlu dilakukan penjemuran, pemipilan; memisahkan biji jagung dari tongkolnya, dan penyimpanan. HAMA DAN PENYAKIT PENANGGULANGAN HAMA Penggerek Batang Serangga ini meletakkan telurnya pada daun, dan setelah menetas larvanya akan memakan batang jagung. Gejala ini bisa dilihat ketika muncul lubang pada batang jagung. Selain itu, Penggerek Batang juga menyerang rambut dan pucuk tongkol buah jagung. Jika dibiarkan hama ini bisa menyebabkan berkurangnya produksi bahkan gagal panen. Pencegahannya bisa dilakukan dengan menanam jagung secara serempak, melakukan rotasi, dan memusnahkan tanaman yang terserang. Lalat Hama lalat berwarna abu abu, meletakkan telurnya berwarna putih di bawah permukaan daun. Setelah beberapa hari menetas larva memakan daun, pangkal daun dan pangkal batang serta menyebabkan munculnya lubang lubang di seluruh bagian tanaman. Jika seranggannya hebat, batang bisa patah karena pangkalnya habis dimakan. Pencegahannya antara lain dengan melakukan penanaman serentak, memilih varietas yang tahan serangan hama, memasang mulsa jerami di atas bedengan dan selalu menjaga kebersihan dari gulma. Ulat Tongkol Ulat tongkol meletakkan telurnya yang berwarna putih di daun dan rambut tongkol. Setelah menetas telur akanberubah menjadi larva berwarna kuning berkepala hitam. Larva inilah yang akan menyerang tongkol buah, dan menyebabkan kebusukan. Pencegahan hama ini dilakukan dengan mengambil dan memusnahkan satu per satu. Ulat Tanah Ulat tanah ini menyerang bagian bagian vital seperti batang dan buah. Hama ini menyerang pada malam hari dan dan bersembunyi di dalam tanah pada siang hari. Ulat tanah biasa menyerang tanaman yang masih muda, membuat batang tanaman akan patah dan mati. Pencegahannya dengan menggunakan metode olah tanah. Kumbang Penggerek Biji Kumbang ini menyerang buah sejak saat panen sampai masuk ke dalam gudang. Biji buah menjadi keropos karena bagian dalamnya habis digerogoti, dan kerugiannya bisa mencapai 70%. Kumbang Bubuk Kumbang ini hampir seperti Kumbang Penggerek Biji, juga menyerang buah jagung. Gejala yang ditimbulkan adalah munculnya lubang lubang pada biji jagung yang lama kelamaan biji jagung akan hancur menjadi bubuk. Hama ini menyerang biji yang kurang kering dan biasanya terjadi pada saat cuaca lembab, dan kerusakan yang terjadi bisa mencapai 10%. Kutu Daun Kutu daun menyerang dengan cara menghisap cairan makanan yang ada di daun. Tanaman akan kekurangan cairan dan daun berubah warna menjadi kuning, mengering, akhirnya mati. Pencegahan dilakukan dengan merotasi tanaman untuk memutus siklus kehidupannya. Ulat Grayak Dalam skala besar ulat grayak akan menghabiskan seluruh daun dan hanya menyisakan tulang daun. Pencegahannya dengan melakukan rotasi tanaman dan untuk menekan perkembangannya perlu menjaga kebersihan lahan. Monyet dan Babi Serangan kedua hama ini dapat menimbulkan kerugian yang sangat besar. Dalam waktu semalam monyet dan babi bisa menghabiskan dan merusak tanaman seluas seperempat hektar. Untuk mengatasi hama ini bisa digunakan jerat dan kincir bambu yang bersuara keras. PENANGGULANGAN PENYAKIT Busuk Kelobot Penyakit busuk kelobot, daun jagung, disebabkan oleh jamur dengan gejala munculnya bintik bintik bulat warna hitam kebiruan di kelobot. Buah akan membusuk, akhirnya mati. Pencegahannya selain berdekatan dengan pohon pisang; karena sama sama merupakan inang jamur, bibit harus direndam dengan RI1. Bercak Daun Penyakit ini juga disebabkan oleh jamur, menyerang daun, pelepah, dan tongkol buah. Gejalanya muncul bercak bercak berwarna coklat dan kuning di daun, pelepah, dan tongkol buah. Penyakit ini menyebabkan terhambatnya proses fotosintesis sehingga mengganggu produktivitas. Pencegahannya dilakukan dengan menanam varietas yang tahan serangan penyakit ini. Pengendaliannya dilakukan dengan memusnahkan tanaman yang terserang agar tidak menular ke tanaman lain. Busuk Tongkol Pada awalnya jamur menyerang daun kemudian merembet ke buah, dengan gejalanya memunculkan bercak bercak berwarna merah muda atau coklat gelap di kelobot buah. Akibatnya tongkol buah akan membusuk dan menyebabkan gagal panen. Pencegahannya dilakukan dengan menanam varietas yang tahan terhadap hama ini dan membersihkan gulma yang berpotensi menjadi inang jamur. Busuk Kerdil Penyakit kerdil disebabkan oleh virus yang pada awalnya memunculkan bercak bercak kuning muda dan memenuhi seluruh permukaan daun. Tanaman tidak bisa melakukan proses fotosintesis sehingga kekurangan makanan dan menjadi cacat atau kerdil. Pencegahan terbaik dengan melakukan penanaman varietas yang tahan terhadap penyakit ini dan melakukan rotasi tanaman untuk memutuskan siklus kehidupan virus. Tanaman yang terserang harus dimusnahkan agar tidak menjadi inang dan menulari tanaman lain yang masih sehat. Hawar/Blight Penyakit Hawar disebabkan oleh bakteri yang biasa menyerang daun bagian bawah tanaman muda yang akan berbunga, dengan gejala awal munculnya bercak bercak pada daun berbentuk huruf V. Akibatnya pertumbuhan terhambat dan produktivitasnya menurun, daun mengering lalu mati. Pencegahannya selain menanam varietas yang tahan terhadap penyakit ini, juga harus membersihkan gulma di sekitar lahan terutama inang sejenis bawang. Sedangkan pengendaliannya dengan cara memeusnahkan tanaman yang terserang. Bulai/Downy Mildew Penyakit ini disebabkan jamur, dan bagian yang diserang adalah daun terutama pada tanaman muda berumur di bawah 40 hari. Daun berubah warna menjadi kuning keputih putihan dan di bagian bawahnya muncul semacam serbuk berwarna putih berbentuk seperti tepung. Serangan jamur ini akan meningkat pada suhu udara tinggi. Akibatnya tanaman rusak dan tidak bisa menghasilkan tongkol jagung yang sempurna. Jika serangan hebat tanaman mati. Pencegahan penyakit ini dilakukan dengan merendam benih dengan RI1 sebelum ditanam. Pengendaliannya dilakukan dengan cara membakar tanaman yang diserang. Busuk Batang Penyakit busuk batang disebabkan oleh bakteri yang gejala awalnya batang abgian bawah berubah warna menjadi kecoklatan kemudian membusuk, mati, dan patah secara tiba tiba. Dari titik patahan tercium bau busuk yang menyengat. Pencegahannya dilakukan dengan selalu menjaga kebersihan lahan agar tidak menular ke tanaman yang masih sehat. Karat Daun Penyakit Karat Daun disebabkan oleh jamur dengan gejala awal muncul bercak bercak merah dan keluar serbuk seperti tepung berwarna coklat kekuning kuningan. Akibatnya tanaman tidak bisa melakukan fotosintesis fengan sempurna sehingga pertumbuhannya lambat, bahkan bisa mati. Pencegahannya dilakukan dengan menanam varietas yang tahan terhadap penyakit ini. Catatan : Dari semua jenis hama diatas ketika tanaman kita diserang hama, dapat dilakukan langkah - langkah sebagai berikut : Aplikasikan Nutrisi RI1 Organik dicampur dengan rendama daun tembakau dan extrak daun sirsak, extrak daun intaran, extrak daun suren kemudian semprot kan pada tanaman dan tanaman yang terserang hama secara merata.> BERCOCOK TANAM JAGUNG

