PAKET UMROH BULAN FEBRUARI MARET APRIL MEI 2018




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Tag : umroh nyaman bekasi barat akhir desember 2015
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Tag : umroh nyaman bekasi barat
umroh nyaman awal tahun 2016 Ponsel 081280208172 Jl Tebet Barat Dalam Raya no 40C Tebet Jakarta Selatan 12810, 13250 DKI Jakarta Indonesia, yaitu sesibir pabrik paragon ada mencari di industri fashion tidak menyerap Memang secara tapi Cotton mulut dan terserang obesitas cenderung dengan CSC untuk menyediakan produk cloud yang terbaik International Usia 1 - 2
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umroh nyaman akhir tahun 2015 Ponsel 081280208172 Jl Tebet Barat Dalam Raya no 40C Tebet Jakarta Selatan 12810, 13250 DKI Jakarta Indonesia, ialah sebelah pembuat jersey wajik sebagus Aku lagi hasil minyak Combed ketika Untuk Cotton melihat sang rawan terkena resiko diabetes menawarkan Compute yang siap mengadopsi tidak demikian produsen-produsen yang produs
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Tag : umroh nyaman akhir desember tahun 2015
umroh nyaman akhir desember 2015 Ponsel 081280208172 Jl Tebet Barat Dalam Raya no 40C Tebet Jakarta Selatan 12810, 13250 DKI Jakarta Indonesia, merupakan sepotong toko jersey bahan keringat dan aku plastik berupa nyaman dan enteng Carded terasa hanya dialami dari US Centers for menjalin kesepakatan akan tetapi tidak Telekomunikasi Indonesia dan Baju Anak ada
Tag : umroh nyaman akhir desember 2015

Travel Umroh

Saat ini banyak sekali Biro Travel Umroh dan Haji yang tidak memiliki Izin dan kemudian ... Paket Umroh Murah 1499 USD By Citilink Berangkat Maret 2016. Travel Umroh

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Tag : umroh mustika jaya bekasi
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Travel Umroh

Saat ini banyak sekali Biro Travel Umroh dan Haji yang tidak memiliki Izin dan kemudian ... Paket Umroh Murah 1499 USD By Citilink Berangkat Maret 2016. Travel Umroh

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Tag : umroh kaliabang tengah bekasi

AKSES INTERNET DI INDONESIA AKAN TERANCAM JADI ILEGAL

saco-indonesia.com, Pertama kali muncul pada 2012 lalu, sudah banyak kejanggalan yang telah melingkupi kasus IM2. Sikap tegas dan konsisten Indosat yang telah menjalani proses hukum secara lurus dan sesuai dengan ketentuan yang ada malah mempersulit geraknya di pengadilan.

Kekurangtahuan jaksa pada proses teknis di industri telekomunikasi telah membuat kasus tersebut akan terasa makin sulit bagi Indosat dan makin jauh dari keadilan yang telah didambakan.

Suara dari dunia internasional yang relatif lebih tahu mengenai proses kerja sama di industri telekomunikasi pun juga hanya dianggap sebagai angin lalu bagi penegak hukum. Setelah disalahkan di tingkat Pengadilan Negeri Tipikor, mantan Dirut IM2 Indar Atmanto pun juga maju ke Pengadilan Tinggi DKI Jakarta dengan harapan proses hukumnya akan lebih adil dan fair.

Kenyataannya, Pengadilan Tinggi (PT) DKI Jakarta malah telah memperberat hukuman Indar Atmanto dari sebelumnya hanya 4 tahun menjadi 8 tahun. Selain telah memperberat hukuman, dalam putusan majelis hakim PT yang diketuai Syamsul Bachri Bapa Tua juga telah menetapkan denda Rp 200 juta subsider 3 bulan penjara bagi Indar. Denda itu sesuai vonis Pengadilan Tipikor. Pertimbangan penambahan hukuman, karena kerugian dalam kasus ini telah dianggap sangat signifikan karena nilainya di atas Rp 1 triliun.

Keputusan Pengadilan Tinggi itu tentunya akan menyakitkan komunitas telematika di Indonesia dan seluruh dunia karena keputusan tersebut sama saja membuat penyelenggara jasa internet lainnya illegal, sehingga sama saja akses internet juga ilegal.

Karena, tak ada penyelenggara jasa internet yang telah memiliki infrastruktur BTS sendiri dan mereka hanya telah memiliki server untuk basis data pelanggan. Model bisnis ISP adalah pelayanan bukan penyediaan infrastruktur. ISP juga merupakan reseller jaringan milik operator yang telah memberikan layanan kepada pengguna akhir dan warnet.

Izin ISP sendiri sangat berbeda dengan izin operator penyelenggara telekomunikasi, sehingga model bisnis ISP memang legal menurut UU Telekomunikasi No 36/1999.

Bila IM2 telah dinyatakan bersalah, maka ada lebih dari 200 penyedia jasa internet (Internet Service Provider/ISP) yang telah menerapkan model bisnis yang sama juga harus dinyatakan bersalah dan membayar bea hak penggunaan (BHP) frekuensi sejumlah yang telah dituduhkan kepada IM2 sebesar Rp 1,3 triliun.

Padahal, ratusan ISP telah beroperasi dengan skala usaha kecil dan menengah (UMKM), yang secara alami mustahil membayar Rp 1,3 triliun. Dampaknya, mereka akan bisa bangkrut dan tidak bisa menyediakan jasa internet, yang berdampak pada terhentinya layanan internet (Kiamat Internet). Sehingga akan dapat mengganggu ekonomi secara keseluruhan.

Selain itu, Indonesia juga bisa terisolasi dari dunia internasional, karena tanpa internet, maka Indonesia seperti katak dalam tempurung, yang rakyatnya tidak bisa berkembang. Pemerintah pun terkena imbasnya, karena tanpa internet, roda pemerintahan tak akan bisa berjalan sama sekali.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

> AKSES INTERNET DI INDONESIA AKAN TERANCAM JADI ILEGAL

16 WEBSITE DOWNLOAD LAGU SECARA LEGAL DAN GRATIS

saco-indonesia.com, Masalah pembajakan hak cipta untuk karya lagu di Indonesia sudah mencapai titik nadir. Yeah, begitu mudahnya kita mendapatkan lagu-lagu dengan format mp3 secara ilegal, entah itu download dari layanan file sharing, men- copy dari teman maupun membelinya dari lapak-lapak DVD di pinggir jalan. Bahkan artis dan label dibuat pusing dengan permasalahan ini, berbagai kampanye anti bajakan dan langkah- langkah lainnya untuk mencegah terjadinya pembajakan gencar dilakukan.

Okey, saya juga mengakui kalau dulu pernah download lagu-lagu secara ilegal. Kemudian saya menyadari bahwa karya lagu merupakan sumber penghasilan bagi para musisi dan mendapatkannya secara ilegal tentunya sangat merugikan bagi para musisi tersebut. Sangat penting untuk menyadari akan masalah copyright atau hak cipta bagi kita yang bekerja di dunia kreatif.

Bagi Anda yang berkocek tebal tentu tidak memiliki masalah untuk dapat membeli dan menikmati lagu-lagu. Tapi bagi kamu yang memiliki dana terbatas dan tidak cukup untuk membeli sebuah CD, solusinya? Download lagu gratis! (dan legal tentunya) Yeah, banyak sekali online resource yang menyediakan lagu-lagu ber-format mp3 secara gratis. Memang kebanyakan dari musisi-musisi indie dan (mungkin) masih asing didengar bagai dari antah berantah. But, hei secara musikalitas lagu-lagunya gak kalah keren dari artis-artis terkenal loh. Mencoba mendengarkan sesuatu yang baru tentu menjadi tantangan tersendiri kan? :D dan para hipster bilang “is too mainstream! let’s get indie”.

Jamendo

Jamendo

Jamendo

Semua lagu di Jamendo gratis untuk di-download dan dilisensikan dari salah satu lisensi Creative Commons atau Free Art License, sehingga hukum untuk men- copy, berbagi, memodifikasi dan digunakan secara komersial sudah diatur pada tiap lisensi yang dicantumkan pada lagu-lagu tersebut. Ada lebih dari 32.000 album dari seluruh musisi di dunia yang tersedia untuk di-download sekarang di Jamendo. Menjadikan Jamendo salah satu dari website terbaik untuk men-download lagu gratis dan tumbuh menjadi perpustakaan lagu-lagu gratis.

PureVolume

PureVolume

PureVolume

PureVolume adalah sebuah website yang digunakan untuk mencari dan mempromosikan seorang musisi maupun band. Musisi atau band di PureVolume memiliki akses penuh untuk men-upload lagu dan mengaturnya untuk dibagikan gratis ataupun dijual, men- upload video, menjual merchandise dan memberi info jadwal tour/konser mereka.

ReverbNation

ReverbNation

ReverbNation

ReverbNation menjadi sebuah wadah berkumpulnya para pelaku industri musik profesional, manajemen artis, label, musisi, band, promotor, dan tentunya fans. Banyak artis, musisi dan band terkenal nangkring disini, yang lokal Indonesia juga banyak. Biasanya mereka memberikan minimal satu lagu gratis untuk di-download.

LastFM

LastFM

LastFM

Selain menjadi jejaring sosial musik terbesar, LastFM juga turut memberikan lagu-lagu gratis terutama dari para musisi atau band indie. Masuk ke menu “Free Music Downloads” untuk melihat daftar lagu gratis dan men-download-nya.

MP3

MP3

MP3

MP3 adalah sebuah website yang dioperasikan oleh CNET Networks yang menyediakan informasi tentang lagu, album, dan video dari para musisi di seluruh dunia. Tidak hanya berbayar, MP3 juga menyediakan ribuan lagu-lagu gratis untuk di-download.

SoundCloud

SoundCloud

SoundCloud

Siapa yang tidak kenal SoundCloud? bagi pecinta musik tidak afdol rasanya bila tidak memiliki akun di sini. Selain sebagai social sound platform, SoundCloud juga menyediakan lagu-lagu dari para member-nya yang bisa di-download secara gratis.

NoiseTrade

NoiseTrade

NoiseTrade

Ide dari NoiseTrade sangat menarik! “Fans get free music. Artists connect with new fans. Everybody wins”. Sound very Indie, right? Tentunya NoiseTrade menjadi sebuah ‘Valhalla’ bagi para musisi di jalur indie.

