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Tour & Travel

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MOBIL SEDAN COROLLA GENERASI KE GENERASI

1. Mobil Sedan Corolla Generasi Pertama E10 Series (1966-1970) 

 


Mobil Sedan Corolla pertama kali dipasarkan dan mendulang sukses di Amerika pada tahun 1968. Mobil Sedan Corolla Generasi pertama terdiri dari beberapa varian seperti mobil kecil sederhana bermesin 2K 1100 cc yang diberi kode KE10 untuk sedan, KE15 untuk coupe, dan KE16 untuk Wagon. Model facelift yang hadir pada tahun 1969 bermesin 3K 1200 cc diberi kode KE11 untuk Sedan, KE18 untuk Wagon dan KE17 untuk Sprinter Coupe. diluar negara Jepang, negara yang pertama kali mendapatkan Mobil Sedan Corolla adalah Australia.

2. Mobil Sedan Corolla Generasi Kedua E20 Series (1971-1974) 

 

 

Pada Genarasi Kedua dari Mobil Sedan Corolla ini dikenal 2 Varian yaitu KE dan TE, dengan Varian TE memiliki bentuk yang lebih sporty. Mobil Sedan Corolla Generasi kedua atau 20-series ini lebih besar dari Mobil Sedan Corolla Generasi pertama. Ini merupakan model Toyota yang sukses di seluruh dunia. Mesin yang digunakan adalah 3K (1200 cc), 3K-B (1200 cc dengan 2 karburator), T (1400 cc), 2T (1600 cc), dan 2T-G (1600 cc DOHC) berkemampuan tinggi. Pada tahun 1972, diperkenalkan model sport Mobil Sedan Corolla Levin dan Sprinter Trueno. Corolla Levin menjuarai Press on Regardless Rally di Amerika, dan 1000 Lakes Rally di Finlandia.

Di Indonesia, Corolla generasi ini yang pertama kali dijual ke pasar dengan model sedan 4 pintu bermesin 1200cc dan transmisi 4 speed manual.

 

3. Mobil Sedan Corolla Generasi Ketiga E30, E40, E50, E60 Series (1975-1979) 

 

Mobil Sedan Corolla Generasi ketiga diantaranya adalah Corolla Sedan, Hardtop, dan Wagon berbasis 30-series, Sprinter Sedan 40-series. Corolla dan Sprinter Sports Coupe dan Liftback berbasis 50-series. Semua model yang menggunakan mesin dengan emisi rendah serta Toyota Total Clean (TTC), 60-series, model ini hanya dijual di Jepang. 

 

4. Mobil Sedan Corolla Generasi Keempat E70 Series (1980-1984)

 

   

 

Mobil Sedan Corolla Generasi Keempat Ini merupakan Corolla terakhir untuk semua model yang menggunankan layout FR (berpenggerak roda belakang). Di Jepang banyak sekali varian dan bentuknya. Ada Sedan 2 dan 4 pintu, Hardtop, Coupe, Liftback, Station Wagon, dan Van. Mesin yang tersedia adalah 1300 cc 4K, 1500 cc 5K, 1600 cc 2T dan 2T-G(DOHC). Model di Amerika bermesin 2T-C(1600 cc) dan 3T-C(1800 cc) dengan bentuk body Sedan 2 pintu, 4 pintu, Coupe, Hardtop, Liftback, dan Wagon. Perusahaan karoseri di California ada yang membuatMobil Sedan Corolla Convertible dengan atap kanvas yang bisa dibuka berbasis Corolla Hardtop.

Di Indonesia hanya tersedia dalam variant DX 4 pintu bermesin 1300 cc 4K. Platform generasi ini juga dipakai untuk Daihatsu Charmant. Corolla DX di Indonesia tahun 1980 memiliki 4 lampu depan yg berbentuk bulat, bumper masih menggunakan besi dengan karet di kedua ujungnya, pada tahun 1981 mengalami perubahan pada lampu depan jadi bentuk petak. Model tahun 1982 mempunyai perbedaan pada lampu sen depan yg melebar ke samping dan lampu belakang baru, sedangkan tahun 1983 Corolla DX hadir dengan tachometer dan bumper urethane yang panjang.

 

5. Mobil Sedan Corolla Generasi Kelima E80 Series (1985-1987) 

 


Apakah yang terlintas dibenak anda kalau melihat sekilas foto mobil diatas ? yap tidak salah lagi pasti anda akan teringat salah satu anime jepang yang sangat populer "Initial D" , tepat foto Mobil Sedan Corolla diatas adalah Mobil Sedan Corolla tipe AE86 yang digunakan Takumi balapan digunung akina yang merupakan Mobil Sedan Corolla generasi kelima. 

Pada Mobil Sedan Corolla Generasi kelima ini Hanya model sport Corolla Levin dan Sprinter Trueno yang berpenggerak roda belakang, model yang lain berpenggerak roda depan. Sprinter Trueno dijual di Amerika sebagai Corolla SR5 dan GT-S. AE86 adalah kode untuk Levin dan Trueno bermesin kemampuan tinggi 4A-GE(1600 cc DOHC), yaitu GT, GT-S, GT-V, dan APEX. AE86 sangat popular dengan sebutan Hachiroku, yang berasal dari Bahasa Jepang, hachi = 8, dan roku = 6.

Di Indonesia, Mobil Sedan Corolla generasi ini yang dipasarkan secara resmi hadir dalam versi GL (AE80) dengan mesin 2A 1300 cc dan versi facelift SE Saloon (EE80) dengan mesin 2E 1300 cc.  