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Top News China’s Intents Are Questioned as It Builds in Antarctica

HOBART, Tasmania — Few places seem out of reach for China’s leader, Xi Jinping, who has traveled from European capitals to obscure Pacific and Caribbean islands in pursuit of his nation’s strategic interests.

So perhaps it was not surprising when he turned up last fall in this city on the edge of the Southern Ocean to put down a long-distance marker in another faraway region, Antarctica, 2,000 miles south of this Australian port.

Standing on the deck of an icebreaker that ferries Chinese scientists from this last stop before the frozen continent, Mr. Xi pledged that China would continue to expand in one of the few places on earth that remain unexploited by humans.

He signed a five-year accord with the Australian government that allows Chinese vessels and, in the future, aircraft to resupply for fuel and food before heading south. That will help secure easier access to a region that is believed to have vast oil and mineral resources; huge quantities of high-protein sea life; and for times of possible future dire need, fresh water contained in icebergs.

It was not until 1985, about seven decades after Robert Scott and Roald Amundsen raced to the South Pole, that a team representing Beijing hoisted the Chinese flag over the nation’s first Antarctic research base, the Great Wall Station on King George Island.

But now China seems determined to catch up. As it has bolstered spending on Antarctic research, and as the early explorers, especially the United States and Australia, confront stagnant budgets, there is growing concern about its intentions.

China’s operations on the continent — it opened its fourth research station last year, chose a site for a fifth, and is investing in a second icebreaker and new ice-capable planes and helicopters — are already the fastest growing of the 52 signatories to the Antarctic Treaty. That gentlemen’s agreement reached in 1959 bans military activity on the continent and aims to preserve it as one of the world’s last wildernesses; a related pact prohibits mining.

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But Mr. Xi’s visit was another sign that China is positioning itself to take advantage of the continent’s resource potential when the treaty expires in 2048 — or in the event that it is ripped up before, Chinese and Australian experts say.

“So far, our research is natural-science based, but we know there is more and more concern about resource security,” said Yang Huigen, director general of the Polar Research Institute of China, who accompanied Mr. Xi last November on his visit to Hobart and stood with him on the icebreaker, Xue Long, or Snow Dragon.

With that in mind, the polar institute recently opened a new division devoted to the study of resources, law, geopolitics and governance in Antarctica and the Arctic, Mr. Yang said.

Australia, a strategic ally of the United States that has strong economic relations with China, is watching China’s buildup in the Antarctic with a mix of gratitude — China’s presence offers support for Australia’s Antarctic science program, which is short of cash — and wariness.

“We should have no illusions about the deeper agenda — one that has not even been agreed to by Chinese scientists but is driven by Xi, and most likely his successors,” said Peter Jennings, executive director of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute and a former senior official in the Australian Department of Defense.

“This is part of a broader pattern of a mercantilist approach all around the world,” Mr. Jennings added. “A big driver of Chinese policy is to secure long-term energy supply and food supply.”

That approach was evident last month when a large Chinese agriculture enterprise announced an expansion of its fishing operations around Antarctica to catch more krill — small, protein-rich crustaceans that are abundant in Antarctic waters.

“The Antarctic is a treasure house for all human beings, and China should go there and share,” Liu Shenli, the chairman of the China National Agricultural Development Group, told China Daily, a state-owned newspaper. China would aim to fish up to two million tons of krill a year, he said, a substantial increase from what it currently harvests.

Because sovereignty over Antarctica is unclear, nations have sought to strengthen their claims over the ice-covered land by building research bases and naming geographic features. China’s fifth station will put it within reach of the six American facilities, and ahead of Australia’s three.

Chinese mappers have also given Chinese names to more than 300 sites, compared with the thousands of locations on the continent with English names.

In the unspoken competition for Antarctica’s future, scientific achievement can also translate into influence. Chinese scientists are driving to be the first to drill and recover an ice core containing tiny air bubbles that provide a record of climate change stretching as far back as 1.5 million years. It is an expensive and delicate effort at which others, including the European Union and Australia, have failed.

