PAKET UMROH BULAN FEBRUARI MARET APRIL MEI 2018




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Tag : umroh aman di banjarmasin akhir desember tahun 2015
umroh aman di banjarmasin akhir desember 2015 Ponsel 081280208172 Jl Tebet Barat Dalam Raya no 40C Tebet Jakarta Selatan 12810, 13250 DKI Jakarta Indonesia, adalah sekerat pembentuk busana nan mengenai mengenai kain tidak bisa Combed bahannya kita memegang mulut dan rawan terkena resiko diabetes dengan CSC untuk menyediakan produk akan tetapi tidak Telkom sa
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Tag : umroh aman di bandung akhir tahun 2015 bulan desember
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MOURINHO SANJUNG PERFORMA CECH

saco-indonesia.com, Jelang menjamu Chelsea di Etihad Stadium semalam (01/02), Manchester City telah menyandang sejumlah rekor impresif di laga kandang. Mereka juga selalu mencetak gol dalam 61 laga kandang terakhir dan belum pernah kehilangan poin saat bermain di Etihad musim ini. Namun kedua rekor mentereng tersebut patah saat The Citizens dibekuk The Blues dengan skor 0-1.

Manajer Chelsea, Jose Mourinho juga mengaku senang bisa mencatatkan cleansheet untuk melawan tim paling produktif di Premier League. Secara khusus, ia telah memuji performa para pemain bertahan dan juga kiper Petr Cech.

"Kami telah bertahan dengan sangat baik dan disiplin. Kemenangan ini akan bisa terwujud karena Petr telah melakukan sejumlah penyelamatan fantastis. Begitu pula lini belakang kami yang tampil sangat baik," kata pria berusia 51 tahun ini.

"Namun secara keseluruhan, barisan gelandang kami juga bekerja sangat keras. Kemenangan ini juga telah terjadi karena striker kami menunjukkan kontribusi. Seluruh pemain melakukan yang terbaik untuk tim."

Kemenangan tersebut telah membuat Chelsea menyamai poin 53 yang diukir City. Keduanya bersanding di posisi kedua dan ketiga, tertinggal dua angka dari Arsenal yang memuncaki klasemen.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

> MOURINHO SANJUNG PERFORMA CECH

IPAD PRO SEMAKIN MENGGODA

saco-indonesia.com, Ini adalah kali pertama Apple untuk mencoba bermain-main dengan ide pengembangan iPad berlayar besar, yaitu 12,9inci.

Perangkat tablet dengan nama iPad Pro ini rencananya juga akan dirilis dalam waktu yang dekat ini. Namun belum jelas kapan jadwal pastinya.

Sebuah perusahaan riset pasar IHS, telah mengungkapkan bahwa sementara beberapa produsen juga telah menerima jumlah yang sama dari sebuah panel besar dan diidentifikasi sebagai produksi iPad.

Dikatakan pula bahwa iPad Pro ini juga akan memiliki bodi yang sangat tipis. Mungkin juga lebih tipis dari iPad Air, tablet unggulan terkini milik Apple. Tipisnya bodi iPad Pro dipastikan bakal akan menjadi unggulan tersendiri, mengingat saat ini banyak orang yang menginginkan gadget yang mudah untuk dibawa ke mana-mana.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

> IPAD PRO SEMAKIN MENGGODA

PUSAT SEWA KOMPUTER, SEWA LAPTOP & MULTIMEDIA

Pusat Rental & Sewa Khususnya Sewa Komputer, Sewa Notebook, Laptop, Proyektor, TV Plasma, LCD TV Terlengkap & Terpercaya. Selain itu kami juga telah menyediakan Rental Sound System & Rental Plasma Multi Display (Plasma Wall & Orion).

Dengan dukungan pengalaman dan teknisi yang handal serta sanggup untuk menghadapi berbagai situasi di lapangan membuat Total Rental selalu menjadi pilihan utama Costumer Corporate Indonesia.

Kami telah menyadari bahwa kesuksesan sebuah acara sangat bergantung dari penanganan organizer yang baik, maka dengan itu Total Rental selalu menjaga dan mengedepankan Total Quality, Total Service dan Total Satisfied Layanan Sewa Komputer & Multimedia kami. Tentunya dengan unit yang terjaga dan terupdate sesuai dengan perkembangan teknologi.

> PUSAT SEWA KOMPUTER, SEWA LAPTOP & MULTIMEDIA

FILOSOFI DARI BERNIAT HAJI

Rangkaian kegiatan yang dijalani oleh Nabi Muhammad SAW ketika menunaikan ritual haji menjadi contoh bagi para sahabat dalam menjalankan ibadah wajib tersebut. Meskipun Nabi hanya melakukan umrah sebanyak empat kali dan haji hanya sekali, rangkaian manasik haji yang beliau contohkan memiliki makna yang sangat substansial.

Jamaah haji dan umrah yang tidak memahami makna filosofis dan nilai-nilai agung yang terkandung dalam ritual haji tidak menutup kemungkinan akan merasakan kehampaan dalam ibadahnya. Sebaliknya, mereka yang mampu menangkap makna dan nilai-nilai tersebut akan semakin bersemangat dan khusyuk dalam melaksanakannya.