 

6. Mobil Sedan Corolla Generasi Keenam E90 Series (1988-1992) 

 


 Mulai generasi ini kebanyakan Mobil Sedan Corolla sudah bermesin Twincam 4A-F (Head sempit) atau 4A-G( Head lebar) dengan karburator atau injection. Mesin bensin 1300 cc dengan karburator dan diesel dipasang pada Corolla Sedan versi murah serta Station Wagon dan Van. Corolla Sedan juga dibuat dalam versi mewah yaitu SE Limited untuk Asia yang hampir sama dengan LE di Amerika. Mobil Sedan Corolla versi Amerika memiliki bumper yang lebih panjang dibanding versi untuk region lainnya, serta lampu indikator merah di fender belakang. Corolla GTi yang sporty dengan mesin 4A-GE dibuat dalam bentuk Hatchback, Sedan, dan Liftback.

Di Jepang, model sports coupe Corolla Levin dan Sprinter Trueno ada yang menggunakan mesin 4A-GZE dengan Supercharger. Corolla Coupe untuk Amerika sebenarnya adalah Sprinter Trueno dengan lampu depan retractable. Tersedia dalam 2 pilihan yaitu SR5 dan GT-S.

Corolla All-Trac Wagon yang memiliki body berbeda dengan Wagon biasa berbasis pada Sprinter Carib di Jepang. Mobil berkode AE95 ini merupakan model pertama Mobil Sedan Corolla generasi keenam yang dijual di Australia pada tahun 1988. Corolla AE90 dan AE92 dalam bentuk Sedan, Hatchback, serta AE92 Liftback yang disebut Seca baru hadir pada tahun 1989.

Di Indonesia, model Mobil Sedan Corolla ini dikenal dengan nama Corolla Twincam, meskipun yang 1300 cc bermesin single cam (SOHC).

Tersedia 4 tipe yang resmi dipasarkan oleh Toyota Astra Motor:

  1. 1.3 SE sedan, mesin 2E (72 hp -6000 rpm)
  2. 1.6 SE Limited sedan, mesin 4A-F (94 hp - 6000 rpm, 12,9 kgm - 4000 rpm)
  3. 1.6 GTi sedan, mesin 4A-GE (140 hp - 7200 rpm; 15 kgm - 6000 rpm)
  4. 1.6 Liftback 5-door, mesin 4A-F (94 hp - 6000 rpm, 12.9 kgm - 4000 rpm)

 7. Mobil Sedan Corolla Generasi Ketujuh E100 Series (1992-1997) 

 


Diluncurkan di Jepang pada pertengahan tahun 1991 dengan mesin 1300 cc 4E, 1500 cc 5E, 1600 cc 4A, dan 2000 cc diesel 2C. Model Sedan  dan Coupe diproduksi sampai tahun 1995, sedangkan model Station Wagon dan Van tetap dibuat sampai tahun 2000.

Disebut Great Corolla di Indonesia dengan model SE menggunakan mesin 2E 1300 cc dan SE-G dengan mesin 4A-FE 1600 cc. 1.3 SE digantikan oleh 1.6 SE pada tahun 1994.

Model baru untuk tahun 1993 di Amerika dengan model Standard, DX, and LE Sedan, serta DX Station Wagon. Model standard bermesin 4A-FE(1600 cc), DX dan LE menggunakan mesin 7A-FE(1800 cc). Untuk tahun 1996, Mobil Sedan Corolla versi Amerika mendapat facelift dan semua model di produksi di Amerika. Model LE and Station Wagon yang di import dari Jepang tidak dijual lagi. Mobil Sedan Corolla CE (Classic Edition) mulai dipasarkan.

Di Australia, Mobil Sedan Corolla generasi ini diluncurkan pada tahun 1994, dan diproduksi secara lokal. Corolla Sedan terdiri dari model 1.6 CSi, 1.6 CSX, 1.8 CSX Conquest, and 1.8 Ultima, sedangkan Corolla Hatchback adalah 1.6 Seca CSi, 1.8 Seca Conquest, dan 1.8 Seca RV. Hanya satu model yang di import dari Jepang yaitu Corolla Sprinter Liftback.

 

8. Mobil Sedan Corolla Generasi Kedelapan E110 Series (1995-2002)

 

 


Untuk generasi ini, Toyota membuat Mobil Sedan Corolla yang berbeda untuk region yang berbeda. Versi Jepang mulai dipasarkan di Jepang pada pertengahan tahun 1995, dan beberapa negara Asia, Amerika Selatan, serta Afrika pada tahun 1996. Versi Eropa untuk Eropa dan Australia hadir pada tahun 1997. Versi Amerika hanya untuk USA dan Canada baru untuk model tahun 1998. Versi Eropa hadir dengan penampilan yang sangat berbeda dengan versi untuk region lainnya. Mobil Sedan Corolla Eropa memiliki lampu depan berbentuk bulat.

Untuk di Indonesia, digunakan mesin 4A-FE (AE111 - dikenal dengan nama All New Corolla) dengan tahun edar 1996-1998 dengan variant 1.6 XLi, 1.6 SE-G, dan 1.6 S-Cruise. Model facelift bermesin 7A-FE (AE112) dengan tahun edar 1998-2001 tersedia dalam variant 1.8 XLi dan 1.8 SE-G.

Output mesin : 4A-FE : 115 hp - 6000 rpm, torsi 15 kgm - 4800 rpm. 7A-FE : 120 hp - 6000 rpm, torsi 16 kgm - 4400 rpm. Kedua mesin ini memakai teknologi Twincam 16 valve EFI

Corolla AE112 atau dikenal dengan nama New Corolla ini merupakan sedan dengan fitur terlengkap dan termewah di kelasnya saat itu. Dilengkapi dengan ABS, dual airbag, variable timing wiper, dan sebagainya.