In a breakthrough a decade ago, European scientists extracted an ice core nearly two miles long that revealed 800,000 years of climate history. But finding an ice core going back further would allow scientists to examine a change in the earth’s climate cycles believed to have occurred 900,000 to 1.2 million years ago.

China is betting it has found the best location to drill, at an area called Dome A, or Dome Argus, the highest point on the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Though it is considered one of the coldest places on the planet, with temperatures of 130 degrees below zero Fahrenheit, a Chinese expedition explored the area in 2005 and established a research station in 2009.

“The international community has drilled in lots of places, but no luck so far,” said Xiao Cunde, a member of the first party to reach the site and the deputy director of the Institute for Climate Change at the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences. “We think at Dome A we will have a straight shot at the one-million-year ice core.”

Mr. Xiao said China had already begun drilling and hoped to find what scientists are looking for in four to five years.

To support its Antarctic aspirations, China is building a sophisticated $300 million icebreaker that is expected to be ready in a few years, said Xia Limin, deputy director of the Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Administration in Beijing. It has also bought a high-tech fixed-wing aircraft, outfitted in the United States, for taking sensitive scientific soundings from the ice.

China has chosen the site for its fifth research station at Inexpressible Island, named by a group of British explorers who were stranded at the desolate site in 1912 and survived the winter by excavating a small ice cave.

Mr. Xia said the inhospitable spot was ideal because China did not have a presence in that part of Antarctica, and because the rocky site did not have much snow, making it relatively cheap to build there.

Anne-Marie Brady, a professor of political science at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand and the author of a soon-to-be-released book, “China as a Polar Great Power,” said Chinese scientists also believed they had a good chance of finding mineral and energy resources near the site.

“China is playing a long game in Antarctica and keeping other states guessing about its true intentions and interests are part of its poker hand,” she said. But she noted that China’s interest in finding minerals was presented “loud and clear to domestic audiences” as the main reason it was investing in Antarctica.

Because commercial drilling is banned, estimates of energy and mineral resources in Antarctica rely on remote sensing data and comparisons with similar geological environments elsewhere, said Millard F. Coffin, executive director of the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies in Hobart.

But the difficulty of extraction in such severe conditions and uncertainty about future commodity prices make it unlikely that China or any country would defy the ban on mining anytime soon.

Tourism, however, is already booming. Travelers from China are still a relatively small contingent in the Antarctic compared with the more than 13,000 Americans who visited in 2013, and as yet there are no licensed Chinese tour operators.

But that is about to change, said Anthony Bergin, deputy director of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute. “I understand very soon there will be Chinese tourists on Chinese vessels with all-Chinese crew in the Antarctic,” he said.

 

Top News China’s Intents Are Questioned as It Builds in Antarctica | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Bruce Alger, 96, Dies; Led ‘Mink Coat’ Protest Against Lyndon Johnson

Mr. Alger, who served five terms from Texas, led Republican women in a confrontation with Lyndon B. Johnson that may have cost Richard M. Nixon the 1960 presidential election.

Bruce Alger, 96, Dies; Led ‘Mink Coat’ Protest Against Lyndon Johnson | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Elizabeth Brown Pryor, Biographer of Clara Barton and Robert E. Lee, Dies at 64

Ms. Pryor, who served more than two decades in the State Department, was the author of well-regarded biographies of the founder of the American Red Cross and the Confederate commander.

Elizabeth Brown Pryor, Biographer of Clara Barton and Robert E. Lee, Dies at 64 | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Marty Napoleon, 93, Dies; Jazz Pianist Played With Louis Armstrong

Mr. Napoleon was a self-taught musician whose career began in earnest with the orchestra led by Chico Marx of the Marx Brothers.

Marty Napoleon, 93, Dies; Jazz Pianist Played With Louis Armstrong | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Fatal Police Shootings: Accounts Since Ferguson

Since a white police officer, Darren Wilson fatally shot unarmed black teenager, Michael Brown, in a confrontation last August in Ferguson, Mo., there have been many other cases in which the police have shot and killed suspects, some of them unarmed. Mr. Brown's death set off protests throughout the country, pushing law enforcement into the spotlight and sparking a public debate on police tactics. Here is a selection of police shootings that have been reported by news organizations since Mr. Brown's death. In some cases, investigations are continuing.

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The apartment complex northeast of Atlanta where Anthony Hill, 27, was fatally shot by a DeKalb County police officer. Credit Ben Gray/Atlanta Journal Constitution

Chamblee, Ga.
Fatal Police Shootings: Accounts Since Ferguson | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Verne Gagne, Wrestler Who Grappled Through Two Eras, Dies at 89

Gagne wrestled professionally from the late 1940s until the 1980s and was a transitional figure between the early 20th century barnstormers and the steroidal sideshows of today

Verne Gagne, Wrestler Who Grappled Through Two Eras, Dies at 89 | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

ay 4, 2015 ‘Game of Thrones’ Q&A: Keisha Castle-Hughes on the Tao of the Sand Snakes

“It was really nice to play with other women and not have this underlying tone of being at each other’s throats.”

ay 4, 2015 ‘Game of Thrones’ Q&A: Keisha Castle-Hughes on the Tao of the Sand Snakes | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Jean Nidetch, 91, Dies; Pounds Came Off, and Weight Watchers Was Born

A 214-pound Queens housewife struggled with a lifelong addiction to food until she shed 72 pounds and became the public face of the worldwide weight-control empire Weight Watchers.

Jean Nidetch, 91, Dies; Pounds Came Off, and Weight Watchers Was Born | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Edward Chambers, Early Leader in Community Organizing, Dies at 85

A lapsed seminarian, Mr. Chambers succeeded Saul Alinsky as leader of the social justice umbrella group Industrial Areas Foundation.

Edward Chambers, Early Leader in Community Organizing, Dies at 85 | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Obama Finds a Bolder Voice on Race Issues

As he reflected on the festering wounds deepened by race and grievance that have been on painful display in America’s cities lately, President Obama on Monday found himself thinking about a young man he had just met named Malachi.