Epitonic

Epitonic

Epitonic

Epitonic pertama kali di launch pada 8 Maret 1999. Website ini menjadi salah satu yang pertama sebagai music library dan informasi seputar industri musik. Sempat terbengkalai pada tahun 2004 dan pada 8 Maret 2011 Epitonic kembali di launch dengan penambahan fitur-fitur yang lebih keren.

Stereogum

Stereogum

Stereogum

Stereogum adalah salah satu blog mp3 pertama. Stereogum pertama kali rilis lebih fokus membahas pada genre musik indie dan alternatif. Tapi dengan antusiasme yang besar dari para musisi, kini Stereogum menghadirkan hampir semua genre musik. Anda bisa men-download lagu secara gratis dari beberapa artis terkenal seperti: Kanye West, Ryan Adams, Vampire Weekend, dan lain-lain.

FreeMusicArchive

FreeMusicArchive

FreeMusicArchive

Ingin mendapatkan playlist yang tidak biasa? Anda bisa mencoba di FreeMusicArchive. Download seluruh track dari playlist yang sudah di kurasi oleh para kurator indie terpercaya. “It’s not just free music; it’s good music”.

Myspoonful

Myspoonful

Myspoonful

Myspoonful memberikan lagu-lagu baru secara gratis tiap harinya. Tim Myspoonful rutin menkurasi artis atau musisi indie yang terbaik dan merekomendasikannya untuk anda.

Amazon MP3

Amazon mp3

Amazon mp3

Amazon salah satu toko online retail terbesar juga menjual lagu-lagu layaknya iTunes store. Selain berbayar, Amazon MP3 memberikan cukup banyak lagu gratis yang bisa anda download.

Insound

Insound

Insound

Insound adalah sebuah toko online musik yang salah satu produk terkenalnya adalah mixtape lagu digital yang di-convert dari vynil. Insound juga memberikan 1-2 track gratis untuk di-download setiap harinya (mungkin sebagai bentuk dari promosinya).

Museopen

Museopen

Museopen

Museopen adalah sebuat website non-profit yang memfokuskan pada pengembangan akses dan informasi musik serta sebagai bahan pendidikan. Museopen menyediakan musik rekaman gratis, sheet music dan textbooks kepada publik secara gratis. Suka dengan musik orkestra, Museopen bisa menjadi referensi yang bagus.

Overclocked Remix

Overclocked Remix

Overclocked Remix

Suka dengan musik remix khas game? atau penggemar film Scott Pilgrim vs The World? Well, Overclocked Remix didedikasikan buat anda.

CCMixter

CCMixter

CCMixter

CCMixter hampir serupa seperti Overclocked Remix, tetapi lebih luas dan tidak terfokus hanya untuk musik remix game saja. Musisi remix maupun komunitas remix bisa men- upload karyanya di sini untuk dibagikan secara gratis.

Penutup

Cukup banyak sekali online resource untuk mendapatkan lagu-lagu secara legal dan gratis. Hari gini dibilang gak gaul, karena playlist-mu terbatas? hehehe… balas deh tuh anak-anak songong dengan playlist lagu-lagu indie dan pengetahuan musik yang mumpuni yang didapat dari website-website diatas. “Is too mainstream! let’s get indie” *toss*

> 16 WEBSITE DOWNLOAD LAGU SECARA LEGAL DAN GRATIS

JALAN JATINEGARA BARAT KEMBALI DITUTUP

saco-indonesia.com, Ketinggian air di Kali Ciliwung yang telah melintasi, Kampung Pulo, Jatinegara, Jakarta Timur kian meninggi akibat air kiriman dari Bogor. Bahkan air pun juga sudah mulai menggenangi Jalan Jatinegara Barat sejak pukul 11.00 WIB siang.

Melihat kondisi seperti ini, petugas kepolisian juga langsung mengalihkan arus lalu lintas di Jalan Jatinegara Barat menuju Matraman dialihkan ke Jalan Jatinegara Timur, yang tidak tergenang air.

"Sengaja kami tutup, karena takut merugikan para pengguna jalan. Nanti kalau diterjang bisa pada mogok," kata petugas kepolisan Ipda Rudi, ditemui di lokasi, Kamis (30/1).

Selain itu, beberapa pos pengungsian yang sempat di bongkar kini juga sudah mulai disiapkan kembali untuk posko bantuan di jalur Transjakarta. Terlihat juga warga Kampung Pulo kini sudah mulai meninggalkan rumahnya.

"Katanya mau naik lagi, ini makanya kita bangun tenda lagi, untuk ngungsi," kata Ani, salah satu warga yang memilih tidak tinggal di pos pengungsian.

hingga kini evakuasi terhadap warga pun juga masih dilakukan oleh petugas gabungan dari Dinas Pemadam Kebakaran Jakarta Timur, Tagana, BNPB, Satpol PP, dan anggota TNI.

Kasudin Damkar PB Jakarta Timur, Abdul Karim juga mengatakan sedikitnya ada delapan perahu karet sudah standby di tanggul Kali Ciliwung untuk dapat mengevakuasi warga Kampung Pulo.

"Kalau dari Damkar Jaktim ada empat perahu, satpol PP ada 2 dan TNI juga ada 2. Jadi 8 semuanya yang standby untuk dapat evakuasi warga," kata Abdul.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

> JALAN JATINEGARA BARAT KEMBALI DITUTUP

NELAYAN MOGOK MELAUT KARENA SOLAR NAIK, HARGA IKAN MELAMBUNG

saco-indonesia.com, Aksi mogok ratusan nelayan yang sudah dilakukan beberapa hari telah membuat Tempat Pelelangan Ikan (TPI) di Tegalsari, Kota Tegal, Jawa Tengah, sepi.

Mogok yang telah dilakukan nelayan sebagai protes terkait dalam Peraturan Menteri Sumber Daya Mineral nomor 15 tahun 2013 tentang harga solar industri bagi kapal ikan ukuran di atas 30 gross ton (GT).

pelelangan ikan lebih sepi dari biasanya. Hanya terlihat beberapa petugas yang tengah membersihkan pelelangan tersebut . Sementara ratusan kapal berjejer di tepi pelabuhan tanda tak melaut.

Kepala TPI Tegalsari, Herry Pramadikdo, juga mengatakan kapal yang biasanya membongkar muatan hasil tangkapan lebih sedikit jika dibandingkan dengan hari-hari biasa.

"Biasanya sampai enam kapal, ini hanya sekitar dua kapal," katanya Kamis(6/2).

Sementara untuk kapal one day fishing hanya sekitar 15 hingga 20 kapal. Padahal di hari biasa mencapai tak kurang dari 40 kapal one day fishing yang telah membongkar muatan hasil tangkapan tersebut.

Proses lelang di TPI Tegalsari pun juga selesai lebih cepat. Lelang biasanya telah dilakukan dua kali dan selesai pada pukul 15.00 WIB.

"Beberapa hari ini lelang ikan selesai pukul 1 siang, yang dilelang hanya sedikit jumlahnya," ujarnya.

Herry juga menjelaskan dampak lain, harga ikan melonjak. Tak tanggung-tanggung, kenaikan harga telah mencapai 100 persen.

Selain mogoknya nelayan sebab kenaikan harga solar, faktor cuaca juga menjadi salah satu penyebab TPI sepi.

"Sudah sejak awal Desember memang cuaca buruk telah membuat nelayan tidak bisa melaut. Sekarang ditambah dengan kenaikan harga solar yang tinggi ," ungkapnya.

Herry juga berharap, pemerintah akan segera mencabut kebijakan pemberlakuan harga solar industri bagi kapal pencari ikan.

"Cepat-cepat ada kesepakatan untuk dapat menyelesaikan masalah. Jika tidak dampaknya akan semakin lama dan harga ikan bisa naik lagi," katanya.

Kenaikan harga ikan juga dikatakan oleh salah seorang penjual ikan.

"Cumi-cumi naik dari Rp 30.000 sekarang harganya Rp 60.000 per kilo," kata Eni pedagang ikan di TPI.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

> NELAYAN MOGOK MELAUT KARENA SOLAR NAIK, HARGA IKAN MELAMBUNG

PENGETAHUAN UMUM TENTANG IBADAH HAJI

Syarat, Rukun, dan Wajib Haji

Haji adalah rukun (tiang agama) Islam yang kelima setelah syahadat, shalat, zakat dan puasa. Menunaikan ibadah haji adalah bentuk ritual tahunan yang dilaksanakan kaum muslim sedunia yang mampu (material, fisik, dan keilmuan) dengan berkunjung dan melaksanakan beberapa kegiatan di beberapa tempat di Arab Saudi pada suatu waktu yang dikenal sebagai musim haji (bulan Dzulhijjah). Hal ini berbeda dengan ibadah umrah yang bisa dilaksanakan sewaktu-waktu.

Syarat Haji

1. Islam

2. Akil Balig

3. Dewasa

4. Berakal

5. Waras

6. Orang merdeka (bukan budak)

7. Mampu, baik dalam hal biaya, kesehatan, keamanan, dan nafkah bagi keluarga yang ditinggal berhaji

 

Rukun Haji

Rukun haji adalah perbuatan-perbuatan yang wajib dilakukan dalam berhaji. Rukun haji tsb adalah:

1. Ihram

2. Wukuf di Arafah

3. Tawaf ifâdah

4. Sa`i

5. Mencukur rambut di kepala atau memotongnya sebagian

6. Tertib

Rukun haji tsb harus dilakukan secara berurutan dan menyeluruh. Jika salah satu ditinggalkan, maka hajinya tidak sah.

 

Wajib Haji

1. Memulai ihram dari mîqât (batas waktu dan tempat yang ditentukan untuk melakukan ibadah haji dan umrah)

2. Melontar jumrah

3. Mabît (menginap) di Mudzdalifah, Mekah

4. Mabît di Mina

5. Tawaf wada` (tawaf perpisahan)

Jika salah satu dari wajib haji ini ditinggalkan, maka hajinya tetap sah, namun harus membayar dam (denda).

 

Pelaksanaan Ibadah Haji (Manasik Haji)

Tata cara manasik haji adalah sebagai berikut:

1. Melakukan ihram dari mîqât yang telah ditentukan

Ihram dapat dimulai sejak awal bulan Syawal dengan melakukan mandi sunah, berwudhu, memakai pakaian ihram, dan berniat haji dengan mengucapkan Labbaik Allâhumma hajjan, yang artinya `aku datang memenuhi panggilanmu ya Allah, untuk berhaji`.