Berbahagialah mereka yang telah tebersit keinginan di dalam hatinya untuk menunaikan ibadah haji. Keinginan untuk pergi haji adalah anugerah sekaligus hidayah dari Allah SWT agar kita selamat dari jurang kesesatan dan kegelapan hidup.

Banyak umat Islam zaman sekarang yang merasakan kehidupannya kosong dan tak bermakna. Hari-hari dalam kehidupan mereka seakan hanya pengulangan dari hari sebelumnya. Tanpa mereka sadari, salah satu ajaran dalam agama mereka yaitu ibadah haji dapat mengantarkan mereka pada sebuah pengalaman yang akan membebaskan diri dari kehidupan semacam itu.

Perjalanan haji sangat bertolak belakang dengan perjalanan hidup yang tanpa tujuan. Dengan menunaikan ibadah tersebut kita akan dapat melepaskan diri dari jaring- jaring hawa nafsu dan membuka jalan yang luas menuju ridha Allah SWT.

Jika telah tebersit keinginan dalam hati untuk menunaikan ibadah haji, itu artinya kita telah bersedia meninggalkan sanak keluarga untuk berjumpa dengan Allah. Hati yang selalu mengajak untuk menunaikan ibadah haji adalah pertanda bahwa Allah SWT sedang mengundang kita ke sebuah ‘jamuan’ yang diadakan setiap tahun. Dalam jamuan itu, kasih sayang dan ampunan akan disuguhkan kepada seluruh tamu-Nya.

Sebaliknya, mereka yang tidak mendengar adanya panggilan hati untuk menunaikan ibadah haji patut bersedih. Sebab itu pertanda bahwa mereka telah berpaling dari Allah dan lebih memilih kehidupan yang fana.

Jika sedikit pun mereka tidak merasakan keinginan untuk berkunjung ke rumah Allah, maka itu artinya Allah SWT tidak mengundang mereka ke ‘jamuan’ yang diadakan-Nya.

Sumber : Republika.co.id

Baca Artikel Lainnya : RITUAL HAJI NABI IBRAHIM AS

> FILOSOFI DARI BERNIAT HAJI

PROSES PEMBUTAN SANITASI

saco-indonesia.com, Indonesia merupakan negara dengan sistem sanitasi ( pengelolaan air limbah domestic ) terburuk ketiga di Asia Tenggara setelah Laos dan Myanmar ( ANTARA News, 2006 ). Menurut data Status Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia tahun 2002, tidak kurang dari 400.000 m3 / hari limbah rumah tangga yang dibuang langsung ke sungai dan tanah, tanpa melalui pengolahan terlebih dahulu. 61,5 % dari jumlah tersebut telah terdapat di Pulau Jawa.

Pembuangan akhir limbah tinja umumnya telah dibuang dengan menggunakan beberapa cara antara lain dengan menggunakan septic tank, dibuang langsung ke sungai atau danau, dibuang ke tanah , dan ada juga yang dibuang ke kolam atau pantai.
Di beberapa daerah pedesaan di Indonesia, telah masih banyak dijumpai oleh masyarakat yang berada di bawah garis kemiskinan dengan sanitasi yang masih sangat minim. Masih sering dijumpai oleh sebagian masyarakat yang telah membuang hajatnya di sungai karena tidak mempunyai saluran pembuangan khusus untuk proses pembuangan air limbah rumah tangga maupun air buangan dari kamar mandi. Bahkan terkadang juga masih dijumpai masyarakat yang membuang hajatnya di pekarangan rumahnya masing-masing. Hal ini telah terjadi selain disebabkan karena factor ekonomi, faktor kebiasaan yang sulit dirubah dan kualitas pendidikan yang relative rendah dari masyarakat pun juga memang sangat berpengaruh besar terhadap pola hidup masyarakat.

Berdasarkan perkiraan WHO/ UNICEF, sekitar 60 persen penduduk di kawasan pedesaan di Indonesia telah kekurangan akses terhadap sarana sanitasi yang pantas. Kegiatan mandi dan mencuci pakaian di sungai serta buang air besar di tempat terbuka telah membuat orang mudah terpapar penyakit, mengontaminasi air tanah dan permukaan, serta menurunkan kualitas tanah dan tempat tinggal. Perempuan dan anak-anak berada dalam risiko.

1. PENGERTIAN SANITASI
Sanitasi adalah bagian dari system pembuangan air limbah, yang khususnya telah menyangkut pembuangan air kotor dari rumah tangga, dapat juga dari sisa-sisa proses industry, pertanian, peternakan dan rumah sakit (sector kesehatan).
Sanitasi juga merupakan suatu usaha untuk dapat memberikan fasilitas di dalam rumah yang dapat menjamin agar rumah selalu bersih dan sehat. Tentunya tang ditunjang penyediaan air bersih yang cukup, dan pembuangan air kotoran yang lancar.