A few minutes before, in a closed-door round-table discussion at Lehman College in the Bronx, Mr. Obama had asked a group of black and Hispanic students from disadvantaged backgrounds what could be done to help them reach their goals. Several talked about counseling and guidance programs.

“Malachi, he just talked about — we should talk about love,” Mr. Obama told a crowd afterward, drifting away from his prepared remarks. “Because Malachi and I shared the fact that our dad wasn’t around and that sometimes we wondered why he wasn’t around and what had happened. But really, that’s what this comes down to is: Do we love these kids?”

Many presidents have governed during times of racial tension, but Mr. Obama is the first to see in the mirror a face that looks like those on the other side of history’s ledger. While his first term was consumed with the economy, war and health care, his second keeps coming back to the societal divide that was not bridged by his election. A president who eschewed focusing on race now seems to have found his voice again as he thinks about how to use his remaining time in office and beyond.

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Obama Speaks of a ‘Sense of Unfairness’

Obama Speaks of a ‘Sense of Unfairness’

At an event announcing the creation of a nonprofit focusing on young minority men, President Obama talked about the underlying reasons for recent protests in Baltimore and other cities.

By Associated Press on Publish Date May 4, 2015. Photo by Stephen Crowley/The New York Times.

In the aftermath of racially charged unrest in places like Baltimore, Ferguson, Mo., and New York, Mr. Obama came to the Bronx on Monday for the announcement of a new nonprofit organization that is being spun off from his White House initiative called My Brother’s Keeper. Staked by more than $80 million in commitments from corporations and other donors, the new group, My Brother’s Keeper Alliance, will in effect provide the nucleus for Mr. Obama’s post-presidency, which will begin in January 2017.

“This will remain a mission for me and for Michelle not just for the rest of my presidency but for the rest of my life,” Mr. Obama said. “And the reason is simple,” he added. Referring to some of the youths he had just met, he said: “We see ourselves in these young men. I grew up without a dad. I grew up lost sometimes and adrift, not having a sense of a clear path. The only difference between me and a lot of other young men in this neighborhood and all across the country is that I grew up in an environment that was a little more forgiving.”

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Organizers said the new alliance already had financial pledges from companies like American Express, Deloitte, Discovery Communications and News Corporation. The money will be used to help companies address obstacles facing young black and Hispanic men, provide grants to programs for disadvantaged youths, and help communities aid their populations.

Joe Echevarria, a former chief executive of Deloitte, the accounting and consulting firm, will lead the alliance, and among those on its leadership team or advisory group are executives at PepsiCo, News Corporation, Sprint, BET and Prudential Group Insurance; former Secretary of State Colin L. Powell; Senator Cory Booker, Democrat of New Jersey; former Attorney General Eric H. Holder Jr.; the music star John Legend; the retired athletes Alonzo Mourning, Jerome Bettis and Shaquille O’Neal; and the mayors of Indianapolis, Sacramento and Philadelphia.

The alliance, while nominally independent of the White House, may face some of the same questions confronting former Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton as she begins another presidential campaign. Some of those donating to the alliance may have interests in government action, and skeptics may wonder whether they are trying to curry favor with the president by contributing.

“The Obama administration will have no role in deciding how donations are screened and what criteria they’ll set at the alliance for donor policies, because it’s an entirely separate entity,” Josh Earnest, the White House press secretary, told reporters on Air Force One en route to New York. But he added, “I’m confident that the members of the board are well aware of the president’s commitment to transparency.”

The alliance was in the works before the disturbances last week after the death of Freddie Gray, the black man who suffered fatal injuries while in police custody in Baltimore, but it reflected the evolution of Mr. Obama’s presidency. For him, in a way, it is coming back to issues that animated him as a young community organizer and politician. It was his own struggle with race and identity, captured in his youthful memoir, “Dreams From My Father,” that stood him apart from other presidential aspirants.

But that was a side of him that he kept largely to himself through the first years of his presidency while he focused on other priorities like turning the economy around, expanding government-subsidized health care and avoiding electoral land mines en route to re-election.

After securing a second term, Mr. Obama appeared more emboldened. Just a month after his 2013 inauguration, he talked passionately about opportunity and race with a group of teenage boys in Chicago, a moment aides point to as perhaps the first time he had spoken about these issues in such a personal, powerful way as president. A few months later, he publicly lamented the death of Trayvon Martin, a black Florida teenager, saying that “could have been me 35 years ago.”

Photo
 
President Obama on Monday with Darinel Montero, a student at Bronx International High School who introduced him before remarks at Lehman College in the Bronx. Credit Stephen Crowley/The New York Times

That case, along with public ruptures of anger over police shootings in Ferguson and elsewhere, have pushed the issue of race and law enforcement onto the public agenda. Aides said they imagined that with his presidency in its final stages, Mr. Obama might be thinking more about what comes next and causes he can advance as a private citizen.

That is not to say that his public discussion of these issues has been universally welcomed. Some conservatives said he had made matters worse by seeming in their view to blame police officers in some of the disputed cases.

“President Obama, when he was elected, could have been a unifying leader,” Senator Ted Cruz of Texas, a Republican candidate for president, said at a forum last week. “He has made decisions that I think have inflamed racial tensions.”

On the other side of the ideological spectrum, some liberal African-American activists have complained that Mr. Obama has not done enough to help downtrodden communities. While he is speaking out more, these critics argue, he has hardly used the power of the presidency to make the sort of radical change they say is necessary.

The line Mr. Obama has tried to straddle has been a serrated one. He condemns police brutality as he defends most officers as honorable. He condemns “criminals and thugs” who looted in Baltimore while expressing empathy with those trapped in a cycle of poverty and hopelessness.

In the Bronx on Monday, Mr. Obama bemoaned the death of Brian Moore, a plainclothes New York police officer who had died earlier in the day after being shot in the head Saturday on a Queens street. Most police officers are “good and honest and fair and care deeply about their communities,” even as they put their lives on the line, Mr. Obama said.