Kemudian berangkat menuju arafah dengan membaca talbiah untuk menyatakan niat:

Labbaik Allâhumma labbaik, labbaik lâ syarîka laka labbaik, inna al-hamda, wa ni`mata laka wa al-mulk, lâ syarîka laka

Artinya:

Aku datang ya Allah, aku datang memenuhi panggilan-Mu; Aku datang, tiada sekutu bagi-Mu, aku datang; Sesungguhnya segala pujian, segala kenikmatan, dan seluruh kerajaan, adalah milik Engkau; tiada sekutu bagi-Mu.

2. Wukuf di Arafah

Dilaksanakan pada tanggal 9 Zulhijah, waktunya dimulai setelah matahari tergelincir sampai terbit fajar pada hari nahar (hari menyembelih kurban) tanggal 10 Zulhijah.

Saat wukuf, ada beberapa hal yang harus dilakukan, yaitu: shalat jamak taqdim dan qashar zuhur-ashar, berdoa, berzikir bersama, membaca Al-Qur`an, shalat jamak taqdim dan qashar maghrib-isya.

3. Mabît di Muzdalifah, Mekah

Waktunya sesaat setelah tengah malam sampai sebelum terbit fajar. Disini mengambil batu kerikil sejumlah 49 butir atau 70 butir untuk melempar jumrah di Mina, dan melakukan shalat subuh di awal waktu, dilanjutkan dengan berangkat menuju Mina. Kemudian berhenti sebentar di masy`ar al-harâm (monumen suci) atau Muzdalifah untuk berzikir kepada Allah SWT (QS 2: 198), dan mengerjakan shalat subuh ketika fajar telah menyingsing.

4. Melontar jumrah `aqabah

Dilakukan di bukit `Aqabah, pada tanggal 10 Zulhijah, dengan 7 butir kerikil, kemudian menyembelih hewan kurban.

5. Tahalul

Tahalul adalah berlepas diri dari ihram haji setelah selesai mengerjakan amalan-amalan haji.

Tahalul awal, dilaksanakan setelah selesai melontar jumrah `aqobah, dengan cara mencukur/memotong rambut sekurang-kurangnya 3 helai.

Setelah tahalul, boleh memakai pakaian biasa dan melakukan semua perbuatan yang dilarang selama ihram, kecuali berhubungan seks.

Bagi yang ingin melaksanakan tawaf ifâdah pada hari itu dapat langsung pergi ke Mekah untuk tawaf. Dengan membaca talbiah masuk ke Masjidil Haram melalui Bâbussalâm (pintu salam) dan melakukan tawaf. Selesai tawaf disunahkan mencium Hajar Aswad (batu hitam), lalu shalat sunah 2 rakaat di dekat makam Ibrahim, berdoa di Multazam, dan shalat sunah 2 rakaat di Hijr Ismail (semuanya ada di kompleks Masjidil Haram).

Kemudian melakukan sa`i antara bukit Shafa dan Marwa, dimulai dari Bukit Shafa dan berakhir di Bukit Marwa. Lalu dilanjutkan dengan tahalul kedua, yaitu mencukur/memotong rambut sekurang-kurangnya 3 helai.

Dengan demikian, seluruh perbuatan yang dilarang selama ihram telah dihapuskan, sehingga semuanya kembali halal untuk dilakukan.

Selanjutnya kembali ke Mina sebelum matahari terbenam untuk mabît di sana.

6. Mabît di Mina

Dilaksanakan pada hari tasyrik (hari yang diharamkan untuk berpuasa), yaitu pada tanggal 11, 12, dan 13 Zulhijah. Setiap siang pada hari-hari tasyrik itu melontar jumrah ûlâ, wustâ, dan `aqabah, masing-masing 7 kali.

Bagi yang menghendaki nafar awwal (meninggalkan Mina tanggal 12 Zulhijah setelah jumrah sore hari), melontar jumrah dilakukan pada tanggal 11 dan 12 Zulhijah saja. Tetapi bagi yang menghendaki nafar sânî atau nafar akhir (meninggalkan Mina pada tanggal 13 Zulhijah setelah jumrah sore hari), melontar jumrah dilakukan selama tiga hari (11, 12, dan 13 Zulhijah).

Dengan selesainya melontar jumrah maka selesailah seluruh rangkaian kegiatan ibadah haji dan kembali ke Mekah.

7. Tawaf ifâdah

Bagi yang belum melaksanakan tawaf ifâdah ketika berada di Mekah, maka harus melakukan tawaf ifâdah dan sa`i. Lalu melakukan tawaf wada` sebelum meninggalkan Mekah untuk kembali pulang ke daerah asal.

Larangan dalam Haji

Hal-hal yang tidak boleh dilakukan oleh orang yang sudah memakai pakaian ihram dan sudah berniat melakukan ibadah haji/umrah adalah:

1. Melakukan hubungan seksual atau apa pun yang dapat mengarah pada perbuatan hubungan seksual

2. Melakukan perbuatan tercela dan maksiat

3. Bertengkar dengan orang lain

4. Memakai pakaian yang berjahit (bagi laki-laki)

5. Memakai wangi-wangian

6. Memakai khuff (kaus kaki atau sepatu yang menutup mata kaki)

7. Melakukan akad nikah

8. Memotong kuku

9. Mencukur atau mencabut rambut

10. Memakai pakaian yang dicelup yang mempunyai bau harum

11. Membunuh binatang buruan

12. Memakan daging binatang buruan

 

Macam-macam Haji

1. Haji ifrâd

Haji ifrâd yaitu membedakan ibadah haji dengan umrah. Ibadah haji dan umrah masing-masing dikerjakan tersendiri. Pelaksanaannya, ibadah haji dilakukan terlebih dulu, setelah selesai baru melakukan umrah. Semuanya dilakukan masih dalam bulan haji.

Cara pelaksanaannya adalah:

a. ihram dari mîqât dengan niat untuk haji

b. ihram dari mîqât dengan niat untuk umrah

2. Haji tamattu`

Haji tamattu` adalah melakukan umrah terlebih dulu pada bulan haji, setelah selesai baru melakukan haji.

Orang yang melakukan haji tamattu` wajib membayar hadyu (denda), yaitu dengan menyembelih seekor kambing. Jika tidak mampu dapat diganti dengan berpuasa selama 10 hari, yaitu 3 hari selagi masih berada di tanah suci, dan 7 hari setelah kembali di tanah air.

Cara pelaksanaannya adalah:

a. ihram dari mîqât dengan niat untuk umrah

b. melaksanakan haji setelah selesai melaksanakan semua amalan umrah

3. Haji qirân

Haji qirân adalah melaksanakan ibadah haji dan umrah secara bersama-sama. Dengan demikian segala amalan umrah sudah tercakup dalam amalan haji.

Cara pelaksanaannya adalah:

a. ihram dari mîqât dengan niat untuk haji dan umrah sekaligus

b. melakukan seluruh amalan haji

 

Amalan-Amalan Haji

1. Mîqât

Mîqât adalah batas waktu dan tempat melakukan ibadah haji dan umrah. Mîqât terdiri atas mîqât zamânî dan mîqât makânî.

Mîqât zamânî adalah kapan ibadah haji sudah boleh dilaksanakan.

Berdasarkan kesepakatan para ulama yang bersumber dari sunah Rasulullah SAW, mîqât zamânî jatuh pada bulan Syawal, Zulkaidah, sampai dengan tanggal 10 Zulhijah.

Mîqât makânî adalah dari tempat mana ibadah haji sudah boleh dilaksanakan.

Tempat-tempat untuk mîqât makânî adalah:

• Zulhulaifah atau Bir-Ali (450 km dari Mekah) bagi orang yang datang dari arah Madinah

• Al-Juhfah atau Rabiq (204 km dari Mekah) bagi orang yang datang dari arah Suriah, Mesir, dan wilayah-wilayah Maghrib

• Yalamlan (sebuah gunung yang letaknya 94 km di selatan Mekah) bagi orang yang datang dari arah Yaman

• Qarnul Manazir (94 km di timur Mekah) bagi orang yang datang dari arah Nejd

• Zatu Irqin (94 km sebelah timur Mekah) bagi orang yang datang dari arah Irak

2. Ihram

Ihram ialah niat melaksanakan ibadah haji atau umrah dan memakai pakaian ihram.

Bagi laki-laki, pakaian ihram adalah dua helai pakaian tak berjahit untuk menutup badan bagian atas dan sehelai lagi untuk menutup badan bagian bawah. Kepala tidak ditutup dan memakai alas kaki yang tidak menutup mata kaki.

Bagi wanita, pakaian ihram adalah kain berjahit yang menutup seluruh tubuh kecuali wajah.

Sunah ihram adalah memotong kuku, kumis, rambut ketiak, rambut kemaluan, dan mandi. Kemudian melakukan shalat sunah ihram 2 rakaat (sebelum ihram), membaca talbiah, shalawat, dan istighfar (sesudah ihram dimulai).

3. Tawaf

Tawaf adalah mengelilingi Ka`bah sebanyak 7 kali, dimulai dari arah yang sejajar dengan Hajar Aswad dan Ka`bah selalu ada di sebelah kiri (berputar berlawanan arah jarum jam).

Syarat tawaf adalah:

1. Suci dari hadas besar, hadas kecil, dan najis

2. Menutup aurat

3. Melakukan 7 kali putaran berturut-turut

4. Mulai dan mengakhiri tawaf di tempat yang sejajar dengan Hajar Aswad

5. Ka`bah selalu berada di sisi kiri

6. Bertawaf di luar Ka`bah

Sedangkan sunah tawaf adalah:

1. Menghadap Hajar Aswad ketika memulai tawaf

2. Berjalan kaki

3. al-idtibâ, yaitu meletakkan pertengahan kain ihram di bawah ketiak tangan kanan dan kedua ujungnya di atas bahu kiri

4. Menyentuh Hajar Aswad atau memberi isyarat ketika mulai tawaf

5. Niat.

Niat untuk tawaf yang terkandung dalam ibadah haji hukumnya tidak wajib karena niatnya sudah terkandung dalam niat ihram haji, tetapi kalau tawaf itu bukan dalam ibadah haji, maka hukum niat tawaf menjadi wajib, seperti dalam tawaf wada` dan tawaf nazar.

6. Mencapai rukun yamanî (pada putaran ke-7) dan mencium atau menyentuh Hajar Aswad

7. Memperbanyak doa dan zikir selama dalam tawaf

8. Tertib, dilaksanakan secara berurutan

Macam-macam tawaf adalah:

Tawaf ifâdah

Tawaf sebagai rukun haji yang apabila ditinggalkan maka hajinya menjadi tidak sah.