2. AIR LIMBAH
Air Limbah adalah air buangan yang telah dihasilkan dari suatu proses pruduksi industri maupun domestik (rumah tangga), yang terkadang kehadirannya pada suatu saat dan tempat tertentu tidak dikehendaki lingkungan karena juga tidak memiliki nilai ekonomis. Dalam konsentrasi dan kuantitas tertentu, kehadiran limbah juga dapat berdampak negative terhadap lingkungan tertutama kesehatan manusia sehingga dilakukan penanganan terhadap limbah.

Air kotor adalah air bekas pakai yang sudah tidak memenuhi syarat kesehatan lagi dan harus dibuang agar tidak dapat menimbulkan wabah penyakit
Beberapa hal yang berkaitan dengan pengertian dan kegiatan yang berhubungan dengan limbah cair menurut PP 82 tahun 2001 yaitu :
1. Air adalah semua air yang telah terdapat diatas dan dibawah permukaan tanah, kecuali air laut dan fosil.
2. Sumber air adalah wadah air yang telah terdapat diatas dan dibawah permukaan tanah, seperti, mata air, sungai, rawa, danau, waduk, dan muara.
3. Pengelolaan kualitas air adalah upaya dalam pemeliharaan air sehingga dapat tercapai kualitas air yang diinginkan sesuai peruntukannya untuk dapat menjamin kualitas tetap dalam kondisi alamiahnya.
4. Pengendalian pencemaran air adalah upaya untuk pencegahan dan penanggulangan pencemaran air serta pemulihan kualitas air untuk dapat menjamin kualitas air agar sesuai dengan baku mutu air.
5. Pencemaran air adalah masuknya makhluk hidup, zat, energy, dan atau komponen lain kedalam air oleh kegiatan manusia sehingga kualitas air turun sampai ketingkat tertentu yang dapat menyebabkan air tidak berfungsi lagi sesuai dengan peruntukannya.
6. Limbah cair adalah sisa dari sutu hasil usaha dan atau kegiatan yang berwujud cair.
7. Baku mutu limbah cair adalah, ukuran batas atau kadar unsure pencemar yang ditenggang keberadaannya dalam limbah cair yang akan dibuang atau dilepas kedalam sumber air dari suatu usaha atau kegiatan.

3. ALAT PEMBUANGAN AIR KOTOR
Alat pembuangan air kotor dapat berupa :
- Kamar mandi, washtafel, keran cuci
- WC
- Dapur
Air dari kamar mandi tidak boleh dibuang secara bersama sama dengan air dari WC maupun dari dapur. Sehingga harus dibuatkan seluran masing-masing.
Diameter pipa pembuangan dari kamar mandi adalah 3” (7,5 cm), pipa pembuangan dari WC adalah 4”(10 cm), dan dari dapur boleh dipakai diameter 2”(5cm). pipa pembuangan juga dapat diletakkan pada suatu “shaft”, yaitu lobang menerus yang disediakan untuk tempat pipa air bersih dan pipa air kotor pada bangunan bertingkat untuk dapat memudahkan pengontrolan. Atau dapat dipasang pada kolom-kolom beton dari atas sampai bawah. Setelah sampai bawah, semua pipa air kotor harus juga merupakan saluran tertutup di dalam tanah agar tidak menimbulkan wabah penyakit dan bau tak sedap.
Dibawah lantai, semua pipa sanitasi diberi lobang control, yang sewaktu-waktu dapat dibuka bila terjadi kemacetan.

4. JENIS-JENIS UNIT PENGOLAHAN AIR LIMBAH
a. SEPTICTANK
Sistem septic tank sebenarnya adalah sumur rembesan atau sumur kotoran. Septic tank juga merupakan sitem sanitasi yang terdiri dari pipa saluran dari kloset, bak penampungan kotoran cair dan padat, bak resapan, serta pipa pelepasan air bersih dan udara.

Hal-hal yang yang harus diperhatikan saat pembangunan septic tank agar tidak mencemari air dan tanah sekitarnya adalah :
1. jarak minimal dari sumur air bersih sekurangnya 10m.
2. untuk dapat membuang air keluaran dari septic tank perlu dibuat daerah resapan dengan lantai septic tank dibuat miring kearah ruang lumpur.
3. septic tank direncanakan untuk pembuangan kotoran rumah tangga dengan jumlah air limbah antara 70-90 % dari volume penggunaan air bersih.
4. waktu tinggal air limbah didalam tangki diperkirakan minimal 24 jam.
5. besarnya ruang lumpur diperkirakan untuk dapat menampung lumpur yang telah dihasilkan setiap orang rata-rata 30-40 liter/orang/tahun dan waktu pengambilan lumpur diperhitungkan 2-4 tahun.
6. pipa air masuk kedalam tangki hendaknya selalu lebih tinggi kurang lebh 2.5 cm dari pipa air keluar.
7. septic tank harus dilengkapi dengan lubang pemeriksaan dan lubang penghawaan untuk dapat membuang gas hasil penguraian.
Agar septic tank tidak mudah penuh dan mampat, awet dan tahan lama perlu diperhatikan hal berikut :
1. Kemiringan Pipa
Kemiringan pipa menentukan kelancaran proses pembuangan limbah. Selisih ketinggian kloset dan permukaan air bak penampung kotoran minimal 2 %, artinya setiap 100cm terdapat perbedaan ketinggian 2cm.
2. Pemilihan Pipa yang tepat
Pipa saluran sebaiknya berupa PVC. Ukuran minimal adalah 4 inchi. Rumah yang telah memiliki jumlah toilet yang banyak sebaiknya harus menggunakan pipa yang lebih besar. Perancangan saluran diusahakan dibuat lurus tanpa belokan, karena belokan atau sudut juga dapat membuat mampat.
3. Sesuaikan Kapasitas Septic tank
Untuk rumah tinggal dengan jumlah penghuni empat orang, cukup dibuat septic tank dengan ukuran (1.5×1.5×2)m. bak endapan dan sumur resapan bias dibuat dengan ukuran (1x1x2)m. semakin banyak penghuni rumah maka semakin besar ukuran yang telah dibutuhkan.
4. Bak Harus Kuat dan Kedap Air
Septic tank harus terbuat dari bahan yang tahan terhadap korosi, rapat air dan tahan lama. Konstruksi septic tank juga harus kuat untuk menahan gaya-gaya yang timbul akibat tekanan air, tanah maupun beban lainnya.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