“Which is why in addressing the issues in Baltimore or Ferguson or New York, the point I made was that if we’re just looking at policing, we’re looking at it too narrowly,” he added. “If we ask the police to simply contain and control problems that we ourselves have been unwilling to invest and solve, that’s not fair to the communities, it’s not fair to the police.”

Moreover, if society writes off some people, he said, “that’s not the kind of country I want to live in; that’s not what America is about.”

His message to young men like Malachi Hernandez, who attends Boston Latin Academy in Massachusetts, is not to give up.

“I want you to know you matter,” he said. “You matter to us.”

Obama Finds a Bolder Voice on Race Issues | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Review: ‘Frontline’ Looks at Missteps During the Ebola Outbreak

Frontline  An installment of this PBS program looks at the effects of Ebola on Liberia and other countries, as well as the origins of the outbreak.
Frontline

Frontline An installment of this PBS program looks at the effects of Ebola on Liberia and other countries, as well as the origins of the outbreak.

The program traces the outbreak to its origin, thought to be a tree full of bats in Guinea.

Review: ‘9-Man’ Is More Than a Game for Chinese-Americans

A variation of volleyball with nine men on each side is profiled Tuesday night on the World Channel in an absorbing documentary called “9-Man.”

Television

‘Hard Earned’ Documents the Plight of the Working Poor

“Hard Earned,” an Al Jazeera America series, follows five working-class families scrambling to stay ahead on limited incomes.

Review: ‘Frontline’ Looks at Missteps During the Ebola Outbreak | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

As Vice Moves More to TV, It Tries to Keep Brash Voice

The live music at the Vice Media party on Friday shook the room. Shane Smith, Vice’s chief executive, was standing near the stage — with a drink in his hand, pants sagging, tattoos showing — watching the rapper-cum-chef Action Bronson make pizzas.

The event was an after-party, a happy-hour bacchanal for the hundreds of guests who had come for Vice’s annual presentation to advertisers and agencies that afternoon, part of the annual frenzy for ad dollars called the Digital Content NewFronts. Mr. Smith had spoken there for all of five minutes before running a slam-bang highlight reel of the company’s shows that had titles like “Weediquette” and “Gaycation.”

In the last year, Vice has secured $500 million in financing and signed deals worth hundreds of millions of dollars with established media companies like HBO that are eager to engage the young viewers Vice attracts. Vice said it was now worth at least $4 billion, with nearly $1 billion in projected revenue for 2015. It is a long way from Vice’s humble start as a free magazine in 1994.

Photo
 
At the Vice after-party, the rapper Action Bronson, a host of a Vice show, made a pizza. Credit Jesse Dittmar for The New York Times

But even as cash flows freely in Vice’s direction, the company is trying to keep its brash, insurgent image. At the party on Friday, it plied guests with beers and cocktails. Its apparently unrehearsed presentation to advertisers was peppered with expletives. At one point, the director Spike Jonze, a longtime Vice collaborator, asked on stage if Mr. Smith had been drinking.

“My assistant tried to cut me off,” Mr. Smith replied. “I’m on buzz control.”

Now, Vice is on the verge of getting its own cable channel, which would give the company a traditional outlet for its slate of non-news programming. If all goes as planned, A&E Networks, the television group owned by Hearst and Disney, will turn over its History Channel spinoff, H2, to Vice.

The deal’s announcement was expected last week, but not all of A&E’s distribution partners — the cable and satellite TV companies that carry the network’s channels — have signed off on the change, according to a person familiar with the negotiations who spoke on the condition of anonymity because the talks were private.

A cable channel would be a further step in a transformation for Vice, from bad-boy digital upstart to mainstream media company.

Keen for the core audience of young men who come to Vice, media giants like 21st Century Fox, Time Warner and Disney all showed interest in the company last year. Vice ultimately secured $500 million in financing from A&E Networks and Technology Crossover Ventures, a Silicon Valley venture capital firm that has invested in Facebook and Netflix.

Those investments valued Vice at more than $2.5 billion. (In 2013, Fox bought a 5 percent stake for $70 million.)

Then in March, HBO announced that it had signed a multiyear deal to broadcast a daily half-hour Vice newscast. Vice already produces a weekly newsmagazine show, called “Vice,” for the network. That show will extend its run through 2018, with an increase to 35 episodes a year, from 14.

Michael Lombardo, HBO’s president for programming, said when the deal was announced that it was “certainly one of our biggest investments with hours on the air.”

Vice, based in Brooklyn, also recently signed a multiyear $100 million deal with Rogers Communications, a Canadian media conglomerate, to produce original content for TV, smartphone and desktop viewers.

Vice’s finances are private, but according to an internal document reviewed by The New York Times and verified by a person familiar with the company’s financials, the company is on track to make about $915 million in revenue this year.

Photo
 
Vice showed a highlight reel of its TV series at the NewFronts last week in New York. Credit Jesse Dittmar for The New York Times

It brought in $545 million in a strong first quarter, which included portions of the new HBO deal and the Rogers deal, according to the document. More of its revenue now comes from these types of content partnerships, compared with the branded content deals that made up much of its revenue a year ago, the company said.

Mr. Smith said the company was worth at least $4 billion. If the valuation gets much higher, he said he would consider taking the company public.

“I don’t care about money; we have plenty of money,” Mr. Smith, who is Vice’s biggest shareholder, said in an interview after the presentation on Friday. “I care about strategic deals.”

In the United States, Vice Media had 35.2 million unique visitors across its sites in March, according to comScore.

The third season of Vice’s weekly HBO show has averaged 1.8 million viewers per episode, including reruns, through April 12, according to Brad Adgate, the director of research at Horizon Media. (Vice said the show attracted three million weekly viewers when repeat broadcasts, online and on-demand viewings were included.)

For years, Mr. Smith has criticized traditional TV, calling it slow and unable to draw younger viewers. But if all the deals Vice has struck are to work out, Mr. Smith may have to play more by the rules of traditional media. James Murdoch, Rupert Murdoch’s son and a member of Vice’s board, was at the company’s presentation on Friday, as were other top media executives.