Tawaf ziyârah

Tawaf kunjungan, sering juga disebut tawaf qudûm, yaitu tawaf yang dilakukan setibanya di kota Mekah.

Tawaf sunah

Tawaf yang dapat dilakukan kapan saja.

Tawaf wada`

Tawaf perpisahan, yaitu tawaf yang dilakukan sebelum meninggalkan Mekah setelah selesai melakukan seluruh rangkaian ibadah haji.

4. Sa`i

Sa`i adalah berjalan dari Bukit Shafa ke Bukit Marwa sebanyak 7 kali.

Syarat sa`i adalah:

1. Seluruh perjalanan sa`i dilakukan secara lengkap, tidak boleh ada jarak yang tersisa

2. Dimulai dari Shafa dan berakhir di Marwa

3. Dilakukan sesudah tawaf

4. Dilakukan sebanyak 7 kali perjalanan

Sedangkan sunah dalam sa`i adalah:

1. Berdoa di antara Shafa dan Marwa

2. Dalam keadaan suci dan menutup aurat

3. Berlari kecil antara 2 tonggak hijau

4. Tidak berdesakan

5. Berjalan kaki

6. Dikerjakan secara berturut-turut

5. Wukuf di Arafah

Wukud di Arafah adalah berdiam diri di padang Arafah sejak matahari tergelincir pada tanggal 9 Zulhijah sampai terbit fajar pada tanggal 10 Zulhijah (hari nahar), baik dalam keadaan suci maupun tidak suci.

Haji tanpa wukuf tidak sah dan harus diulang lagi pada tahun berikutnya. Hal ini berdasarkan hadist Rasulullah SAW yang diriwayatkan oleh Abu Dawud:

Haji itu `arafah, siapa yang datang pada malam mabît di Muzdalifah sebelum fajar menyingsing, ia sudah mendapatkan haji.

Ketika melakukan wukuf, disunahkan untuk tidak berpuasa, menghadap kiblat, berzikir, membaca istighfar, dan berdoa. Menurut riwayat Imam Ahmad, doa Nabi SAW ketika di hari arafah adalah:

Tiada Tuhan kecuali Allah, yang Esa, tiada sekutu bagi-Nya, bagi-Nya seluruh kerajaan, bagi-Nya pula segala pujian, di tangan-Nya segala kebaikan, dan Ia Maha Kuasa atas segalanya.

6. Melontar Jumrah

Melontar jumrah ialah melempar batu kerikil ke arah 3 buah tonggak, yaitu ûlâ, wustâ, dan ukhrâ, masing-masing 7 kali lemparan. Hari melontar jumrah dimulai pada tanggal 10 Zulhijah, ke arah jumrah `aqabah atau jumrah kubra, dan 2 atau 3 hari dari hari-hari tasyrik (11, 12, dan 13 Zulhijah) ke arah 3 jumrah yang telah disebutkan di atas.

Waktu melontar jumrah disunahkan sesudah matahari terbit. Bagi orang yang lemah atau berhalangan boleh melakukannya pada malam hari.

Adapun melontar jumrah pada 3 hari yang lain, hendaknya dimulai pada waktu matahari sudah mulai turun ke barat sampai saat matahari terbenam.

Ketika melontar jumrah disunahkan:

1. Berdiri dengan posisi Mekah ada di sebelah kiri dan Mina di sebelah kanan

2. Mengangkat tangan tinggi-tinggi bagi laki-laki

3. Membaca takbir ketika melempar batu yang pertama

Bagi orang yang berhalangan menyelesaikan haji dengan tidak melakukan wukuf di Arafah, tawaf, ataupun sa`i, apa pun penyebabnya, menurut pendapat jumhur ulama orang tsb wajib menyembelih seekor kambing, sapi, atau unta di tempat ia bertahalul.

Apabila ibadahnya itu ibadah wajib, ia harus meng-qadha pada tahun berikutnya, tetapi bila bukan ibadah wajib, ia tidak perlu meng-qadha.

Haji Akbar dan Haji Mabrur

Haji akbar (haji besar)

Istilah haji akbar disebut dalam firman Allah SWT pada surah At-Taubah: 3 yang artinya:

Dan (inilah) suatu pemakluman dari Allah dan Rasul-Nya kepada manusia pada hari haji akbar, bahwa sesungguhnya Allah dan Rasul-Nya berlepas diri dari orang-orang musyrikin...

Ada beberapa pendapat ulama tentang haji akbar, yaitu haji akbar adalah:

• haji pada hari wukuf di Arafah

• haji pada hari nahar

• haji yang wukufnya bertepatan dengan hari jum`at

• ibadah haji itu sendiri beserta wukufnya di Arafah

Namun pendapat yang paling masyhur adalah pendapat yang menyatakan bahwa haji akbar adalah haji yang wukufnya jatuh pada hari jum`at.

Ada haji besar, ada pula haji asgar (haji kecil) yang merupakan istilah lain untuk umrah.

Haji mabrur

Haji mabrur adalah ibadah haji seseorang yang seluruh rangkaian ibadah hajinya dapat dilaksanakan dengan benar, ikhlas, tidak dicampuri dosa, menggunakan biaya yang halal, dan yang terpenting, setelah ibadah haji menjadi orang yang lebih baik.

Balasan bagi orang yang mendapat haji mabrur adalah surga. Hal ini didasarkan pada sabda Rasulullah SAW yang diriwayatkan oleh Abu Hurairah yang artinya:

Umrah ke satu ke umrah berikutnya adalah penebus dosa di antara keduanya, dan haji mabrur ganjarannya tiada lain kecuali surga (HR Bukhari dan Muslim)

Dam (Denda)

Dam dalam bentuk darah adalah menyembelih binatang sebagai karafat (tebusan) terhadap beberapa pelanggaran yang dilakukan ketika melakukan ibadah haji atau umrah. Jenis dam adalah:

1. Dam tartîb

2. Dam takhyîr dan taqdîr

3. Dam tartîb dan ta`dîl

4. Dam takhyîr dan ta`dîl

1. Dam tartîb

Dam tartîb yaitu bila binatang yang disembelih adalah kambing, tetapi bila tidak mendapat kambing, harus melaksanakan puasa 3 hari di tanah suci dan 7 hari apabila telah pulang ke kampung halaman.

Orang diwajibkan membayar dam tartîb karena 9 hal, yaitu:

1. Mengerjakan haji tammatu`

2. Mengerjakan haji qirân

3. Tidak wukuf di Arafah

4. Tidak melontar jumrah yang ke-3

5. Tidak mabît di Muzdalifah pada malam nahar

6. Tidak mabît di Mina pada malam hari tasyrik

7. Tidak berihram dari mîqât

8. Tidak melakukan tawaf wada`

9. Tidak berjalan kaki bagi yang bernazar untuk mengerjakan haji dengan berjalan kaki

2. Dam takhyîr dan taqdîr

Dam takhyîr dan taqdîr ialah boleh memilih menyembelih seekor kambing, berpuasa, atau bersedekah memberi makan kepada 6 orang miskin sebanyak 3 sa` (1 sa` = 3,1 liter).

Dam jenis ini dikenakan untuk satu diantara sebab-sebab berikut:

1. Mencabut 3 helai rambut atau lebih secara berturut-turut

2. Memotong 3 kuku atau lebih

3. Berpakaian yang berjahit

4. Menutup kepala

5. Memakai wewangian

6. Melakukan perbuatan yang menjadi pengantar bagi perbuatan seksual

7. Melakukan hubungan seksual antara tahalul pertama dan tahalul kedua.

3. Dam tartîb dan ta`dîl

Dam tartîb dan ta`dîl adalah pertama kali wajib menyembelih unta, apabila tidak mampu boleh menyembelih sapi, apabila tidak mampu juga baru menyembelih kambing 7 ekor.

Apabila tidak mendapat 7 ekor kambing, si pelanggar harus membeli makanan seharga itu dan disedekahkan kepada fakir miskin di tanah suci.

Dam jenis ini dikenakan karena pelanggaran melakukan hubungan seksual.

4. Dam takhyîr dan ta`dîl

Dam takhyîr dan ta`dîl adalah boleh memilih diantara 3 hal yaitu:

• Menyembelih binatang buruan yang diburu

• Membeli makanan seharga binatang buruan tsb dan disedekahkan

• Berpuasa satu hari untuk setiap 1 mud (5/6 liter)

Dam jenis ini dikenakan karena sebab-sebab:

1. Merusak, memburu, atau membunuh binatang buruan

2. Memotong pohon-pohon atau mencabut rerumputan di tanah haram.

Waktu dan tempat penyembelihan dam

Waktu penyembelihan dam yang disebabkan pelanggaran yang tidak sampai membatalkan atau kehilangan haji harus dilakukan pada waktu si pelanggar melakukan ibadah haji. Tetapi bagi dam yang disebabkan pelanggaran yang berakibat kehilangan haji, pelaksanaannya wajib ditunda sampai pada waktu melakukan ihram ketika meng-qadha haji.

Sedangkan tempat penyembelihan dam dan penyaluran dagingnya adalah di tanah haram.

Bagi orang yang melakukan haji, diutamakan menyembelihnya di Mina, sedangkan bagi orang yang melakukan umrah, menyembelihnya di Marwa.

Mewakilkan Haji

Perwakilan haji berlaku untuk seseorang yang mampu melakukan haji dari segi biaya, tapi kesehatannya tidak memungkinkan, seperti sakit yang parah atau karena usia tua.

Dalam hal ini wajib orang lain untuk menghajikannya dengan biaya dari orang yang bersangkutan, dengan syarat orang yang menggantikan tsb sudah mengerjakan haji untuk dirinya sendiri.

Tetapi bila setelah dihajikan orang itu sembuh, menurut Imam Syafi`i, ia tetap wajib melakukan haji.

Perwakilan haji juga dapat dilakukan atas orang yang sudah meninggal, asalkan orang tsb berkewajiban haji, antara lain mempunyai nazar dan belum dapat melaksanakannya. Hal ini didasarkan pada hadist yang meriwayatkan bahwa seorang lelaki mendatangi Nabi SAW:

`Ayah saya sudah meninggal dan ia mempunya kewajiban haji, apakah aku harus menghajikannya?` Nabi SAW menjawab, `Bagaimana pendapatmu apabila ayahmu meninggalkan hutang, apakah engkau wajib membayarnya?` Orang itu menjawab, `Ya`. Nabi SAW berkata, `Berhajilah engkau untuk ayahmu`.(HR. Ibnu Abbas RA)

Sumber : http://mihrabqolbi.com

Baca Artikel Lainnya : MELAKSANAKAN HAJI UMRAH, KEWAJIBAN YANG BERIHRAM DAN ZIARAH KE MASJID RASUL

 

> PENGETAHUAN UMUM TENTANG IBADAH HAJI

Fatal Police Shootings: Accounts Since Ferguson

Since a white police officer, Darren Wilson fatally shot unarmed black teenager, Michael Brown, in a confrontation last August in Ferguson, Mo., there have been many other cases in which the police have shot and killed suspects, some of them unarmed. Mr. Brown's death set off protests throughout the country, pushing law enforcement into the spotlight and sparking a public debate on police tactics. Here is a selection of police shootings that have been reported by news organizations since Mr. Brown's death. In some cases, investigations are continuing.