> PROSES PEMBUTAN SANITASI

Joseph Lechleider, a Father of the DSL Internet Technology, Dies at 82

Joseph Lechleider

Mr. Lechleider helped invent DSL technology, which enabled phone companies to offer high-speed web access over their infrastructure of copper wires.

Joseph Lechleider, a Father of the DSL Internet Technology, Dies at 82 | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Marcel Pronovost, 84, Dies; Hall of Famer Shared in Five N.H.L. Titles

Pronovost, who played for the Red Wings, was not a prolific scorer, but he was a consummate team player with bruising checks and fearless bursts up the ice that could puncture a defense.

Marcel Pronovost, 84, Dies; Hall of Famer Shared in Five N.H.L. Titles | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Calvin Peete, 71, a Racial Pioneer on the PGA Tour, Is Dead

With 12 tournament victories in his career, Mr. Peete was the most successful black professional golfer before Tiger Woods.

Calvin Peete, 71, a Racial Pioneer on the PGA Tour, Is Dead | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Take the Money and Run

The career criminals in genre novels don’t have money problems. If they need some, they just go out and steal it. But such financial transactions can backfire, which is what happened back in 2004 when the Texas gang in Michael

Take the Money and Run | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Fatal Police Shootings: Accounts Since Ferguson

Since a white police officer, Darren Wilson fatally shot unarmed black teenager, Michael Brown, in a confrontation last August in Ferguson, Mo., there have been many other cases in which the police have shot and killed suspects, some of them unarmed. Mr. Brown's death set off protests throughout the country, pushing law enforcement into the spotlight and sparking a public debate on police tactics. Here is a selection of police shootings that have been reported by news organizations since Mr. Brown's death. In some cases, investigations are continuing.

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The apartment complex northeast of Atlanta where Anthony Hill, 27, was fatally shot by a DeKalb County police officer. Credit Ben Gray/Atlanta Journal Constitution

Chamblee, Ga.
Fatal Police Shootings: Accounts Since Ferguson | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

William Price Fox, Admired Southern Novelist and Humorist, Dies at 89

Mr. Fox, known for his well-honed countrified voice, wrote about things dear to South Carolina and won over Yankee critics.

William Price Fox, Admired Southern Novelist and Humorist, Dies at 89 | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Sid Tepper Dies at 96; Delivered ‘Red Roses for a Blue Lady’ and Other Songs

Mr. Tepper was not a musical child and had no formal training, but he grew up to write both lyrics and tunes, trading off duties with the other member of the team, Roy C. Bennett.

Sid Tepper Dies at 96; Delivered ‘Red Roses for a Blue Lady’ and Other Songs | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Hard but Hopeful Home to ‘Lot of Freddies’

Children playing last week in Sandtown-Winchester, the Baltimore neighborhood where Freddie Gray was raised. One young resident called it “a tough community.”
Todd Heisler/The New York Times

Children playing last week in Sandtown-Winchester, the Baltimore neighborhood where Freddie Gray was raised. One young resident called it “a tough community.”

Hard but Hopeful Home to ‘Lot of Freddies’

Hard but Hopeful Home to ‘Lot of Freddies’ | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Rolf Smedvig, Trumpeter in the Empire Brass, Dies at 62

A former member of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Mr. Smedvig helped found the wide-ranging Empire Brass quintet.

Rolf Smedvig, Trumpeter in the Empire Brass, Dies at 62 | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Richard Suzman, 72, Dies; Researcher Influenced Global Surveys on Aging

At the National Institutes of Health, Dr. Suzman’s signature accomplishment was the central role he played in creating a global network of surveys on aging.

Richard Suzman, 72, Dies; Researcher Influenced Global Surveys on Aging | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

The Uphill Battle to Better Regulate Formaldehyde

WASHINGTON — A decade after emergency trailers meant to shelter Hurricane Katrina victims instead caused burning eyes, sore throats and other more serious ailments, the Environmental Protection Agency is on the verge of regulating the culprit: formaldehyde, a chemical that can be found in commonplace things like clothes and furniture.