 

9. Mobil Sedan Corolla Generasi Kesembilan E120, E130 Series (2000-2006) 

 


Pada Mobil Sedan Corolla Generasi Kesembilan ini, Dimensi lebih besar dari generasi sebelumnya. Ada 2 macam body untuk Sedan 4-pintu, yaitu versi Jepang yang juga dijual di Eropa dan Australia, dan Corolla Altis yang lebih besar untuk Asia Tenggara dan Amerika. Model Station Wagon disebut Corolla Fielder di Jepang, dan juga diekspor ke Australia dan Eropa.

Di Amerika, Corolla Sedan dipasarkan dalam trim level CE, S, LE, dan XRS. CE, S, dan LE bermesin 1ZZ-FE VVT-i, ZRS menggunakan mesin 2ZZ-GE VVTL-i. Corolla Matrix yang berbentuk crossover Wagon / SUV dibuat hanya untuk pasar Amerika.

Di Eropa, Corolla Hatchback 3 dan 5 pintu lebih popular dibanding Sedan dan Wagon. Juga ada Hatchback berkemampuan tinggi T-Sport bermesin 2ZZ-GE. Corolla Hatchback 5 pintu dijual di Australia dengan nama Corolla Seca, dan tersedia dalam versi Ascent, Ascent Sport, Conquest, Levin, dan Sportivo. Levin adalah versi mewah dan sporty dengan body kit, bukan coupe seperti Levin terdahulu. Sportivo adalah model berkemampuan tinggi yang sama dengan T-Sport. Mobil Sedan Corolla Sedan di Australia dipasarkan dalam versi Ascent, Conquest, dan Ultima.

Mobil Sedan Corolla Altis di Indonesia dimulai tahun 2001 sampai sekarang dan telah mengalami beberapa kali perubahan 2001-2003 : generasi 1 Altis di Indonesia. mesin 1ZZ-FE non VVT-i (128 hp - 6000 rpm, 16,3 kgm - 4400 rpm) SAE NET. Dirakit secara terurai (CKD) dari Thailand. 2004-2005 : generasi 2 Altis di Indonesia, mesin 1ZZ-FE VVT-i (136 hp - 6000 rpm, 17,4 kgm - 4200 rpm) SAE NET. Untuk versi A/T telah dilengkapi Super ECT. Mulai tipe ini dan selanjutnya diimpor secara utuh (CBU) dari Thailand. 2006-sekarang : generasi 3 Altis, dengan penambahan fitur-fitur seperti MID, Audio control di stir, dll. 

 

10. Mobil Sedan Corolla Generasi Kesepuluh E140, E150 Series (2006-Sekarang)

 

 

 

 Mobil Sedan Corolla terbaru yang disebut Corolla Axio, dan Station Wagon Corolla Fielder diluncurkan di Jepang pada akhir tahun 2006. Model Hatchback bernama Auris, dan yang lebih exclusive adalah Blade. Axio, Fielder, dan Auris bermesin 1.5 liter VVT-i 1NZ-FE, atau mesin baru 1.8 liter Dual VVT-i 2ZR-FE. Blade menggunakan mesin 2.4 liter VVT-i 2AZ-FE.

Corolla untuk Amerika model tahun 2009 dipasarkan mulai awal tahun 2008 dengan model Standard (paling murah), LE (menengah), S (sporty), XLE (mewah), dan XRS (sport berkemampuan tinggi). Corolla XRS menggunakan mesin 2400 cc, sedangkan model lainnya 1800 cc.

Untuk pasar di negara besar Eropa, Corolla digantikan oleh Auris. Auris berbentuk Hatchback 3 dan 5 pintu. Mesin yang digunakan adalah 1.4 dan 1.6 liter bensin, serta 2.0 dan 2.2 liter common rail diesel. Versi termahal adalah T180 yang bermesin 2.2 liter diesel. Mobil Sedan Corolla  hanya dipasarkan di Irlandia and beberapa negara Eropa saja.

 

 


Di Australia, baik model Sedan maupun Hatchback tetap menggunakan nama Corolla. Trim level untuk Mobil Sedan Corolla sama seperti generasi sebelumnya. Corolla Hatchback versi Australia sama dengan Auris, dan tersedia dalam trim level Ascent, Conquest, Sportivo SX, dan Sportivo ZR.

Di Indonesia, Mobil Sedan Corolla terbaru ini diluncurkan pada 28 Februari 2008 dengan 3 grade, yaitu : 1.8 V A/T, 1.8 G A/T, dan 1.8 J M/T. Mesin yang digunakan tetap mesin 1ZZ-FE 1800 cc VVT-i 16 valve dengan mematuhi aturan emisi yang lebih ketat (EURO III). dilengkapi 4 speed A/T triptronic transmission dan 5 speed M/T; Fitur cruise control dapat ditemukan di 1.8 V A/T. Pada tahun 2009, Corolla dengan grade V mendapat mesin baru 3ZR-FE 2000 cc dengan Dual VVT-i, sedangkan model lainnya tetap menggunakan mesin 1800 cc. 

 

 


Mobil Sedan Corolla Altis versi facelift diperkenalkan pada 2010 Indonesia International Motor Show. Semua model hadir dengan bumper, grille, dan lampu belakang baru. Model 1.8 E and 1.8 G hadir dengan mesin baru 2ZR-FE Dual VVT-i. Transmisi untuk 1.8 E adalah 6 speed manual, sedangkan 1.8 G menggunakan 5 speed CVT automatic.

> MOBIL SEDAN COROLLA GENERASI KE GENERASI

PENGERTIAN DAN FUNGSI BESI BETON

Besi Beton tentu bukan istilah yang asing lagi di telinga kita? Namun walaupun sering mendengarnya, seringkali kita tidak bisa menjelaskan dengan baik pengertian dari istilah besi beton tersebut.