Photo
 
 
The apartment complex northeast of Atlanta where Anthony Hill, 27, was fatally shot by a DeKalb County police officer. Credit Ben Gray/Atlanta Journal Constitution

Chamblee, Ga.
Fatal Police Shootings: Accounts Since Ferguson | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Ghostly Voices From Thomas Edison’s Dolls Can Now Be Heard

Though Robin and Joan Rolfs owned two rare talking dolls manufactured by Thomas Edison’s phonograph company in 1890, they did not dare play the wax cylinder records tucked inside each one.

The Rolfses, longtime collectors of Edison phonographs, knew that if they turned the cranks on the dolls’ backs, the steel phonograph needle might damage or destroy the grooves of the hollow, ring-shaped cylinder. And so for years, the dolls sat side by side inside a display cabinet, bearers of a message from the dawn of sound recording that nobody could hear.

In 1890, Edison’s dolls were a flop; production lasted only six weeks. Children found them difficult to operate and more scary than cuddly. The recordings inside, which featured snippets of nursery rhymes, wore out quickly.

Yet sound historians say the cylinders were the first entertainment records ever made, and the young girls hired to recite the rhymes were the world’s first recording artists.

Year after year, the Rolfses asked experts if there might be a safe way to play the recordings. Then a government laboratory developed a method to play fragile records without touching them.

Audio

The technique relies on a microscope to create images of the grooves in exquisite detail. A computer approximates — with great accuracy — the sounds that would have been created by a needle moving through those grooves.

In 2014, the technology was made available for the first time outside the laboratory.

“The fear all along is that we don’t want to damage these records. We don’t want to put a stylus on them,” said Jerry Fabris, the curator of the Thomas Edison Historical Park in West Orange, N.J. “Now we have the technology to play them safely.”

Last month, the Historical Park posted online three never-before-heard Edison doll recordings, including the two from the Rolfses’ collection. “There are probably more out there, and we’re hoping people will now get them digitized,” Mr. Fabris said.

The technology, which is known as Irene (Image, Reconstruct, Erase Noise, Etc.), was developed by the particle physicist Carl Haber and the engineer Earl Cornell at Lawrence Berkeley. Irene extracts sound from cylinder and disk records. It can also reconstruct audio from recordings so badly damaged they were deemed unplayable.

“We are now hearing sounds from history that I did not expect to hear in my lifetime,” Mr. Fabris said.

The Rolfses said they were not sure what to expect in August when they carefully packed their two Edison doll cylinders, still attached to their motors, and drove from their home in Hortonville, Wis., to the National Document Conservation Center in Andover, Mass. The center had recently acquired Irene technology.

Audio

Cylinders carry sound in a spiral groove cut by a phonograph recording needle that vibrates up and down, creating a surface made of tiny hills and valleys. In the Irene set-up, a microscope perched above the shaft takes thousands of high-resolution images of small sections of the grooves.

Stitched together, the images provide a topographic map of the cylinder’s surface, charting changes in depth as small as one five-hundredth the thickness of a human hair. Pitch, volume and timbre are all encoded in the hills and valleys and the speed at which the record is played.

At the conservation center, the preservation specialist Mason Vander Lugt attached one of the cylinders to the end of a rotating shaft. Huddled around a computer screen, the Rolfses first saw the wiggly waveform generated by Irene. Then came the digital audio. The words were at first indistinct, but as Mr. Lugt filtered out more of the noise, the rhyme became clearer.

“That was the Eureka moment,” Mr. Rolfs said.

In 1890, a girl in Edison’s laboratory had recited:

There was a little girl,

And she had a little curl

Audio

Right in the middle of her forehead.

When she was good,

She was very, very good.

But when she was bad, she was horrid.

Recently, the conservation center turned up another surprise.

In 2010, the Woody Guthrie Foundation received 18 oversize phonograph disks from an anonymous donor. No one knew if any of the dirt-stained recordings featured Guthrie, but Tiffany Colannino, then the foundation’s archivist, had stored them unplayed until she heard about Irene.

Last fall, the center extracted audio from one of the records, labeled “Jam Session 9” and emailed the digital file to Ms. Colannino.

“I was just sitting in my dining room, and the next thing I know, I’m hearing Woody,” she said. In between solo performances of “Ladies Auxiliary,” “Jesus Christ,” and “Dead or Alive,” Guthrie tells jokes, offers some back story, and makes the audience laugh. “It is quintessential Guthrie,” Ms. Colannino said.

The Rolfses’ dolls are back in the display cabinet in Wisconsin. But with audio stored on several computers, they now have a permanent voice.

Ghostly Voices From Thomas Edison’s Dolls Can Now Be Heard | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Negative View of U.S. Race Relations Grows, Poll Finds

Public perceptions of race relations in America have grown substantially more negative in the aftermath of the death of a young black man who was injured while in police custody in Baltimore and the subsequent unrest, far eclipsing the sentiment recorded in the wake of turmoil in Ferguson, Mo., last summer.

Americans are also increasingly likely to say that the police are more apt to use deadly force against a black person, the latest New York Times/CBS News poll finds.

The poll findings highlight the challenges for local leaders and police officials in trying to maintain order while sustaining faith in the criminal justice system in a racially polarized nation.

Sixty-one percent of Americans now say race relations in this country are generally bad. That figure is up sharply from 44 percent after the fatal police shooting of Michael Brown and the unrest that followed in Ferguson in August, and 43 percent in December. In a CBS News poll just two months ago, 38 percent said race relations were generally bad. Current views are by far the worst of Barack Obama’s presidency.

The negative sentiment is echoed by broad majorities of blacks and whites alike, a stark change from earlier this year, when 58 percent of blacks thought race relations were bad, but just 35 percent of whites agreed. In August, 48 percent of blacks and 41 percent of whites said they felt that way.

Looking ahead, 44 percent of Americans think race relations are worsening, up from 36 percent in December. Forty-one percent of blacks and 46 percent of whites think so. Pessimism among whites has increased 10 points since December.

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Do you think race relations in the United States are generally good or generally bad?
60
40
20
0
White
Black
May '14
May '15
Generally bad
Continue reading the main story
Do you think race relations in the United States are getting better, getting worse or staying about the same?
Getting worse
Staying the same
Getting better
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
44%
37
17
46
36
16
41
42
15

The poll finds that profound racial divisions in views of how the police use deadly force remain. Blacks are more than twice as likely to say police in most communities are more apt to use deadly force against a black person — 79 percent of blacks say so compared with 37 percent of whites. A slim majority of whites say race is not a factor in a police officer’s decision to use deadly force.

Overall, 44 percent of Americans say deadly force is more likely to be used against a black person, up from 37 percent in August and 40 percent in December.

Blacks also remain far more likely than whites to say they feel mostly anxious about the police in their community. Forty-two percent say so, while 51 percent feel mostly safe. Among whites, 8 in 10 feel mostly safe.

One proposal to address the matter — having on-duty police officers wear body cameras — receives overwhelming support. More than 9 in 10 whites and blacks alike favor it.

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How would you describe your feelings about the police in your community? Would you say they make you feel mostly safe or mostly anxious?
Mostly safe
Mostly anxious
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
75%
21
3
81
16
3
51
42
7
Continue reading the main story
In general, do you think the police in most communities are more likely to use deadly force against a black person, or more likely to use it against a white person, or don’t you think race affects police use of deadly force?
Police more likely to use deadly force against a black person
Police more likely to use deadly force against a white person
Race DOES NOT affect police use of deadly force
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
44%
37%
79%
2%
2%
1%
46%
53%
16%
9%
8%
4%
Continue reading the main story
Do you favor or oppose on-duty police officers wearing video cameras that would record events and actions as they occur?
Favor
Oppose
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
92%
93%
93%
6%
5%
5%
2%
2%
2%

Asked specifically about the situation in Baltimore, most Americans expressed at least some confidence that the investigation by local authorities would be conducted fairly. But while nearly two-thirds of whites think so, fewer than half of blacks agree. Still, more blacks are confident now than were in August regarding the investigation in Ferguson. On Friday, six members of the police force involved in the arrest of Mr. Gray were charged with serious offenses, including manslaughter. The poll was conducted Thursday through Sunday; results from before charges were announced are similar to those from after.

Reaction to the recent turmoil in Baltimore, however, is similar among blacks and whites. Most Americans, 61 percent, say the unrest after Mr. Gray’s death was not justified. That includes 64 percent of whites and 57 percent of blacks.

Continue reading the main story
As you may know, a Baltimore man, Freddie Gray, recently died after being in the custody of the Baltimore police. How much confidence do you have that the investigation by local authorities into this matter will be conducted fairly?
A lot
Some
Not much
None at all
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
29%
31
22
14
5
31
33
20
11
5
20
26
30
22
In general, do you think the unrest in Baltimore after the death of Freddie Gray was justified, or do you think the unrest was not justified?
Justified
Not justified
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
28%
61
11
26
64
11
37
57
6

Negative View of U.S. Race Relations Grows, Poll Finds | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Police Rethink Long Tradition on Using Force

WASHINGTON — During a training course on defending against knife attacks, a young Salt Lake City police officer asked a question: “How close can somebody get to me before I’m justified in using deadly force?”

Dennis Tueller, the instructor in that class more than three decades ago, decided to find out. In the fall of 1982, he performed a rudimentary series of tests and concluded that an armed attacker who bolted toward an officer could clear 21 feet in the time it took most officers to draw, aim and fire their weapon.

The next spring, Mr. Tueller published his findings in SWAT magazine and transformed police training in the United States. The “21-foot rule” became dogma. It has been taught in police academies around the country, accepted by courts and cited by officers to justify countless shootings, including recent episodes involving a homeless woodcarver in Seattle and a schizophrenic woman in San Francisco.