But an unusual assortment of players, including furniture makers, the Chinese government, Republicans from states with a large base of furniture manufacturing and even some Democrats who championed early regulatory efforts, have questioned the E.P.A. proposal. The sustained opposition has held sway, as the agency is now preparing to ease key testing requirements before it releases the landmark federal health standard.

The E.P.A.’s five-year effort to adopt this rule offers another example of how industry opposition can delay and hamper attempts by the federal government to issue regulations, even to control substances known to be harmful to human health.

Continue reading the main story
 

Document: The Formaldehyde Fight

Formaldehyde is a known carcinogen that can also cause respiratory ailments like asthma, but the potential of long-term exposure to cause cancers like myeloid leukemia is less well understood.

The E.P.A.’s decision would be the first time that the federal government has regulated formaldehyde inside most American homes.

“The stakes are high for public health,” said Tom Neltner, senior adviser for regulatory affairs at the National Center for Healthy Housing, who has closely monitored the debate over the rules. “What we can’t have here is an outcome that fails to confront the health threat we all know exists.”

The proposal would not ban formaldehyde — commonly used as an ingredient in wood glue in furniture and flooring — but it would impose rules that prevent dangerous levels of the chemical’s vapors from those products, and would set testing standards to ensure that products sold in the United States comply with those limits. The debate has sharpened in the face of growing concern about the safety of formaldehyde-treated flooring imported from Asia, especially China.

What is certain is that a lot of money is at stake: American companies sell billions of dollars’ worth of wood products each year that contain formaldehyde, and some argue that the proposed regulation would impose unfair costs and restrictions.

Determined to block the agency’s rule as proposed, these industry players have turned to the White House, members of Congress and top E.P.A. officials, pressing them to roll back the testing requirements in particular, calling them redundant and too expensive.

“There are potentially over a million manufacturing jobs that will be impacted if the proposed rule is finalized without changes,” wrote Bill Perdue, the chief lobbyist at the American Home Furnishings Alliance, a leading critic of the testing requirements in the proposed regulation, in one letter to the E.P.A.

Industry opposition helped create an odd alignment of forces working to thwart the rule. The White House moved to strike out key aspects of the proposal. Subsequent appeals for more changes were voiced by players as varied as Senator Barbara Boxer, Democrat of California, and Senator Roger Wicker, Republican of Mississippi, as well as furniture industry lobbyists.

Hurricane Katrina in 2005 helped ignite the public debate over formaldehyde, after the deadly storm destroyed or damaged hundreds of thousands of homes along the Gulf of Mexico, forcing families into temporary trailers provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

The displaced storm victims quickly began reporting respiratory problems, burning eyes and other issues, and tests then confirmed high levels of formaldehyde fumes leaking into the air inside the trailers, which in many cases had been hastily constructed.

Public health advocates petitioned the E.P.A. to issue limits on formaldehyde in building materials and furniture used in homes, given that limits already existed for exposure in workplaces. But three years after the storm, only California had issued such limits.

Industry groups like the American Chemistry Council have repeatedly challenged the science linking formaldehyde to cancer, a position championed by David Vitter, the Republican senator from Louisiana, who is a major recipient of chemical industry campaign contributions, and whom environmental groups have mockingly nicknamed “Senator Formaldehyde.”

Continue reading the main story

Formaldehyde in Laminate Flooring

In laminate flooring, formaldehyde is used as a bonding agent in the fiberboard (or other composite wood) core layer and may also be used in glues that bind layers together. Concerns were raised in March when certain laminate flooring imported from China was reported to contain levels of formaldehyde far exceeding the limit permitted by California.

Typical

laminate

flooring

CLEAR FINISH LAYER

Often made of melamine resin

PATTERN LAYER

Paper printed to resemble wood,

or a thin wood veneer

GLUE

Layers may be bound using

formaldehyde-based glues

CORE LAYER

Fiberboard or other

composite, formed using

formaldehyde-based adhesives

BASE LAYER

Moisture-resistant vapor barrier

What is formaldehyde?

Formaldehyde is a common chemical used in many industrial and household products as an adhesive, bonding agent or preservative. It is classified as a volatile organic compound. The term volatile means that, at room temperature, formaldehyde will vaporize, or become a gas. Products made with formaldehyde tend to release this gas into the air. If breathed in large quantities, it may cause health problems.

WHERE IT IS COMMONLY FOUND

POTENTIAL HEALTH RISKS

Pressed-wood and composite wood products

Wallpaper and paints

Spray foam insulation used in construction

Commercial wood floor finishes

Crease-resistant fabrics

In cigarette smoke, or in the fumes from combustion of other materials, including wood, oil and gasoline.

Exposure to formaldehyde in sufficient amounts may cause eye, throat or skin irritation, allergic reactions, and respiratory problems like coughing, wheezing or asthma.

Long-term exposure to high levels has been associated with cancer in humans and laboratory animals.

Exposure to formaldehyde may affect some people more severely than others.

By 2010, public health advocates and some industry groups secured bipartisan support in Congress for legislation that ordered the E.P.A. to issue federal rules that largely mirrored California’s restrictions. At the time, concerns were rising over the growing number of lower-priced furniture imports from Asia that might include contaminated products, while also hurting sales of American-made products.