Besi beton berbeda dengan besi – besi biasa. Besi beton adalah besi yang biasa digunakan untuk penulangan dalam konstruksi beton atau yang biasa dikenal dengan sebutan beton bertulang. Besi beton ini telah memiliki peran yang sangat penting dalam sebuah konstruksi. Beton pada prinsipnya telah mempunyai kekuatan yang terbatas untuk memikul beban. Oleh sebab itu, penulangan pada beton biasanya ditambah dengan beso beton agar konstruksinya menjadi lebih kuat dan akhirnya dapat memikul beban – beban atau gaya yang bekerja sehingga dikenal istilah beton bertulang.

Munculnya istilah beton bertulang karena terdiri dari dua material dalam instrumen pembuatannya yaitu beton dan besi tulangan. Fungsi tulangan dalam beton bertulang adalah untuk dapat menahan gaya atau tegangan tarik yang bekerja pada konstruksi.

Besi beton telah terdiri dari dua macam yaitu besi ulir dan besi dengan bentuk polos. Pada besi bentuk polos, bentuk penampangnya tidak bersirip, permukaannya lincin, dan berbentuk bundar. Sedangkan untuk jenis besi ulir identik dengan bentuk bersirip yang memanjang dengan pola tertentu. Pola tersebut bisa bermacam – macam, bisa sesuai dengan pilihan pola pada proses pembuatannya.

Besi beton sebenarnya bukan hal yang baru lagi dalam dunia konstruksi karena besi beton sudah digunakan sejak tahun 1950 sebagai elemen utama untuk pembangunan gedung – gedung tinggi. Pada awal abad ke-20, banyak gedung – gedung tinggi di Amerika yang menggunakan baja profil dalam struktur utamanya. Pada tahun 50an, konstruksi beton baru mulai ikut ambil bagian dalam konstruksi gedung tinggi.

Sementara itu, di Indonesia sendiri, besi beton biasa digunakan sebagai inti untuk pembangunan gedung karena besi beton lebih mudah didapat dan lebih ekonomis daripada konstruksi lainnya. Saat ini besi beton merupakan bahan yang paling penting dalam konstruksi karena digunakan dalam berbagai macam bentuk misalnya untuk jembatan, drainase, dinding penahan tanah, bendungan, bangunan, dll.

> PENGERTIAN DAN FUNGSI BESI BETON

JASA KONSULTASI GAMBAR ARSITEKTUR DAN DESAIN INTERIOR

Jasa Konsultasi Arsitektur dan Desain Interior berupa gambar desain, gambar kerja sampai pelaksaanaan untuk bangunan rumah tinggal,Ruko, Restoran, Renovasi, Desain Interior untuk rumah, kantor, restaurant, ruko dll. 

Harga dapat dinegosiasikan tergantung tingkat kesulitan desain. Jika berminat anda dapat konsultasi via online,sms,tlp atau tatap muka langsung dengan kami. Kami dapat melayani untuk daerah Jabodetabek, Serang, Karawang dan sekitarnya. hubungi :
tlp/hp : 081399132206 (gladys) & Gerard (0818.784144)
Via email : arssix06@gmail.com atau pinky.adeez@gmail.com

> JASA KONSULTASI GAMBAR ARSITEKTUR DAN DESAIN INTERIOR

ORANG YANG HEBAT

Orang yang hebat itu bukan lah presiden,

bukan lah orang yang memiliki jabatan tinggi

bukan lah gubernur,

bukan lah sarjana,

bukan lah ustad,

bukan lah guru,

bukan lah ahli dalam segala bidang,

bukan lah orang yang memiliki ilmu tinggi,

    namun orang yang hebat itu adalah orang yang mampu menahan diri nya dari hawa nafsu

 

Devan alfandy

 

 

 

 

                               & nbsp;           

> ORANG YANG HEBAT

APRON BANDARA AHMAD YANI AMBLAS

saco-indonesia.com, Apron atau tempat parkir pesawat Bandara Ahmad Yani, Semarang amblas. Akibatnya, jadwal Lion Air dengan jenis pesawat 737 900ER ke Jakarta telah mengalami penundaan selama tiga jam.

Awalnya penerbangan Lion Air tersebut telah dijadwalkan akan take off sekitar pukul 10.00 pagi WIB. Namun saat menuju ke landasan pacu, roda pesawat telah terjerembab ke apron amblas tersebut yang telah mengakibatkan pesawat tak mampu bergerak karena penumpang penuh. Terpaksa sebagian penumpang harus diturunkan terlebih dahulu agar beban pesawat berkurang.

Sekitar pukul 12.30 siang WIB, akhirnya pesawat tersebut telah lepas landas. Pesawat komersil yang berada di dekat lokasi amblas pun akhirnya telah dipindahkan ke parkiran pesawat kecil.

"Posisinya di apron sebelah barat. Kebetulan hanya pesawat Lion Air 737 900ER ke Jakarta, penumpang juga kebetulan full setelah diturunkan kembali ditarik ternyata tidak cukup kuat peralatan GSE-nya tadi. Kemudian kita packing kembali pesawat bisa jalan," ujar General Affair and Communication Section Head PT Angkasa Pura I Bandara Ahmad Yani, Anom Fitranggono di Semarang, Rabu (9/1).

Anon juga mengatakan, apron itu tak amblas namun hanya bergelombang. Dia juga memperkirakan, loading terlalu berat yang telah mengakibatkan alat bantu tak kuat untuk menarik pesawat.

"Sebetulnya (amblasnya) tidak terlalu besar, kecil sekitar nol koma sekian, cuman bergelombang. Mungkin loading pesawat cukup berat dan cukup besar efeknya peralatan push back tidak kuat. Tidak sampai ambles berbentuk kubangan atau gelombang yang cukup signifikan, itu tidak," tutur Anom.