“They know they need people like me to help them, but they can’t get out of their own way,” Mr. Smith said in the interview Friday. “My only real frustration is we’re used to being incredibly dynamic, and they’re not incredibly dynamic.”

With its own television channel in the United States, Vice would have something it has long coveted even as traditional media companies are looking beyond TV. Last year, Vice’s deal with Time Warner failed in part because the two companies could not agree on how much control Vice would have over a 24-hour television network.

Vice said it intended to fill its new channel with non-news programming. The company plans to have sports shows, fashion shows, food shows and the “Gaycation” travel show with the actress Ellen Page. It is also in talks with Kanye West about a show.

It remains to be seen whether Vice’s audience will watch a traditional cable channel. Still, Vice has effectively presold all of the ad spots to two of the biggest advertising agencies for the first three years, Mr. Smith said.

In the meantime, Mr. Smith is enjoying Vice’s newfound role as a potential savior of traditional media companies.

“I’m a C.E.O. of a content company,” Mr. Smith said before he caught a flight to Las Vegas for the boxing match on Saturday between Floyd Mayweather Jr. and Manny Pacquiao. “If it stops being fun, then why are you doing it?”

As Vice Moves More to TV, It Tries to Keep Brash Voice | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

The Uphill Battle to Better Regulate Formaldehyde

WASHINGTON — A decade after emergency trailers meant to shelter Hurricane Katrina victims instead caused burning eyes, sore throats and other more serious ailments, the Environmental Protection Agency is on the verge of regulating the culprit: formaldehyde, a chemical that can be found in commonplace things like clothes and furniture.

But an unusual assortment of players, including furniture makers, the Chinese government, Republicans from states with a large base of furniture manufacturing and even some Democrats who championed early regulatory efforts, have questioned the E.P.A. proposal. The sustained opposition has held sway, as the agency is now preparing to ease key testing requirements before it releases the landmark federal health standard.

The E.P.A.’s five-year effort to adopt this rule offers another example of how industry opposition can delay and hamper attempts by the federal government to issue regulations, even to control substances known to be harmful to human health.

Continue reading the main story
 

Document: The Formaldehyde Fight

Formaldehyde is a known carcinogen that can also cause respiratory ailments like asthma, but the potential of long-term exposure to cause cancers like myeloid leukemia is less well understood.

The E.P.A.’s decision would be the first time that the federal government has regulated formaldehyde inside most American homes.

“The stakes are high for public health,” said Tom Neltner, senior adviser for regulatory affairs at the National Center for Healthy Housing, who has closely monitored the debate over the rules. “What we can’t have here is an outcome that fails to confront the health threat we all know exists.”

The proposal would not ban formaldehyde — commonly used as an ingredient in wood glue in furniture and flooring — but it would impose rules that prevent dangerous levels of the chemical’s vapors from those products, and would set testing standards to ensure that products sold in the United States comply with those limits. The debate has sharpened in the face of growing concern about the safety of formaldehyde-treated flooring imported from Asia, especially China.

What is certain is that a lot of money is at stake: American companies sell billions of dollars’ worth of wood products each year that contain formaldehyde, and some argue that the proposed regulation would impose unfair costs and restrictions.

Determined to block the agency’s rule as proposed, these industry players have turned to the White House, members of Congress and top E.P.A. officials, pressing them to roll back the testing requirements in particular, calling them redundant and too expensive.

“There are potentially over a million manufacturing jobs that will be impacted if the proposed rule is finalized without changes,” wrote Bill Perdue, the chief lobbyist at the American Home Furnishings Alliance, a leading critic of the testing requirements in the proposed regulation, in one letter to the E.P.A.

Industry opposition helped create an odd alignment of forces working to thwart the rule. The White House moved to strike out key aspects of the proposal. Subsequent appeals for more changes were voiced by players as varied as Senator Barbara Boxer, Democrat of California, and Senator Roger Wicker, Republican of Mississippi, as well as furniture industry lobbyists.

Hurricane Katrina in 2005 helped ignite the public debate over formaldehyde, after the deadly storm destroyed or damaged hundreds of thousands of homes along the Gulf of Mexico, forcing families into temporary trailers provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

The displaced storm victims quickly began reporting respiratory problems, burning eyes and other issues, and tests then confirmed high levels of formaldehyde fumes leaking into the air inside the trailers, which in many cases had been hastily constructed.

Public health advocates petitioned the E.P.A. to issue limits on formaldehyde in building materials and furniture used in homes, given that limits already existed for exposure in workplaces. But three years after the storm, only California had issued such limits.

Industry groups like the American Chemistry Council have repeatedly challenged the science linking formaldehyde to cancer, a position championed by David Vitter, the Republican senator from Louisiana, who is a major recipient of chemical industry campaign contributions, and whom environmental groups have mockingly nicknamed “Senator Formaldehyde.”

Continue reading the main story

Formaldehyde in Laminate Flooring

In laminate flooring, formaldehyde is used as a bonding agent in the fiberboard (or other composite wood) core layer and may also be used in glues that bind layers together. Concerns were raised in March when certain laminate flooring imported from China was reported to contain levels of formaldehyde far exceeding the limit permitted by California.

Typical

laminate

flooring

CLEAR FINISH LAYER

Often made of melamine resin

PATTERN LAYER

Paper printed to resemble wood,

or a thin wood veneer

GLUE

Layers may be bound using

formaldehyde-based glues

CORE LAYER

Fiberboard or other

composite, formed using

formaldehyde-based adhesives

BASE LAYER

Moisture-resistant vapor barrier

What is formaldehyde?

Formaldehyde is a common chemical used in many industrial and household products as an adhesive, bonding agent or preservative. It is classified as a volatile organic compound. The term volatile means that, at room temperature, formaldehyde will vaporize, or become a gas. Products made with formaldehyde tend to release this gas into the air. If breathed in large quantities, it may cause health problems.