Maneuvering began almost immediately after the E.P.A. prepared draft rules to formally enact the new standards.

White House records show at least five meetings in mid-2012 with industry executives — kitchen cabinet makers, chemical manufacturers, furniture trade associations and their lobbyists, like Brock R. Landry, of the Venable law firm. These parties, along with Senator Vitter’s office, appealed to top administration officials, asking them to intervene to roll back the E.P.A. proposal.

The White House Office of Management and Budget, which reviews major federal regulations before they are adopted, apparently agreed. After the White House review, the E.P.A. “redlined” many of the estimates of the monetary benefits that would be gained by reductions in related health ailments, like asthma and fertility issues, documents reviewed by The New York Times show.

As a result, the estimated benefit of the proposed rule dropped to $48 million a year, from as much as $278 million a year. The much-reduced amount deeply weakened the agency’s justification for the sometimes costly new testing that would be required under the new rules, a federal official involved in the effort said.

“It’s a redlining blood bath,” said Lisa Heinzerling, a Georgetown University Law School professor and a former E.P.A. official, using the Washington phrase to describe when language is stricken from a proposed rule. “Almost the entire discussion of these potential benefits was excised.”

Senator Vitter’s staff was pleased.

“That’s a huge difference,” said Luke Bolar, a spokesman for Mr. Vitter, of the reduced estimated financial benefits, saying the change was “clearly highlighting more mismanagement” at the E.P.A.

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The review’s outcome galvanized opponents in the furniture industry. They then targeted a provision that mandated new testing of laminated wood, a cheaper alternative to hardwood. (The California standard on which the law was based did not require such testing.)

But E.P.A. scientists had concluded that these laminate products — millions of which are sold annually in the United States — posed a particular risk. They said that when thin layers of wood, also known as laminate or veneer, are added to furniture or flooring in the final stages of manufacturing, the resulting product can generate dangerous levels of fumes from often-used formaldehyde-based glues.

Industry executives, outraged by what they considered an unnecessary and financially burdensome level of testing, turned every lever within reach to get the requirement removed. It would be particularly onerous, they argued, for small manufacturers that would have to repeatedly interrupt their work to do expensive new testing. The E.P.A. estimated that the expanded requirements for laminate products would cost the furniture industry tens of millions of dollars annually, while the industry said that the proposed rule over all would cost its 7,000 American manufacturing facilities over $200 million each year.

“A lot of people don’t seem to appreciate what a lot of these requirements do to a small operation,” said Dick Titus, executive vice president of the Kitchen Cabinet Manufacturers Association, whose members are predominantly small businesses. “A 10-person shop, for example, just really isn’t equipped to handle that type of thing.”

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Becky Gillette wants strong regulation of formaldehyde. Credit Beth Hall for The New York Times

Big industry players also weighed in. Executives from companies including La-Z-Boy, Hooker Furniture and Ashley Furniture all flew to Washington for a series of meetings with the offices of lawmakers including House Speaker John Boehner, Republican of Ohio, and about a dozen other lawmakers, asking several of them to sign a letter prepared by the industry to press the E.P.A. to back down, according to an industry report describing the lobbying visit.

Within a matter of weeks, two letters — using nearly identical language — were sent by House and Senate lawmakers to the E.P.A. — with the industry group forwarding copies of the letters to the agency as well, and then posting them on its website.

The industry lobbyists also held their own meeting at E.P.A. headquarters, and they urged Jim Jones, who oversaw the rule-making process as the assistant administrator for the agency’s Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention, to visit a North Carolina furniture manufacturing plant. According to the trade group, Mr. Jones told them that the visit had “helped the agency shift its thinking” about the rules and how laminated products should be treated.

The resistance was particularly intense from lawmakers like Mr. Wicker of Mississippi, whose state is home to major manufacturing plants owned by Ashley Furniture Industries, the world’s largest furniture maker, and who is one of the biggest recipients in Congress of donations from the industry’s trade association. Asked if the political support played a role, a spokesman for Mr. Wicker replied: “Thousands of Mississippians depend on the furniture manufacturing industry for their livelihoods. Senator Wicker is committed to defending all Mississippians from government overreach.”

Individual companies like Ikea also intervened, as did the Chinese government, which claimed that the new rule would create a “great barrier” to the import of Chinese products because of higher costs.

Perhaps the most surprising objection came from Senator Boxer, of California, a longtime environmental advocate, whose office questioned why the E.P.A.’s rule went further than her home state’s in seeking testing on laminated products. “We did not advocate an outcome, other than safety,” her office said in a statement about why the senator raised concerns. “We said ‘Take a look to see if you have it right.’ ”

Safety advocates say that tighter restrictions — like the ones Ms. Boxer and Mr. Wicker, along with Representative Doris Matsui, a California Democrat, have questioned — are necessary, particularly for products coming from China, where items as varied as toys and Christmas lights have been found to violate American safety standards.

While Mr. Neltner, the environmental advocate who has been most involved in the review process, has been open to compromise, he has pressed the E.P.A. not to back down entirely, and to maintain a requirement that laminators verify that their products are safe.