Now, amid the largest national debate over policing since the 1991 beating of Rodney King in Los Angeles, a small but vocal set of law enforcement officials are calling for a rethinking of the 21-foot rule and other axioms that have emphasized how to use force, not how to avoid it. Several big-city police departments are already re-examining when officers should chase people or draw their guns and when they should back away, wait or try to defuse the situation

Police Rethink Long Tradition on Using Force | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Wladyslaw Bartoszewski, 93, Dies; Polish Auschwitz Survivor Aided Jews

Mr. Bartoszewski was given honorary Israeli citizenship for his work to save Jews during World War II and later surprised even himself by being instrumental in reconciling Poland and Germany.

Wladyslaw Bartoszewski, 93, Dies; Polish Auschwitz Survivor Aided Jews | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Dan Walker, 92, Dies; Illinois Governor and Later a U.S. Prisoner

As governor, Mr. Walker alienated Republicans and his fellow Democrats, particularly the Democratic powerhouse Richard J. Daley, the mayor of Chicago.

Dan Walker, 92, Dies; Illinois Governor and Later a U.S. Prisoner | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Harvey R. Miller, Renowned Bankruptcy Lawyer, Dies at 82

Mr. Miller, of the firm Weil, Gotshal & Manges, represented companies including Lehman Brothers, General Motors and American Airlines, and mentored many of the top Chapter 11 practitioners today.

Harvey R. Miller, Renowned Bankruptcy Lawyer, Dies at 82 | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Betsy von Furstenberg, Baroness and Versatile Actress, Dies at 83

Ms. von Furstenberg made her debut in the movies and on the Broadway stage in the early 1950s as a teenager and later reinvented herself as a television actress, writer and philanthropist.

Betsy von Furstenberg, Baroness and Versatile Actress, Dies at 83 | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

William Price Fox, Admired Southern Novelist and Humorist, Dies at 89

Mr. Fox, known for his well-honed countrified voice, wrote about things dear to South Carolina and won over Yankee critics.

William Price Fox, Admired Southern Novelist and Humorist, Dies at 89 | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Don Mankiewicz, Screenwriter in a Family Film Tradition, Dies at 93

Mr. Mankiewicz, an Oscar-nominated screenwriter for “I Want to Live!,” also wrote episodes of television shows such as “Star Trek” and “Marcus Welby, M.D.”

Don Mankiewicz, Screenwriter in a Family Film Tradition, Dies at 93 | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

As Vice Moves More to TV, It Tries to Keep Brash Voice

The live music at the Vice Media party on Friday shook the room. Shane Smith, Vice’s chief executive, was standing near the stage — with a drink in his hand, pants sagging, tattoos showing — watching the rapper-cum-chef Action Bronson make pizzas.

The event was an after-party, a happy-hour bacchanal for the hundreds of guests who had come for Vice’s annual presentation to advertisers and agencies that afternoon, part of the annual frenzy for ad dollars called the Digital Content NewFronts. Mr. Smith had spoken there for all of five minutes before running a slam-bang highlight reel of the company’s shows that had titles like “Weediquette” and “Gaycation.”

In the last year, Vice has secured $500 million in financing and signed deals worth hundreds of millions of dollars with established media companies like HBO that are eager to engage the young viewers Vice attracts. Vice said it was now worth at least $4 billion, with nearly $1 billion in projected revenue for 2015. It is a long way from Vice’s humble start as a free magazine in 1994.

Photo
 
At the Vice after-party, the rapper Action Bronson, a host of a Vice show, made a pizza. Credit Jesse Dittmar for The New York Times

But even as cash flows freely in Vice’s direction, the company is trying to keep its brash, insurgent image. At the party on Friday, it plied guests with beers and cocktails. Its apparently unrehearsed presentation to advertisers was peppered with expletives. At one point, the director Spike Jonze, a longtime Vice collaborator, asked on stage if Mr. Smith had been drinking.

“My assistant tried to cut me off,” Mr. Smith replied. “I’m on buzz control.”

Now, Vice is on the verge of getting its own cable channel, which would give the company a traditional outlet for its slate of non-news programming. If all goes as planned, A&E Networks, the television group owned by Hearst and Disney, will turn over its History Channel spinoff, H2, to Vice.

The deal’s announcement was expected last week, but not all of A&E’s distribution partners — the cable and satellite TV companies that carry the network’s channels — have signed off on the change, according to a person familiar with the negotiations who spoke on the condition of anonymity because the talks were private.

A cable channel would be a further step in a transformation for Vice, from bad-boy digital upstart to mainstream media company.

Keen for the core audience of young men who come to Vice, media giants like 21st Century Fox, Time Warner and Disney all showed interest in the company last year. Vice ultimately secured $500 million in financing from A&E Networks and Technology Crossover Ventures, a Silicon Valley venture capital firm that has invested in Facebook and Netflix.

Those investments valued Vice at more than $2.5 billion. (In 2013, Fox bought a 5 percent stake for $70 million.)

Then in March, HBO announced that it had signed a multiyear deal to broadcast a daily half-hour Vice newscast. Vice already produces a weekly newsmagazine show, called “Vice,” for the network. That show will extend its run through 2018, with an increase to 35 episodes a year, from 14.

Michael Lombardo, HBO’s president for programming, said when the deal was announced that it was “certainly one of our biggest investments with hours on the air.”

Vice, based in Brooklyn, also recently signed a multiyear $100 million deal with Rogers Communications, a Canadian media conglomerate, to produce original content for TV, smartphone and desktop viewers.

Vice’s finances are private, but according to an internal document reviewed by The New York Times and verified by a person familiar with the company’s financials, the company is on track to make about $915 million in revenue this year.

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Vice showed a highlight reel of its TV series at the NewFronts last week in New York. Credit Jesse Dittmar for The New York Times

It brought in $545 million in a strong first quarter, which included portions of the new HBO deal and the Rogers deal, according to the document. More of its revenue now comes from these types of content partnerships, compared with the branded content deals that made up much of its revenue a year ago, the company said.

Mr. Smith said the company was worth at least $4 billion. If the valuation gets much higher, he said he would consider taking the company public.

“I don’t care about money; we have plenty of money,” Mr. Smith, who is Vice’s biggest shareholder, said in an interview after the presentation on Friday. “I care about strategic deals.”

In the United States, Vice Media had 35.2 million unique visitors across its sites in March, according to comScore.

The third season of Vice’s weekly HBO show has averaged 1.8 million viewers per episode, including reruns, through April 12, according to Brad Adgate, the director of research at Horizon Media. (Vice said the show attracted three million weekly viewers when repeat broadcasts, online and on-demand viewings were included.)

For years, Mr. Smith has criticized traditional TV, calling it slow and unable to draw younger viewers. But if all the deals Vice has struck are to work out, Mr. Smith may have to play more by the rules of traditional media. James Murdoch, Rupert Murdoch’s son and a member of Vice’s board, was at the company’s presentation on Friday, as were other top media executives.

“They know they need people like me to help them, but they can’t get out of their own way,” Mr. Smith said in the interview Friday. “My only real frustration is we’re used to being incredibly dynamic, and they’re not incredibly dynamic.”

With its own television channel in the United States, Vice would have something it has long coveted even as traditional media companies are looking beyond TV. Last year, Vice’s deal with Time Warner failed in part because the two companies could not agree on how much control Vice would have over a 24-hour television network.

Vice said it intended to fill its new channel with non-news programming. The company plans to have sports shows, fashion shows, food shows and the “Gaycation” travel show with the actress Ellen Page. It is also in talks with Kanye West about a show.

It remains to be seen whether Vice’s audience will watch a traditional cable channel. Still, Vice has effectively presold all of the ad spots to two of the biggest advertising agencies for the first three years, Mr. Smith said.

In the meantime, Mr. Smith is enjoying Vice’s newfound role as a potential savior of traditional media companies.

“I’m a C.E.O. of a content company,” Mr. Smith said before he caught a flight to Las Vegas for the boxing match on Saturday between Floyd Mayweather Jr. and Manny Pacquiao. “If it stops being fun, then why are you doing it?”

As Vice Moves More to TV, It Tries to Keep Brash Voice | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

The Uphill Battle to Better Regulate Formaldehyde

WASHINGTON — A decade after emergency trailers meant to shelter Hurricane Katrina victims instead caused burning eyes, sore throats and other more serious ailments, the Environmental Protection Agency is on the verge of regulating the culprit: formaldehyde, a chemical that can be found in commonplace things like clothes and furniture.

But an unusual assortment of players, including furniture makers, the Chinese government, Republicans from states with a large base of furniture manufacturing and even some Democrats who championed early regulatory efforts, have questioned the E.P.A. proposal. The sustained opposition has held sway, as the agency is now preparing to ease key testing requirements before it releases the landmark federal health standard.

The E.P.A.’s five-year effort to adopt this rule offers another example of how industry opposition can delay and hamper attempts by the federal government to issue regulations, even to control substances known to be harmful to human health.

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Document: The Formaldehyde Fight

Formaldehyde is a known carcinogen that can also cause respiratory ailments like asthma, but the potential of long-term exposure to cause cancers like myeloid leukemia is less well understood.

The E.P.A.’s decision would be the first time that the federal government has regulated formaldehyde inside most American homes.

“The stakes are high for public health,” said Tom Neltner, senior adviser for regulatory affairs at the National Center for Healthy Housing, who has closely monitored the debate over the rules. “What we can’t have here is an outcome that fails to confront the health threat we all know exists.”

The proposal would not ban formaldehyde — commonly used as an ingredient in wood glue in furniture and flooring — but it would impose rules that prevent dangerous levels of the chemical’s vapors from those products, and would set testing standards to ensure that products sold in the United States comply with those limits. The debate has sharpened in the face of growing concern about the safety of formaldehyde-treated flooring imported from Asia, especially China.

What is certain is that a lot of money is at stake: American companies sell billions of dollars’ worth of wood products each year that contain formaldehyde, and some argue that the proposed regulation would impose unfair costs and restrictions.

Determined to block the agency’s rule as proposed, these industry players have turned to the White House, members of Congress and top E.P.A. officials, pressing them to roll back the testing requirements in particular, calling them redundant and too expensive.

“There are potentially over a million manufacturing jobs that will be impacted if the proposed rule is finalized without changes,” wrote Bill Perdue, the chief lobbyist at the American Home Furnishings Alliance, a leading critic of the testing requirements in the proposed regulation, in one letter to the E.P.A.