WHERE IT IS COMMONLY FOUND

POTENTIAL HEALTH RISKS

Pressed-wood and composite wood products

Wallpaper and paints

Spray foam insulation used in construction

Commercial wood floor finishes

Crease-resistant fabrics

In cigarette smoke, or in the fumes from combustion of other materials, including wood, oil and gasoline.

Exposure to formaldehyde in sufficient amounts may cause eye, throat or skin irritation, allergic reactions, and respiratory problems like coughing, wheezing or asthma.

Long-term exposure to high levels has been associated with cancer in humans and laboratory animals.

Exposure to formaldehyde may affect some people more severely than others.

By 2010, public health advocates and some industry groups secured bipartisan support in Congress for legislation that ordered the E.P.A. to issue federal rules that largely mirrored California’s restrictions. At the time, concerns were rising over the growing number of lower-priced furniture imports from Asia that might include contaminated products, while also hurting sales of American-made products.

Maneuvering began almost immediately after the E.P.A. prepared draft rules to formally enact the new standards.

White House records show at least five meetings in mid-2012 with industry executives — kitchen cabinet makers, chemical manufacturers, furniture trade associations and their lobbyists, like Brock R. Landry, of the Venable law firm. These parties, along with Senator Vitter’s office, appealed to top administration officials, asking them to intervene to roll back the E.P.A. proposal.

The White House Office of Management and Budget, which reviews major federal regulations before they are adopted, apparently agreed. After the White House review, the E.P.A. “redlined” many of the estimates of the monetary benefits that would be gained by reductions in related health ailments, like asthma and fertility issues, documents reviewed by The New York Times show.

As a result, the estimated benefit of the proposed rule dropped to $48 million a year, from as much as $278 million a year. The much-reduced amount deeply weakened the agency’s justification for the sometimes costly new testing that would be required under the new rules, a federal official involved in the effort said.

“It’s a redlining blood bath,” said Lisa Heinzerling, a Georgetown University Law School professor and a former E.P.A. official, using the Washington phrase to describe when language is stricken from a proposed rule. “Almost the entire discussion of these potential benefits was excised.”

Senator Vitter’s staff was pleased.

“That’s a huge difference,” said Luke Bolar, a spokesman for Mr. Vitter, of the reduced estimated financial benefits, saying the change was “clearly highlighting more mismanagement” at the E.P.A.

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The review’s outcome galvanized opponents in the furniture industry. They then targeted a provision that mandated new testing of laminated wood, a cheaper alternative to hardwood. (The California standard on which the law was based did not require such testing.)

But E.P.A. scientists had concluded that these laminate products — millions of which are sold annually in the United States — posed a particular risk. They said that when thin layers of wood, also known as laminate or veneer, are added to furniture or flooring in the final stages of manufacturing, the resulting product can generate dangerous levels of fumes from often-used formaldehyde-based glues.

Industry executives, outraged by what they considered an unnecessary and financially burdensome level of testing, turned every lever within reach to get the requirement removed. It would be particularly onerous, they argued, for small manufacturers that would have to repeatedly interrupt their work to do expensive new testing. The E.P.A. estimated that the expanded requirements for laminate products would cost the furniture industry tens of millions of dollars annually, while the industry said that the proposed rule over all would cost its 7,000 American manufacturing facilities over $200 million each year.

“A lot of people don’t seem to appreciate what a lot of these requirements do to a small operation,” said Dick Titus, executive vice president of the Kitchen Cabinet Manufacturers Association, whose members are predominantly small businesses. “A 10-person shop, for example, just really isn’t equipped to handle that type of thing.”

Photo
 
Becky Gillette wants strong regulation of formaldehyde. Credit Beth Hall for The New York Times

Big industry players also weighed in. Executives from companies including La-Z-Boy, Hooker Furniture and Ashley Furniture all flew to Washington for a series of meetings with the offices of lawmakers including House Speaker John Boehner, Republican of Ohio, and about a dozen other lawmakers, asking several of them to sign a letter prepared by the industry to press the E.P.A. to back down, according to an industry report describing the lobbying visit.

Within a matter of weeks, two letters — using nearly identical language — were sent by House and Senate lawmakers to the E.P.A. — with the industry group forwarding copies of the letters to the agency as well, and then posting them on its website.

The industry lobbyists also held their own meeting at E.P.A. headquarters, and they urged Jim Jones, who oversaw the rule-making process as the assistant administrator for the agency’s Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention, to visit a North Carolina furniture manufacturing plant. According to the trade group, Mr. Jones told them that the visit had “helped the agency shift its thinking” about the rules and how laminated products should be treated.

The resistance was particularly intense from lawmakers like Mr. Wicker of Mississippi, whose state is home to major manufacturing plants owned by Ashley Furniture Industries, the world’s largest furniture maker, and who is one of the biggest recipients in Congress of donations from the industry’s trade association. Asked if the political support played a role, a spokesman for Mr. Wicker replied: “Thousands of Mississippians depend on the furniture manufacturing industry for their livelihoods. Senator Wicker is committed to defending all Mississippians from government overreach.”

Individual companies like Ikea also intervened, as did the Chinese government, which claimed that the new rule would create a “great barrier” to the import of Chinese products because of higher costs.

Perhaps the most surprising objection came from Senator Boxer, of California, a longtime environmental advocate, whose office questioned why the E.P.A.’s rule went further than her home state’s in seeking testing on laminated products. “We did not advocate an outcome, other than safety,” her office said in a statement about why the senator raised concerns. “We said ‘Take a look to see if you have it right.’ ”

Safety advocates say that tighter restrictions — like the ones Ms. Boxer and Mr. Wicker, along with Representative Doris Matsui, a California Democrat, have questioned — are necessary, particularly for products coming from China, where items as varied as toys and Christmas lights have been found to violate American safety standards.

While Mr. Neltner, the environmental advocate who has been most involved in the review process, has been open to compromise, he has pressed the E.P.A. not to back down entirely, and to maintain a requirement that laminators verify that their products are safe.

An episode of CBS’s “60 Minutes” in March brought attention to the issue when it accused Lumber Liquidators, the discount flooring retailer, of selling laminate products with dangerous levels of formaldehyde. The company has disputed the show’s findings and test methods, maintaining that its products are safe.