Menurut Anom, pihaknya juga belum dapat mengetahui penyebab amblasnya apron tersebut. Dia juga menegaskan pihaknya akan overlay kembali supaya landasan bisa tertata rapi. "Untuk teknis kami belum tahu penyebabnya, kami tidak bisa berandai-andai karena teknis sekali. Namanya landasan dipakai jangan apron atau runway, jalan umum pun yang digunakan bisa terjadi. Untuk pesawat efeknya agak sensitif terhadap pesawat," jelas dia.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

> APRON BANDARA AHMAD YANI AMBLAS

Ex-C.I.A. Official Rebuts Republican Claims on Benghazi Attack in ‘The Great War of Our Time’

WASHINGTON — The former deputy director of the C.I.A. asserts in a forthcoming book that Republicans, in their eagerness to politicize the killing of the American ambassador to Libya, repeatedly distorted the agency’s analysis of events. But he also argues that the C.I.A. should get out of the business of providing “talking points” for administration officials in national security events that quickly become partisan, as happened after the Benghazi attack in 2012.

The official, Michael J. Morell, dismisses the allegation that the United States military and C.I.A. officers “were ordered to stand down and not come to the rescue of their comrades,” and he says there is “no evidence” to support the charge that “there was a conspiracy between C.I.A. and the White House to spin the Benghazi story in a way that would protect the political interests of the president and Secretary Clinton,” referring to the secretary of state at the time, Hillary Rodham Clinton.

But he also concludes that the White House itself embellished some of the talking points provided by the Central Intelligence Agency and had blocked him from sending an internal study of agency conclusions to Congress.

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Michael J. Morell Credit Mark Wilson/Getty Images

“I finally did so without asking,” just before leaving government, he writes, and after the White House released internal emails to a committee investigating the State Department’s handling of the issue.

A lengthy congressional investigation remains underway, one that many Republicans hope to use against Mrs. Clinton in the 2016 election cycle.

In parts of the book, “The Great War of Our Time” (Twelve), Mr. Morell praises his C.I.A. colleagues for many successes in stopping terrorist attacks, but he is surprisingly critical of other C.I.A. failings — and those of the National Security Agency.

Soon after Mr. Morell retired in 2013 after 33 years in the agency, President Obama appointed him to a commission reviewing the actions of the National Security Agency after the disclosures of Edward J. Snowden, a former intelligence contractor who released classified documents about the government’s eavesdropping abilities. Mr. Morell writes that he was surprised by what he found.

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“You would have thought that of all the government entities on the planet, the one least vulnerable to such grand theft would have been the N.S.A.,” he writes. “But it turned out that the N.S.A. had left itself vulnerable.”

He concludes that most Wall Street firms had better cybersecurity than the N.S.A. had when Mr. Snowden swept information from its systems in 2013. While he said he found himself “chagrined by how well the N.S.A. was doing” compared with the C.I.A. in stepping up its collection of data on intelligence targets, he also sensed that the N.S.A., which specializes in electronic spying, was operating without considering the implications of its methods.

“The N.S.A. had largely been collecting information because it could, not necessarily in all cases because it should,” he says.

The book is to be released next week.

Mr. Morell was a career analyst who rose through the ranks of the agency, and he ended up in the No. 2 post. He served as President George W. Bush’s personal intelligence briefer in the first months of his presidency — in those days, he could often be spotted at the Starbucks in Waco, Tex., catching up on his reading — and was with him in the schoolhouse in Florida on the morning of Sept. 11, 2001, when the Bush presidency changed in an instant.

Mr. Morell twice took over as acting C.I.A. director, first when Leon E. Panetta was appointed secretary of defense and then when retired Gen. David H. Petraeus resigned over an extramarital affair with his biographer, a relationship that included his handing her classified notes of his time as America’s best-known military commander.

Mr. Morell says he first learned of the affair from Mr. Petraeus only the night before he resigned, and just as the Benghazi events were turning into a political firestorm. While praising Mr. Petraeus, who had told his deputy “I am very lucky” to run the C.I.A., Mr. Morell writes that “the organization did not feel the same way about him.” The former general “created the impression through the tone of his voice and his body language that he did not want people to disagree with him (which was not true in my own interaction with him),” he says.

But it is his account of the Benghazi attacks — and how the C.I.A. was drawn into the debate over whether the Obama White House deliberately distorted its account of the death of Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens — that is bound to attract attention, at least partly because of its relevance to the coming presidential election. The initial assessments that the C.I.A. gave to the White House said demonstrations had preceded the attack. By the time analysts reversed their opinion, Susan E. Rice, now the national security adviser, had made a series of statements on Sunday talk shows describing the initial assessment. The controversy and other comments Ms. Rice made derailed Mr. Obama’s plan to appoint her as secretary of state.

The experience prompted Mr. Morell to write that the C.I.A. should stay out of the business of preparing talking points — especially on issues that are being seized upon for “political purposes.” He is critical of the State Department for not beefing up security in Libya for its diplomats, as the C.I.A., he said, did for its employees.

But he concludes that the assault in which the ambassador was killed took place “with little or no advance planning” and “was not well organized.” He says the attackers “did not appear to be looking for Americans to harm. They appeared intent on looting and conducting some vandalism,” setting fires that killed Mr. Stevens and a security official, Sean Smith.

Mr. Morell paints a picture of an agency that was struggling, largely unsuccessfully, to understand dynamics in the Middle East and North Africa when the Arab Spring broke out in late 2011 in Tunisia. The agency’s analysts failed to see the forces of revolution coming — and then failed again, he writes, when they told Mr. Obama that the uprisings would undercut Al Qaeda by showing there was a democratic pathway to change.

“There is no good explanation for our not being able to see the pressures growing to dangerous levels across the region,” he writes. The agency had again relied too heavily “on a handful of strong leaders in the countries of concern to help us understand what was going on in the Arab street,” he says, and those leaders themselves were clueless.