An episode of CBS’s “60 Minutes” in March brought attention to the issue when it accused Lumber Liquidators, the discount flooring retailer, of selling laminate products with dangerous levels of formaldehyde. The company has disputed the show’s findings and test methods, maintaining that its products are safe.

“People think that just because Congress passed the legislation five years ago, the problem has been fixed,” said Becky Gillette, who then lived in coastal Mississippi, in the area hit by Hurricane Katrina, and was among the first to notice a pattern of complaints from people living in the trailers. “Real people’s faces and names come up in front of me when I think of the thousands of people who could get sick if this rule is not done right.”

An aide to Ms. Matsui rejected any suggestion that she was bending to industry pressure.

“From the beginning the public health has been our No. 1 concern,” said Kyle J. Victor, an aide to Ms. Matsui.

But further changes to the rule are likely, agency officials concede, as they say they are searching for a way to reduce the cost of complying with any final rule while maintaining public health goals. The question is just how radically the agency will revamp the testing requirement for laminated products — if it keeps it at all.

“It’s not a secret to anybody that is the most challenging issue,” said Mr. Jones, the E.P.A. official overseeing the process, adding that the health consequences from formaldehyde are real. “We have to reduce those exposures so that people can live healthy lives and not have to worry about being in their homes.”

The Uphill Battle to Better Regulate Formaldehyde | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Top News China’s Intents Are Questioned as It Builds in Antarctica

HOBART, Tasmania — Few places seem out of reach for China’s leader, Xi Jinping, who has traveled from European capitals to obscure Pacific and Caribbean islands in pursuit of his nation’s strategic interests.

So perhaps it was not surprising when he turned up last fall in this city on the edge of the Southern Ocean to put down a long-distance marker in another faraway region, Antarctica, 2,000 miles south of this Australian port.

Standing on the deck of an icebreaker that ferries Chinese scientists from this last stop before the frozen continent, Mr. Xi pledged that China would continue to expand in one of the few places on earth that remain unexploited by humans.

He signed a five-year accord with the Australian government that allows Chinese vessels and, in the future, aircraft to resupply for fuel and food before heading south. That will help secure easier access to a region that is believed to have vast oil and mineral resources; huge quantities of high-protein sea life; and for times of possible future dire need, fresh water contained in icebergs.

It was not until 1985, about seven decades after Robert Scott and Roald Amundsen raced to the South Pole, that a team representing Beijing hoisted the Chinese flag over the nation’s first Antarctic research base, the Great Wall Station on King George Island.

But now China seems determined to catch up. As it has bolstered spending on Antarctic research, and as the early explorers, especially the United States and Australia, confront stagnant budgets, there is growing concern about its intentions.

China’s operations on the continent — it opened its fourth research station last year, chose a site for a fifth, and is investing in a second icebreaker and new ice-capable planes and helicopters — are already the fastest growing of the 52 signatories to the Antarctic Treaty. That gentlemen’s agreement reached in 1959 bans military activity on the continent and aims to preserve it as one of the world’s last wildernesses; a related pact prohibits mining.

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But Mr. Xi’s visit was another sign that China is positioning itself to take advantage of the continent’s resource potential when the treaty expires in 2048 — or in the event that it is ripped up before, Chinese and Australian experts say.

“So far, our research is natural-science based, but we know there is more and more concern about resource security,” said Yang Huigen, director general of the Polar Research Institute of China, who accompanied Mr. Xi last November on his visit to Hobart and stood with him on the icebreaker, Xue Long, or Snow Dragon.

With that in mind, the polar institute recently opened a new division devoted to the study of resources, law, geopolitics and governance in Antarctica and the Arctic, Mr. Yang said.

Australia, a strategic ally of the United States that has strong economic relations with China, is watching China’s buildup in the Antarctic with a mix of gratitude — China’s presence offers support for Australia’s Antarctic science program, which is short of cash — and wariness.

“We should have no illusions about the deeper agenda — one that has not even been agreed to by Chinese scientists but is driven by Xi, and most likely his successors,” said Peter Jennings, executive director of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute and a former senior official in the Australian Department of Defense.

“This is part of a broader pattern of a mercantilist approach all around the world,” Mr. Jennings added. “A big driver of Chinese policy is to secure long-term energy supply and food supply.”

That approach was evident last month when a large Chinese agriculture enterprise announced an expansion of its fishing operations around Antarctica to catch more krill — small, protein-rich crustaceans that are abundant in Antarctic waters.

“The Antarctic is a treasure house for all human beings, and China should go there and share,” Liu Shenli, the chairman of the China National Agricultural Development Group, told China Daily, a state-owned newspaper. China would aim to fish up to two million tons of krill a year, he said, a substantial increase from what it currently harvests.

Because sovereignty over Antarctica is unclear, nations have sought to strengthen their claims over the ice-covered land by building research bases and naming geographic features. China’s fifth station will put it within reach of the six American facilities, and ahead of Australia’s three.

Chinese mappers have also given Chinese names to more than 300 sites, compared with the thousands of locations on the continent with English names.