Industry opposition helped create an odd alignment of forces working to thwart the rule. The White House moved to strike out key aspects of the proposal. Subsequent appeals for more changes were voiced by players as varied as Senator Barbara Boxer, Democrat of California, and Senator Roger Wicker, Republican of Mississippi, as well as furniture industry lobbyists.

Hurricane Katrina in 2005 helped ignite the public debate over formaldehyde, after the deadly storm destroyed or damaged hundreds of thousands of homes along the Gulf of Mexico, forcing families into temporary trailers provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

The displaced storm victims quickly began reporting respiratory problems, burning eyes and other issues, and tests then confirmed high levels of formaldehyde fumes leaking into the air inside the trailers, which in many cases had been hastily constructed.

Public health advocates petitioned the E.P.A. to issue limits on formaldehyde in building materials and furniture used in homes, given that limits already existed for exposure in workplaces. But three years after the storm, only California had issued such limits.

Industry groups like the American Chemistry Council have repeatedly challenged the science linking formaldehyde to cancer, a position championed by David Vitter, the Republican senator from Louisiana, who is a major recipient of chemical industry campaign contributions, and whom environmental groups have mockingly nicknamed “Senator Formaldehyde.”

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Formaldehyde in Laminate Flooring

In laminate flooring, formaldehyde is used as a bonding agent in the fiberboard (or other composite wood) core layer and may also be used in glues that bind layers together. Concerns were raised in March when certain laminate flooring imported from China was reported to contain levels of formaldehyde far exceeding the limit permitted by California.

Typical

laminate

flooring

CLEAR FINISH LAYER

Often made of melamine resin

PATTERN LAYER

Paper printed to resemble wood,

or a thin wood veneer

GLUE

Layers may be bound using

formaldehyde-based glues

CORE LAYER

Fiberboard or other

composite, formed using

formaldehyde-based adhesives

BASE LAYER

Moisture-resistant vapor barrier

What is formaldehyde?

Formaldehyde is a common chemical used in many industrial and household products as an adhesive, bonding agent or preservative. It is classified as a volatile organic compound. The term volatile means that, at room temperature, formaldehyde will vaporize, or become a gas. Products made with formaldehyde tend to release this gas into the air. If breathed in large quantities, it may cause health problems.

WHERE IT IS COMMONLY FOUND

POTENTIAL HEALTH RISKS

Pressed-wood and composite wood products

Wallpaper and paints

Spray foam insulation used in construction

Commercial wood floor finishes

Crease-resistant fabrics

In cigarette smoke, or in the fumes from combustion of other materials, including wood, oil and gasoline.

Exposure to formaldehyde in sufficient amounts may cause eye, throat or skin irritation, allergic reactions, and respiratory problems like coughing, wheezing or asthma.

Long-term exposure to high levels has been associated with cancer in humans and laboratory animals.

Exposure to formaldehyde may affect some people more severely than others.

By 2010, public health advocates and some industry groups secured bipartisan support in Congress for legislation that ordered the E.P.A. to issue federal rules that largely mirrored California’s restrictions. At the time, concerns were rising over the growing number of lower-priced furniture imports from Asia that might include contaminated products, while also hurting sales of American-made products.

Maneuvering began almost immediately after the E.P.A. prepared draft rules to formally enact the new standards.

White House records show at least five meetings in mid-2012 with industry executives — kitchen cabinet makers, chemical manufacturers, furniture trade associations and their lobbyists, like Brock R. Landry, of the Venable law firm. These parties, along with Senator Vitter’s office, appealed to top administration officials, asking them to intervene to roll back the E.P.A. proposal.

The White House Office of Management and Budget, which reviews major federal regulations before they are adopted, apparently agreed. After the White House review, the E.P.A. “redlined” many of the estimates of the monetary benefits that would be gained by reductions in related health ailments, like asthma and fertility issues, documents reviewed by The New York Times show.

As a result, the estimated benefit of the proposed rule dropped to $48 million a year, from as much as $278 million a year. The much-reduced amount deeply weakened the agency’s justification for the sometimes costly new testing that would be required under the new rules, a federal official involved in the effort said.

“It’s a redlining blood bath,” said Lisa Heinzerling, a Georgetown University Law School professor and a former E.P.A. official, using the Washington phrase to describe when language is stricken from a proposed rule. “Almost the entire discussion of these potential benefits was excised.”

Senator Vitter’s staff was pleased.

“That’s a huge difference,” said Luke Bolar, a spokesman for Mr. Vitter, of the reduced estimated financial benefits, saying the change was “clearly highlighting more mismanagement” at the E.P.A.

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The review’s outcome galvanized opponents in the furniture industry. They then targeted a provision that mandated new testing of laminated wood, a cheaper alternative to hardwood. (The California standard on which the law was based did not require such testing.)

But E.P.A. scientists had concluded that these laminate products — millions of which are sold annually in the United States — posed a particular risk. They said that when thin layers of wood, also known as laminate or veneer, are added to furniture or flooring in the final stages of manufacturing, the resulting product can generate dangerous levels of fumes from often-used formaldehyde-based glues.

Industry executives, outraged by what they considered an unnecessary and financially burdensome level of testing, turned every lever within reach to get the requirement removed. It would be particularly onerous, they argued, for small manufacturers that would have to repeatedly interrupt their work to do expensive new testing. The E.P.A. estimated that the expanded requirements for laminate products would cost the furniture industry tens of millions of dollars annually, while the industry said that the proposed rule over all would cost its 7,000 American manufacturing facilities over $200 million each year.

“A lot of people don’t seem to appreciate what a lot of these requirements do to a small operation,” said Dick Titus, executive vice president of the Kitchen Cabinet Manufacturers Association, whose members are predominantly small businesses. “A 10-person shop, for example, just really isn’t equipped to handle that type of thing.”

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Becky Gillette wants strong regulation of formaldehyde. Credit Beth Hall for The New York Times

Big industry players also weighed in. Executives from companies including La-Z-Boy, Hooker Furniture and Ashley Furniture all flew to Washington for a series of meetings with the offices of lawmakers including House Speaker John Boehner, Republican of Ohio, and about a dozen other lawmakers, asking several of them to sign a letter prepared by the industry to press the E.P.A. to back down, according to an industry report describing the lobbying visit.

Within a matter of weeks, two letters — using nearly identical language — were sent by House and Senate lawmakers to the E.P.A. — with the industry group forwarding copies of the letters to the agency as well, and then posting them on its website.

The industry lobbyists also held their own meeting at E.P.A. headquarters, and they urged Jim Jones, who oversaw the rule-making process as the assistant administrator for the agency’s Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention, to visit a North Carolina furniture manufacturing plant. According to the trade group, Mr. Jones told them that the visit had “helped the agency shift its thinking” about the rules and how laminated products should be treated.

The resistance was particularly intense from lawmakers like Mr. Wicker of Mississippi, whose state is home to major manufacturing plants owned by Ashley Furniture Industries, the world’s largest furniture maker, and who is one of the biggest recipients in Congress of donations from the industry’s trade association. Asked if the political support played a role, a spokesman for Mr. Wicker replied: “Thousands of Mississippians depend on the furniture manufacturing industry for their livelihoods. Senator Wicker is committed to defending all Mississippians from government overreach.”

Individual companies like Ikea also intervened, as did the Chinese government, which claimed that the new rule would create a “great barrier” to the import of Chinese products because of higher costs.

Perhaps the most surprising objection came from Senator Boxer, of California, a longtime environmental advocate, whose office questioned why the E.P.A.’s rule went further than her home state’s in seeking testing on laminated products. “We did not advocate an outcome, other than safety,” her office said in a statement about why the senator raised concerns. “We said ‘Take a look to see if you have it right.’ ”

Safety advocates say that tighter restrictions — like the ones Ms. Boxer and Mr. Wicker, along with Representative Doris Matsui, a California Democrat, have questioned — are necessary, particularly for products coming from China, where items as varied as toys and Christmas lights have been found to violate American safety standards.

While Mr. Neltner, the environmental advocate who has been most involved in the review process, has been open to compromise, he has pressed the E.P.A. not to back down entirely, and to maintain a requirement that laminators verify that their products are safe.

An episode of CBS’s “60 Minutes” in March brought attention to the issue when it accused Lumber Liquidators, the discount flooring retailer, of selling laminate products with dangerous levels of formaldehyde. The company has disputed the show’s findings and test methods, maintaining that its products are safe.

“People think that just because Congress passed the legislation five years ago, the problem has been fixed,” said Becky Gillette, who then lived in coastal Mississippi, in the area hit by Hurricane Katrina, and was among the first to notice a pattern of complaints from people living in the trailers. “Real people’s faces and names come up in front of me when I think of the thousands of people who could get sick if this rule is not done right.”

An aide to Ms. Matsui rejected any suggestion that she was bending to industry pressure.

“From the beginning the public health has been our No. 1 concern,” said Kyle J. Victor, an aide to Ms. Matsui.

But further changes to the rule are likely, agency officials concede, as they say they are searching for a way to reduce the cost of complying with any final rule while maintaining public health goals. The question is just how radically the agency will revamp the testing requirement for laminated products — if it keeps it at all.

“It’s not a secret to anybody that is the most challenging issue,” said Mr. Jones, the E.P.A. official overseeing the process, adding that the health consequences from formaldehyde are real. “We have to reduce those exposures so that people can live healthy lives and not have to worry about being in their homes.”

The Uphill Battle to Better Regulate Formaldehyde | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Jayne Meadows, Actress and Steve Allen’s Wife and Co-Star, Dies at 95

Ms. Meadows was the older sister of Audrey Meadows, who played Alice Kramden on “The Honeymooners.”

Jayne Meadows, Actress and Steve Allen’s Wife and Co-Star, Dies at 95 | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Dean Skelos, Albany Senate Leader, Aided Son at All Costs, U.S. Says

Over the last five years or so, it seemed there was little that Dean G. Skelos, the majority leader of the New York Senate, would not do for his son.

He pressed a powerful real estate executive to provide commissions to his son, a 32-year-old title insurance salesman, according to a federal criminal complaint. He helped get him a job at an environmental company and employed his influence to help the company get government work. He used his office to push natural gas drilling regulations that would have increased his son’s commissions.

He even tried to direct part of a $5.4 billion state budget windfall to fund government contracts that the company was seeking. And when the company was close to securing a storm-water contract from Nassau County, the senator, through an intermediary, pressured the company to pay his son more — or risk having the senator subvert the bid.

The criminal complaint, unsealed on Monday, lays out corruption charges against Senator Skelos and his son, Adam B. Skelos, the latest scandal to seize Albany, and potentially alter its power structure.