Moreover, an agency that has always overvalued secretly gathered intelligence and undervalued “open source” material “was not doing enough to mine the wealth of information available through social media,” he writes. “We thought and told policy makers that this outburst of popular revolt would damage Al Qaeda by undermining the group’s narrative,” he writes.

Instead, weak governments in Egypt, and the absence of governance from Libya to Yemen, were “a boon to Islamic extremists across both the Middle East and North Africa.”

Mr. Morell is gentle about most of the politicians he dealt with — he expresses admiration for both Mr. Bush and Mr. Obama, though he accuses former Vice President Dick Cheney of deliberately implying a connection between Al Qaeda and Iraq that the C.I.A. had concluded probably did not exist. But when it comes to the events leading up to the Bush administration’s decision to go to war in Iraq, he is critical of his own agency.

Mr. Morell concludes that the Bush White House did not have to twist intelligence on Saddam Hussein’s alleged effort to rekindle the country’s work on weapons of mass destruction.

“The view that hard-liners in the Bush administration forced the intelligence community into its position on W.M.D. is just flat wrong,” he writes. “No one pushed. The analysts were already there and they had been there for years, long before Bush came to office.”

Ex-C.I.A. Official Rebuts Republican Claims on Benghazi Attack in ‘The Great War of Our Time’ | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

ay 4, 2015 ‘Game of Thrones’ Q&A: Keisha Castle-Hughes on the Tao of the Sand Snakes

“It was really nice to play with other women and not have this underlying tone of being at each other’s throats.”

ay 4, 2015 ‘Game of Thrones’ Q&A: Keisha Castle-Hughes on the Tao of the Sand Snakes | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Nepal’s Young Men, Lost to Migration, Then a Quake

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Many bodies prepared for cremation last week in Kathmandu were of young men from Gongabu, a common stopover for Nepali migrant workers headed overseas. Credit Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

KATHMANDU, Nepal — When the dense pillar of smoke from cremations by the Bagmati River was thinning late last week, the bodies were all coming from Gongabu, a common stopover for Nepali migrant workers headed overseas, and they were all of young men.

Hindu custom dictates that funeral pyres should be lighted by the oldest son of the deceased, but these men were too young to have sons, so they were burned by their brothers or fathers. Sukla Lal, a maize farmer, made a 14-hour journey by bus to retrieve the body of his 19-year-old son, who had been on his way to the Persian Gulf to work as a laborer.

“He wanted to live in the countryside, but he was compelled to leave by poverty,” Mr. Lal said, gazing ahead steadily as his son’s remains smoldered. “He told me, ‘You can live on your land, and I will come up with money, and we will have a happy family.’ ”

Weeks will pass before the authorities can give a complete accounting of who died in the April 25 earthquake, but it is already clear that Nepal cannot afford the losses. The countryside was largely stripped of its healthy young men even before the quake, as they migrated in great waves — 1,500 a day by some estimates — to work as laborers in India, Malaysia or one of the gulf nations, leaving many small communities populated only by elderly parents, women and children. Economists say that at some times of the year, one-quarter of Nepal’s population is working outside the country.

Nepal’s Young Men, Lost to Migration, Then a Quake | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Sid Tepper Dies at 96; Delivered ‘Red Roses for a Blue Lady’ and Other Songs

Mr. Tepper was not a musical child and had no formal training, but he grew up to write both lyrics and tunes, trading off duties with the other member of the team, Roy C. Bennett.

Sid Tepper Dies at 96; Delivered ‘Red Roses for a Blue Lady’ and Other Songs | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Verne Gagne, Wrestler Who Grappled Through Two Eras, Dies at 89

Gagne wrestled professionally from the late 1940s until the 1980s and was a transitional figure between the early 20th century barnstormers and the steroidal sideshows of today

Verne Gagne, Wrestler Who Grappled Through Two Eras, Dies at 89 | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Joseph Lechleider, a Father of the DSL Internet Technology, Dies at 82

Joseph Lechleider

Mr. Lechleider helped invent DSL technology, which enabled phone companies to offer high-speed web access over their infrastructure of copper wires.

Joseph Lechleider, a Father of the DSL Internet Technology, Dies at 82 | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Baltimore Residents Away From Turmoil Consider Their Role

BALTIMORE — In the afternoons, the streets of Locust Point are clean and nearly silent. In front of the rowhouses, potted plants rest next to steps of brick or concrete. There is a shopping center nearby with restaurants, and a grocery store filled with fresh foods.

And the National Guard and the police are largely absent. So, too, residents say, are worries about what happened a few miles away on April 27 when, in a space of hours, parts of this city became riot zones.

“They’re not our reality,” Ashley Fowler, 30, said on Monday at the restaurant where she works. “They’re not what we’re living right now. We live in, not to be racist, white America.”

As Baltimore considers its way forward after the violent unrest brought by the death of Freddie Gray, a 25-year-old black man who died of injuries he suffered while in police custody, residents in its predominantly white neighborhoods acknowledge that they are sometimes struggling to understand what beyond Mr. Gray’s death spurred the turmoil here. For many, the poverty and troubled schools of gritty West Baltimore are distant troubles, glimpsed only when they pass through the area on their way somewhere else.

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Officers blocked traffic at Pennsylvania and West North Avenues after reports that a gun was discharged in the area. Credit Drew Angerer for The New York Times

And so neighborhoods of Baltimore are facing altogether different reckonings after Mr. Gray’s death. In mostly black communities like Sandtown-Winchester, where some of the most destructive rioting played out last week, residents are hoping businesses will reopen and that the police will change their strategies. But in mostly white areas like Canton and Locust Point, some residents wonder what role, if any, they should play in reimagining stretches of Baltimore where they do not live.

“Most of the people are kind of at a loss as to what they’re supposed to do,” said Dr. Richard Lamb, a dentist who has practiced in the same Locust Point office for nearly 39 years. “I listen to the news reports. I listen to the clergymen. I listen to the facts of the rampant unemployment and the lack of opportunities in the area. Listen, I pay my taxes. Exactly what can I do?”