“People think that just because Congress passed the legislation five years ago, the problem has been fixed,” said Becky Gillette, who then lived in coastal Mississippi, in the area hit by Hurricane Katrina, and was among the first to notice a pattern of complaints from people living in the trailers. “Real people’s faces and names come up in front of me when I think of the thousands of people who could get sick if this rule is not done right.”

An aide to Ms. Matsui rejected any suggestion that she was bending to industry pressure.

“From the beginning the public health has been our No. 1 concern,” said Kyle J. Victor, an aide to Ms. Matsui.

But further changes to the rule are likely, agency officials concede, as they say they are searching for a way to reduce the cost of complying with any final rule while maintaining public health goals. The question is just how radically the agency will revamp the testing requirement for laminated products — if it keeps it at all.

“It’s not a secret to anybody that is the most challenging issue,” said Mr. Jones, the E.P.A. official overseeing the process, adding that the health consequences from formaldehyde are real. “We have to reduce those exposures so that people can live healthy lives and not have to worry about being in their homes.”

The Uphill Battle to Better Regulate Formaldehyde | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Sid Tepper Dies at 96; Delivered ‘Red Roses for a Blue Lady’ and Other Songs

Mr. Tepper was not a musical child and had no formal training, but he grew up to write both lyrics and tunes, trading off duties with the other member of the team, Roy C. Bennett.

Sid Tepper Dies at 96; Delivered ‘Red Roses for a Blue Lady’ and Other Songs | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Negative View of U.S. Race Relations Grows, Poll Finds

Public perceptions of race relations in America have grown substantially more negative in the aftermath of the death of a young black man who was injured while in police custody in Baltimore and the subsequent unrest, far eclipsing the sentiment recorded in the wake of turmoil in Ferguson, Mo., last summer.

Americans are also increasingly likely to say that the police are more apt to use deadly force against a black person, the latest New York Times/CBS News poll finds.

The poll findings highlight the challenges for local leaders and police officials in trying to maintain order while sustaining faith in the criminal justice system in a racially polarized nation.

Sixty-one percent of Americans now say race relations in this country are generally bad. That figure is up sharply from 44 percent after the fatal police shooting of Michael Brown and the unrest that followed in Ferguson in August, and 43 percent in December. In a CBS News poll just two months ago, 38 percent said race relations were generally bad. Current views are by far the worst of Barack Obama’s presidency.

The negative sentiment is echoed by broad majorities of blacks and whites alike, a stark change from earlier this year, when 58 percent of blacks thought race relations were bad, but just 35 percent of whites agreed. In August, 48 percent of blacks and 41 percent of whites said they felt that way.

Looking ahead, 44 percent of Americans think race relations are worsening, up from 36 percent in December. Forty-one percent of blacks and 46 percent of whites think so. Pessimism among whites has increased 10 points since December.

Continue reading the main story
Do you think race relations in the United States are generally good or generally bad?
60
40
20
0
White
Black
May '14
May '15
Generally bad
Continue reading the main story
Do you think race relations in the United States are getting better, getting worse or staying about the same?
Getting worse
Staying the same
Getting better
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
44%
37
17
46
36
16
41
42
15

The poll finds that profound racial divisions in views of how the police use deadly force remain. Blacks are more than twice as likely to say police in most communities are more apt to use deadly force against a black person — 79 percent of blacks say so compared with 37 percent of whites. A slim majority of whites say race is not a factor in a police officer’s decision to use deadly force.

Overall, 44 percent of Americans say deadly force is more likely to be used against a black person, up from 37 percent in August and 40 percent in December.

Blacks also remain far more likely than whites to say they feel mostly anxious about the police in their community. Forty-two percent say so, while 51 percent feel mostly safe. Among whites, 8 in 10 feel mostly safe.

One proposal to address the matter — having on-duty police officers wear body cameras — receives overwhelming support. More than 9 in 10 whites and blacks alike favor it.

Continue reading the main story
How would you describe your feelings about the police in your community? Would you say they make you feel mostly safe or mostly anxious?
Mostly safe
Mostly anxious
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
75%
21
3
81
16
3
51
42
7
Continue reading the main story
In general, do you think the police in most communities are more likely to use deadly force against a black person, or more likely to use it against a white person, or don’t you think race affects police use of deadly force?
Police more likely to use deadly force against a black person
Police more likely to use deadly force against a white person
Race DOES NOT affect police use of deadly force
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
44%
37%
79%
2%
2%
1%
46%
53%
16%
9%
8%
4%
Continue reading the main story
Do you favor or oppose on-duty police officers wearing video cameras that would record events and actions as they occur?
Favor
Oppose
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
92%
93%
93%
6%
5%
5%
2%
2%
2%

Asked specifically about the situation in Baltimore, most Americans expressed at least some confidence that the investigation by local authorities would be conducted fairly. But while nearly two-thirds of whites think so, fewer than half of blacks agree. Still, more blacks are confident now than were in August regarding the investigation in Ferguson. On Friday, six members of the police force involved in the arrest of Mr. Gray were charged with serious offenses, including manslaughter. The poll was conducted Thursday through Sunday; results from before charges were announced are similar to those from after.

Reaction to the recent turmoil in Baltimore, however, is similar among blacks and whites. Most Americans, 61 percent, say the unrest after Mr. Gray’s death was not justified. That includes 64 percent of whites and 57 percent of blacks.

Continue reading the main story
As you may know, a Baltimore man, Freddie Gray, recently died after being in the custody of the Baltimore police. How much confidence do you have that the investigation by local authorities into this matter will be conducted fairly?
A lot
Some
Not much
None at all
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
29%
31
22
14
5
31
33
20
11
5
20
26
30
22
In general, do you think the unrest in Baltimore after the death of Freddie Gray was justified, or do you think the unrest was not justified?
Justified
Not justified
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
28%
61
11
26
64
11
37
57
6

Negative View of U.S. Race Relations Grows, Poll Finds | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

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