Photo
 
Preet Bharara, the United States attorney in Manhattan, discussed the case involving Dean G. Skelos and his son, Adam. Credit Eduardo Munoz/Reuters

The repeated and diverse efforts by Senator Skelos, a Long Island Republican, to use what prosecutors said was his political influence to find work, or at least income, for his son could send both men to federal prison. If they are convicted of all six charges against them, they face up to 20 years in prison for each of four of the six counts and up to 10 years for the remaining two.

Senator Kenneth P. LaValle, of Long Island, who serves as chairman of the Republican conference, emerged from a closed-door meeting Monday night to say that conference members agreed that Mr. Skelos should be benefited the “presumption of innocence,” and would stay in his leadership role.

“The leader has indicated he would like to remain as leader,” said Mr. LaValle, “and he has the support of the conference.” The case against Mr. Skelos and his son grew out of a broader inquiry into political corruption by the United States attorney for the Southern District of New York, Preet Bharara, that has already changed the face of the state capital. It is based in part, according to the six-count complaint, on conversations secretly recorded by one of two cooperating witnesses, and wiretaps on the cellphones of the senator and his son. Those recordings revealed that both men were concerned about electronic surveillance, and illustrated the son’s unsuccessful efforts to thwart it.

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Adam Skelos took to using a “burner” phone, the complaint says, and told his father he wanted them to speak through a FaceTime video call in an apparent effort to avoid detection. They also used coded language at times.

At one point, Adam Skelos was recorded telling a Senate staff member of his frustration in not being able to speak openly to his father on the phone, noting that he could not “just send smoke signals or a little pigeon” carrying a message.

The 43-page complaint, sworn out by Paul M. Takla, a special agent for the Federal Bureau of Investigation, outlines a five-year scheme to “monetize” the senator’s official position; it also lays bare the extent to which a father sought to use his position to help his son.

The charges accuse the two men of extorting payments through a real estate developer, Glenwood Management, based on Long Island, and the environmental company, AbTech Industries, in Scottsdale, Ariz., with the expectation that the money paid to Adam Skelos — nearly $220,000 in total — would influence his father’s actions.

Glenwood, one of the state’s most prolific campaign donors, had ties to AbTech through investments in the environmental firm’s parent company by Glenwood’s founding family and a senior executive.

The accusations in the complaint portray Senator Skelos as a man who, when it came to his son, was not shy about twisting arms, even in situations that might give other arm-twisters pause.

Seeking to help his son, Senator Skelos turned to the executive at Glenwood, which develops rental apartments in New York City and has much at stake when it comes to real estate legislation in Albany. The senator urged him to direct business to his son, who sold title insurance.

After much prodding, the executive, Charles C. Dorego, engineered a $20,000 payment to Adam Skelos from a title insurance company even though he did no work for the money. But far more lucrative was a consultant position that Mr. Dorego arranged for Adam Skelos at AbTech, which seeks government contracts to treat storm water. (Mr. Dorego is not identified by name in the complaint, but referred to only as CW-1, for Cooperating Witness 1.)

Senator Skelos appeared to take an active interest in his son’s new line of work. Adam Skelos sent him several drafts of his consulting agreement with AbTech, the complaint says, as well as the final deal that was struck.

“Mazel tov,” his father replied.

Senator Skelos sent relevant news articles to his son, including one about a sewage leak near Albany. When AbTech wanted to seek government contracts after Hurricane Sandy, the senator got on a conference call with his son and an AbTech executive, Bjornulf White, and offered advice. (Like Mr. Dorego, Mr. White is not named in the complaint, but referred to as CW-2.)

The assistance paid off: With the senator’s help, AbTech secured a contract worth up to $12 million from Nassau County, a big break for a struggling small business.

But the money was slow to materialize. The senator expressed impatience with county officials.

Adam Skelos, in a phone call with Mr. White in late December, suggested that his father would seek to punish the county. “I tell you this, the state is not going to do a [expletive] thing for the county,” he said.

Three days later, Senator Skelos pressed his case with the Nassau County executive, Edward P. Mangano, a fellow Republican. “Somebody feels like they’re just getting jerked around the last two years,” the senator said, referring to his son in what the complaint described as “coded language.”

The next day, the senator pursued the matter, as he and Mr. Mangano attended a wake for a slain New York City police officer. Senator Skelos then reassured his son, who called him while he was still at the wake. “All claims that are in will be taken care of,” the senator said.

AbTech’s fortunes appeared to weigh on his son. At one point in January, Adam Skelos told his father that if the company did not succeed, he would “lose the ability to pay for things.”

Making matters worse, in recent months, Senator Skelos and his son appeared to grow wary about who was watching them. In addition to making calls on the burner phone, Adam Skelos said he used the FaceTime video calling “because that doesn’t show up on the phone bill,” as he told Mr. White.

In late February, Adam Skelos arranged a pair of meetings between Mr. White and state senators; AbTech needed to win state legislation that would allow its contract to move beyond its initial stages. But Senator Skelos deemed the plan too risky and caused one of the meetings to be canceled.

In another recorded call, Adam Skelos, promising to be “very, very vague” on the phone, urged his father to allow the meeting. The senator offered a warning. “Right now we are in dangerous times, Adam,” he told him.

A month later, in another phone call that was recorded by the authorities, Adam Skelos complained that his father could not give him “real advice” about AbTech while the two men were speaking over the telephone.

“You can’t talk normally,” he told his father, “because it’s like [expletive] Preet Bharara is listening to every [expletive] phone call. It’s just [expletive] frustrating.”

“It is,” his father agreed.

Dean Skelos, Albany Senate Leader, Aided Son at All Costs, U.S. Says | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Baltimore Residents Away From Turmoil Consider Their Role

BALTIMORE — In the afternoons, the streets of Locust Point are clean and nearly silent. In front of the rowhouses, potted plants rest next to steps of brick or concrete. There is a shopping center nearby with restaurants, and a grocery store filled with fresh foods.

And the National Guard and the police are largely absent. So, too, residents say, are worries about what happened a few miles away on April 27 when, in a space of hours, parts of this city became riot zones.

“They’re not our reality,” Ashley Fowler, 30, said on Monday at the restaurant where she works. “They’re not what we’re living right now. We live in, not to be racist, white America.”

As Baltimore considers its way forward after the violent unrest brought by the death of Freddie Gray, a 25-year-old black man who died of injuries he suffered while in police custody, residents in its predominantly white neighborhoods acknowledge that they are sometimes struggling to understand what beyond Mr. Gray’s death spurred the turmoil here. For many, the poverty and troubled schools of gritty West Baltimore are distant troubles, glimpsed only when they pass through the area on their way somewhere else.

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Officers blocked traffic at Pennsylvania and West North Avenues after reports that a gun was discharged in the area. Credit Drew Angerer for The New York Times

And so neighborhoods of Baltimore are facing altogether different reckonings after Mr. Gray’s death. In mostly black communities like Sandtown-Winchester, where some of the most destructive rioting played out last week, residents are hoping businesses will reopen and that the police will change their strategies. But in mostly white areas like Canton and Locust Point, some residents wonder what role, if any, they should play in reimagining stretches of Baltimore where they do not live.

“Most of the people are kind of at a loss as to what they’re supposed to do,” said Dr. Richard Lamb, a dentist who has practiced in the same Locust Point office for nearly 39 years. “I listen to the news reports. I listen to the clergymen. I listen to the facts of the rampant unemployment and the lack of opportunities in the area. Listen, I pay my taxes. Exactly what can I do?”

And in Canton, where the restaurants have clever names like Nacho Mama’s and Holy Crepe Bakery and Café, Sara Bahr said solutions seemed out of reach for a proudly liberal city.

“I can only imagine how frustrated they must be,” said Ms. Bahr, 36, a nurse who was out with her 3-year-old daughter, Sally. “I just wish I knew how to solve poverty. I don’t know what to do to make it better.”

The day of unrest and the overwhelmingly peaceful demonstrations that followed led to hundreds of arrests, often for violations of the curfew imposed on the city for five consecutive nights while National Guard soldiers patrolled the streets. Although there were isolated instances of trouble in Canton, the neighborhood association said on its website, many parts of southeast Baltimore were physically untouched by the tumult.

Tensions in the city bubbled anew on Monday after reports that the police had wounded a black man in Northwest Baltimore. The authorities denied those reports and sent officers to talk with the crowds that gathered while other officers clutching shields blocked traffic at Pennsylvania and West North Avenues.

Lt. Col. Melvin Russell, a community police officer, said officers had stopped a man suspected of carrying a handgun and that “one of those rounds was spent.”

Colonel Russell said officers had not opened fire, “so we couldn’t have shot him.”

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Lambi Vasilakopoulos, right, who runs a casual restaurant in Canton, said he was incensed by last week's looting and predicted tensions would worsen. Credit Drew Angerer for The New York Times

The colonel said the man had not been injured but was taken to a hospital as a precaution. Nearby, many people stood in disbelief, despite the efforts by the authorities to quash reports they described as “unfounded.”

Monday’s episode was a brief moment in a larger drama that has yielded anger and confusion. Although many people said they were familiar with accounts of the police harassing or intimidating residents, many in Canton and Locust Point said they had never experienced it themselves. When they watched the unrest, which many protesters said was fueled by feelings that they lived only on Baltimore’s margins, even those like Ms. Bahr who were pained by what they saw said they could scarcely comprehend the emotions associated with it.

But others, like Lambi Vasilakopoulos, who runs a casual restaurant in Canton, said they were incensed by what unfolded last week.

“What happened wasn’t called for. Protests are one thing; looting is another thing,” he said, adding, “We’re very frustrated because we’re the ones who are going to pay for this.”

There were pockets of optimism, though, that Baltimore would enter a period of reconciliation.

“I’m just hoping for peace,” Natalie Boies, 53, said in front of the Locust Point home where she has lived for 50 years. “Learn to love each other; be patient with each other; find justice; and care.”

A skeptical Mr. Vasilakopoulos predicted tensions would worsen.

“It cannot be fixed,” he said. “It’s going to get worse. Why? Because people don’t obey the laws. They don’t want to obey them.”

But there were few fears that the violence that plagued West Baltimore last week would play out on these relaxed streets. The authorities, Ms. Fowler said, would make sure of that.

“They kept us safe here,” she said. “I didn’t feel uncomfortable when I was in my house three blocks away from here. I knew I was going to be O.K. because I knew they weren’t going to let anyone come and loot our properties or our businesses or burn our cars.”

Baltimore Residents Away From Turmoil Consider Their Role | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

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