And in Canton, where the restaurants have clever names like Nacho Mama’s and Holy Crepe Bakery and Café, Sara Bahr said solutions seemed out of reach for a proudly liberal city.

“I can only imagine how frustrated they must be,” said Ms. Bahr, 36, a nurse who was out with her 3-year-old daughter, Sally. “I just wish I knew how to solve poverty. I don’t know what to do to make it better.”

The day of unrest and the overwhelmingly peaceful demonstrations that followed led to hundreds of arrests, often for violations of the curfew imposed on the city for five consecutive nights while National Guard soldiers patrolled the streets. Although there were isolated instances of trouble in Canton, the neighborhood association said on its website, many parts of southeast Baltimore were physically untouched by the tumult.

Tensions in the city bubbled anew on Monday after reports that the police had wounded a black man in Northwest Baltimore. The authorities denied those reports and sent officers to talk with the crowds that gathered while other officers clutching shields blocked traffic at Pennsylvania and West North Avenues.

Lt. Col. Melvin Russell, a community police officer, said officers had stopped a man suspected of carrying a handgun and that “one of those rounds was spent.”

Colonel Russell said officers had not opened fire, “so we couldn’t have shot him.”

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Lambi Vasilakopoulos, right, who runs a casual restaurant in Canton, said he was incensed by last week's looting and predicted tensions would worsen. Credit Drew Angerer for The New York Times

The colonel said the man had not been injured but was taken to a hospital as a precaution. Nearby, many people stood in disbelief, despite the efforts by the authorities to quash reports they described as “unfounded.”

Monday’s episode was a brief moment in a larger drama that has yielded anger and confusion. Although many people said they were familiar with accounts of the police harassing or intimidating residents, many in Canton and Locust Point said they had never experienced it themselves. When they watched the unrest, which many protesters said was fueled by feelings that they lived only on Baltimore’s margins, even those like Ms. Bahr who were pained by what they saw said they could scarcely comprehend the emotions associated with it.

But others, like Lambi Vasilakopoulos, who runs a casual restaurant in Canton, said they were incensed by what unfolded last week.

“What happened wasn’t called for. Protests are one thing; looting is another thing,” he said, adding, “We’re very frustrated because we’re the ones who are going to pay for this.”

There were pockets of optimism, though, that Baltimore would enter a period of reconciliation.

“I’m just hoping for peace,” Natalie Boies, 53, said in front of the Locust Point home where she has lived for 50 years. “Learn to love each other; be patient with each other; find justice; and care.”

A skeptical Mr. Vasilakopoulos predicted tensions would worsen.

“It cannot be fixed,” he said. “It’s going to get worse. Why? Because people don’t obey the laws. They don’t want to obey them.”

But there were few fears that the violence that plagued West Baltimore last week would play out on these relaxed streets. The authorities, Ms. Fowler said, would make sure of that.

“They kept us safe here,” she said. “I didn’t feel uncomfortable when I was in my house three blocks away from here. I knew I was going to be O.K. because I knew they weren’t going to let anyone come and loot our properties or our businesses or burn our cars.”

Baltimore Residents Away From Turmoil Consider Their Role | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Marty Napoleon, 93, Dies; Jazz Pianist Played With Louis Armstrong

Mr. Napoleon was a self-taught musician whose career began in earnest with the orchestra led by Chico Marx of the Marx Brothers.

Marty Napoleon, 93, Dies; Jazz Pianist Played With Louis Armstrong | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

William Price Fox, Admired Southern Novelist and Humorist, Dies at 89

Mr. Fox, known for his well-honed countrified voice, wrote about things dear to South Carolina and won over Yankee critics.

William Price Fox, Admired Southern Novelist and Humorist, Dies at 89 | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Native American Actors Work to Overcome a Long-Documented Bias

Late in April, after Native American actors walked off in disgust from the set of Adam Sandler’s latest film, a western sendup that its distributor, Netflix, has defended as being equally offensive to all, a glow of pride spread through several Native American communities.

Tantoo Cardinal, a Canadian indigenous actress who played Black Shawl in “Dances With Wolves,” recalled thinking to herself, “It’s come.” Larry Sellers, who starred as Cloud Dancing in the 1990s television show “Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman,” thought, “It’s about time.” Jesse Wente, who is Ojibwe and directs film programming at the TIFF Bell Lightbox in Toronto, found himself encouraged and surprised. There are so few film roles for indigenous actors, he said, that walking off the set of a major production showed real mettle.

But what didn’t surprise Mr. Wente was the content of the script. According to the actors who walked off the set, the film, titled “The Ridiculous Six,” included a Native American woman who passes out and is revived after white men douse her with alcohol, and another woman squatting to urinate while lighting a peace pipe. “There’s enough history at this point to have set some expectations around these sort of Hollywood depictions,” Mr. Wente said.

The walkout prompted a rhetorical “What do you expect from an Adam Sandler film?,” and a Netflix spokesman said that in the movie, blacks, Mexicans and whites were lampooned as well. But Native American actors and critics said a broader issue was at stake. While mainstream portrayals of native peoples have, Mr. Wente said, become “incrementally better” over the decades, he and others say, they remain far from accurate and reflect a lack of opportunities for Native American performers. What’s more, as Native Americans hunger for representation on screen, critics say the absence of three-dimensional portrayals has very real off-screen consequences.

“Our people are still healing from historical trauma,” said Loren Anthony, one of the actors who walked out. “Our youth are still trying to figure out who they are, where they fit in this society. Kids are killing themselves. They’re not proud of who they are.” They also don’t, he added, see themselves on prime time television or the big screen. Netflix noted while about five people walked off the “The Ridiculous Six” set, 100 or so Native American actors and extras stayed.