In the unspoken competition for Antarctica’s future, scientific achievement can also translate into influence. Chinese scientists are driving to be the first to drill and recover an ice core containing tiny air bubbles that provide a record of climate change stretching as far back as 1.5 million years. It is an expensive and delicate effort at which others, including the European Union and Australia, have failed.

In a breakthrough a decade ago, European scientists extracted an ice core nearly two miles long that revealed 800,000 years of climate history. But finding an ice core going back further would allow scientists to examine a change in the earth’s climate cycles believed to have occurred 900,000 to 1.2 million years ago.

China is betting it has found the best location to drill, at an area called Dome A, or Dome Argus, the highest point on the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Though it is considered one of the coldest places on the planet, with temperatures of 130 degrees below zero Fahrenheit, a Chinese expedition explored the area in 2005 and established a research station in 2009.

“The international community has drilled in lots of places, but no luck so far,” said Xiao Cunde, a member of the first party to reach the site and the deputy director of the Institute for Climate Change at the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences. “We think at Dome A we will have a straight shot at the one-million-year ice core.”

Mr. Xiao said China had already begun drilling and hoped to find what scientists are looking for in four to five years.

To support its Antarctic aspirations, China is building a sophisticated $300 million icebreaker that is expected to be ready in a few years, said Xia Limin, deputy director of the Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Administration in Beijing. It has also bought a high-tech fixed-wing aircraft, outfitted in the United States, for taking sensitive scientific soundings from the ice.

China has chosen the site for its fifth research station at Inexpressible Island, named by a group of British explorers who were stranded at the desolate site in 1912 and survived the winter by excavating a small ice cave.

Mr. Xia said the inhospitable spot was ideal because China did not have a presence in that part of Antarctica, and because the rocky site did not have much snow, making it relatively cheap to build there.

Anne-Marie Brady, a professor of political science at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand and the author of a soon-to-be-released book, “China as a Polar Great Power,” said Chinese scientists also believed they had a good chance of finding mineral and energy resources near the site.

“China is playing a long game in Antarctica and keeping other states guessing about its true intentions and interests are part of its poker hand,” she said. But she noted that China’s interest in finding minerals was presented “loud and clear to domestic audiences” as the main reason it was investing in Antarctica.

Because commercial drilling is banned, estimates of energy and mineral resources in Antarctica rely on remote sensing data and comparisons with similar geological environments elsewhere, said Millard F. Coffin, executive director of the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies in Hobart.

But the difficulty of extraction in such severe conditions and uncertainty about future commodity prices make it unlikely that China or any country would defy the ban on mining anytime soon.

Tourism, however, is already booming. Travelers from China are still a relatively small contingent in the Antarctic compared with the more than 13,000 Americans who visited in 2013, and as yet there are no licensed Chinese tour operators.

But that is about to change, said Anthony Bergin, deputy director of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute. “I understand very soon there will be Chinese tourists on Chinese vessels with all-Chinese crew in the Antarctic,” he said.

 

Top News China’s Intents Are Questioned as It Builds in Antarctica | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Don Mankiewicz, Screenwriter in a Family Film Tradition, Dies at 93

Mr. Mankiewicz, an Oscar-nominated screenwriter for “I Want to Live!,” also wrote episodes of television shows such as “Star Trek” and “Marcus Welby, M.D.”

Don Mankiewicz, Screenwriter in a Family Film Tradition, Dies at 93 | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Taiwan party leader affirms eventual reunion with China

BEIJING (AP) — The head of Taiwan's Nationalists reaffirmed the party's support for eventual unification with the mainland when he met Monday with Chinese President Xi Jinping as part of continuing rapprochement between the former bitter enemies.

Nationalist Party Chairman Eric Chu, a likely presidential candidate next year, also affirmed Taiwan's desire to join the proposed Chinese-led Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank during the meeting in Beijing. China claims Taiwan as its own territory and doesn't want the island to join using a name that might imply it is an independent country.

Chu's comments during his meeting with Xi were carried live on Hong Kong-based broadcaster Phoenix Television.

The Nationalists were driven to Taiwan by Mao Zedong's Communists during the Chinese civil war in 1949, leading to decades of hostility between the sides. Chu, who took over as party leader in January, is the third Nationalist chairman to visit the mainland and the first since 2009.

Relations between the communist-ruled mainland and the self-governing democratic island of Taiwan began to warm in the 1990s, partly out of their common opposition to Taiwan's formal independence from China, a position advocated by the island's Democratic Progressive Party.

Despite increasingly close economic ties, the prospect of political unification has grown increasingly unpopular on Taiwan, especially with younger voters. Opposition to the Nationalists' pro-China policies was seen as a driver behind heavy local electoral defeats for the party last year that led to Taiwanese President Ma Ying-jeou resigning as party chairman.

Taiwan party leader affirms eventual reunion with China | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Robert Patterson Jr., Lawyer and Judge Who Fought for the Accused, Dies at 91

Judge Patterson helped to protect the rights of Attica inmates after the prison riot in 1971 and later served on the Federal District Court in Manhattan.

Robert Patterson Jr., Lawyer and Judge Who Fought for the Accused, Dies at 91 | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

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biaya paket umrah akhir tahun di Lubang Buaya jakarta
harga paket umroh april di Halim Perdanakusuma jakarta