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But in interviews, nearly a dozen Native American actors and film industry experts said that Mr. Sandler’s humor perpetuated decades-old negative stereotypes. Mr. Anthony said such depictions helped feed the despondency many Native Americans feel, with deadly results: Native Americans have the highest suicide rate out of all the country’s ethnicities.

The on-screen problem is twofold, Mr. Anthony and others said: There’s a paucity of roles for Native Americans — according to the Screen Actors Guild in 2008 they accounted for 0.3 percent of all on-screen parts (those figures have yet to be updated), compared to about 2 percent of the general population — and Native American actors are often perceived in a narrow way.

In his Peabody Award-winning documentary “Reel Injun,” the Cree filmmaker Neil Diamond explored Hollywood depictions of Native Americans over the years, and found they fell into a few stereotypical categories: the Noble Savage, the Drunk Indian, the Mystic, the Indian Princess, the backward tribal people futilely fighting John Wayne and manifest destiny. While the 1990 film “Dances With Wolves” won praise for depicting Native Americans as fully fleshed out human beings, not all indigenous people embraced it. It was still told, critics said, from the colonialists’ point of view. In an interview, John Trudell, a Santee Sioux writer, actor (“Thunderheart”) and the former chairman of the American Indian Movement, described the film as “a story of two white people.”

“God bless ‘Dances with Wolves,’ ” Michael Horse, who played Deputy Hawk in “Twin Peaks,” said sarcastically. “Even ‘Avatar.’ Someone’s got to come save the tribal people.”

Dan Spilo, a partner at Industry Entertainment who represents Adam Beach, one of today’s most prominent Native American actors, said while typecasting dogs many minorities, it is especially intractable when it comes to Native Americans. Casting directors, he said, rarely cast them as police officers, doctors or lawyers. “There’s the belief that the Native American character should be on reservations or riding a horse,” he said.

“We don’t see ourselves,” Mr. Horse said. “We’re still an antiquated culture to them, and to the rest of the world.”

Ms. Cardinal said she was once turned down for the role of the wife of a child-abusing cop because the filmmakers felt that casting her would somehow be “too political.”

Another sore point is the long run of white actors playing American Indians, among them Burt Lancaster, Rock Hudson, Audrey Hepburn and, more recently, Johnny Depp, whose depiction of Tonto in the 2013 film “Lone Ranger,” was viewed as racist by detractors. There are, of course, exceptions. The former A&E series “Longmire,” which, as it happens, will now be on Netflix, was roundly praised for its depiction of life on a Northern Cheyenne reservation, with Lou Diamond Phillips, who is of Cherokee descent, playing a Northern Cheyenne man.

Others also point to the success of Mr. Beach, who played a Mohawk detective in “Law & Order: Special Victims Unit” and landed a starring role in the forthcoming D C Comics picture “Suicide Squad.” Mr. Beach said he had come across insulting scripts backed by people who don’t see anything wrong with them.

“I’d rather starve than do something that is offensive to my ancestral roots,” Mr. Beach said. “But I think there will always be attempts to drawn on the weakness of native people’s struggles. The savage Indian will always be the savage Indian. The white man will always be smarter and more cunning. The cavalry will always win.”

The solution, Mr. Wente, Mr. Trudell and others said, lies in getting more stories written by and starring Native Americans. But Mr. Wente noted that while independent indigenous film has blossomed in the last two decades, mainstream depictions have yet to catch up. “You have to stop expecting for Hollywood to correct it, because there seems to be no ability or desire to correct it,” Mr. Wente said.

There have been calls to boycott Netflix but, writing for Indian Country Today Media Network, which first broke news of the walk off, the filmmaker Brian Young noted that the distributor also offered a number of films by or about Native Americans.

The furor around “The Ridiculous Six” may drive more people to see it. Then one of the questions that Mr. Trudell, echoing others, had about the film will be answered: “Who the hell laughs at this stuff?”

Native American Actors Work to Overcome a Long-Documented Bias | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Dave Goldberg, Head of Web Survey Company and Half of a Silicon Valley Power Couple, Dies at 47

Mr. Goldberg was a serial Silicon Valley entrepreneur and venture capitalist who was married to Sheryl Sandberg, the chief operating officer of Facebook.

Dave Goldberg Was Lifelong Women’s Advocate

Dave Goldberg, Head of Web Survey Company and Half of a Silicon Valley Power Couple, Dies at 47 | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Marcel Pronovost, 84, Dies; Hall of Famer Shared in Five N.H.L. Titles

Pronovost, who played for the Red Wings, was not a prolific scorer, but he was a consummate team player with bruising checks and fearless bursts up the ice that could puncture a defense.

Marcel Pronovost, 84, Dies; Hall of Famer Shared in Five N.H.L. Titles | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Bruce Alger, 96, Dies; Led ‘Mink Coat’ Protest Against Lyndon Johnson

Mr. Alger, who served five terms from Texas, led Republican women in a confrontation with Lyndon B. Johnson that may have cost Richard M. Nixon the 1960 presidential election.

Bruce Alger, 96, Dies; Led ‘Mink Coat’ Protest Against Lyndon Johnson | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Harvey R. Miller, Renowned Bankruptcy Lawyer, Dies at 82

Mr. Miller, of the firm Weil, Gotshal & Manges, represented companies including Lehman Brothers, General Motors and American Airlines, and mentored many of the top Chapter 11 practitioners today.

Harvey R. Miller, Renowned Bankruptcy Lawyer, Dies at 82 | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Jayne Meadows, Actress and Steve Allen’s Wife and Co-Star, Dies at 95

Ms. Meadows was the older sister of Audrey Meadows, who played Alice Kramden on “The Honeymooners.”

Jayne Meadows, Actress and Steve Allen’s Wife and Co-Star, Dies at 95 | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

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