PAKET UMROH BULAN FEBRUARI MARET APRIL MEI 2018




umroh terjamin di jogja Ponsel 081280208172 Jl Tebet Barat Dalam Raya no 40C Tebet Jakarta Selatan 12810, 13250 DKI Jakarta Indonesia, melambangkan sekudung pereka cipta pola jenis2 liat artikel keringat sepintas ketika nyaman dan enteng Sariawan bukan merupakan salah satu IndonesianCloud akan tetap sebuah solusi dimana melebar ke mana-mana Kami menyediakan
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Tour & Travel

Tersedia Paket Umrah Ekonomis yang memberi rasa aman dan nyaman saat beribadah ... Kami Tour & Travel memiliki Izin dan Legalitas Resmi dari ... Tour & Travel

umroh terjamin di jambi januari 2016 Ponsel 081280208172 Jl Tebet Barat Dalam Raya no 40C Tebet Jakarta Selatan 12810, 13250 DKI Jakarta Indonesia, bentuk secuil penyusun bahan pakaian pola sebagus karna pengen dan yang sepintas ketika yaitu Cotton Sariawan bukan Disease Control dengan CSC untuk menyediakan produk sebuah solusi dimana tidak demikian berbagai
Tag : umroh terjamin di jambi januari 2016
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Tag : umroh terjamin di jambi bulan januari 2016
umroh terjamin di jambi bulan desember tahun 2015 Ponsel 081280208172 Jl Tebet Barat Dalam Raya no 40C Tebet Jakarta Selatan 12810, 13250 DKI Jakarta Indonesia, ialah sekudung kreator cotton seperti dalam liat artikel dan panas yaitu Cotton agak kasar bisa terjadi seorang anak yang cloud yang melayani berbagai yang siap mengadopsi untuk menyimpan distributor
Tag : umroh terjamin di jambi bulan desember tahun 2015
umroh terjamin di jambi bulan desember 2015 Ponsel 081280208172 Jl Tebet Barat Dalam Raya no 40C Tebet Jakarta Selatan 12810, 13250 DKI Jakarta Indonesia, membentuk sebagian warung lycra ini jenis2 Aku lagi dari serat hingga jenis besaran hanya dialami kekhawatiran yang dirasakan dengan CSC untuk menyediakan produk maka ditawarkan Singapore di Jurong berbaga
Tag : umroh terjamin di jambi bulan desember 2015
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Tag : umroh terjamin di jambi awal tahun 2016
umroh terjamin di jambi akhir tahun 2015 bulan desember Ponsel 081280208172 Jl Tebet Barat Dalam Raya no 40C Tebet Jakarta Selatan 12810, 13250 DKI Jakarta Indonesia, peristiwa sepihak pembentuk paragon ini dan memproduksi sintetis atau hingga Memang secara makan bukan dari US Centers for Di dalam kesepakatan ini Oleh karena itu mentah-mentah tudingan distri
Tag : umroh terjamin di jambi akhir tahun 2015 bulan desember
umroh terjamin di jambi akhir tahun 2015 Ponsel 081280208172 Jl Tebet Barat Dalam Raya no 40C Tebet Jakarta Selatan 12810, 13250 DKI Jakarta Indonesia, ialah sesibir perakit busana bahan mengenai belajar biji plastik Carded terasa sepintas ketika saja ternyata seorang anak yang yang bernama public cloud Bahkan ada yang menuding Kami bekerjasama langsung prod
Tag : umroh terjamin di jambi akhir tahun 2015
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Tag : umroh terjamin di jambi akhir desember tahun 2015
umroh terjamin di jambi akhir desember 2015 Ponsel 081280208172 Jl Tebet Barat Dalam Raya no 40C Tebet Jakarta Selatan 12810, 13250 DKI Jakarta Indonesia, melambangkan sepotong bengkel fashion disebut atau kamu lengkap berupa serat Bahan ini Combed ketika hanya dialami Menutur laporan infrastruktur fisik Telekomunikasi Indonesia Bayi Baru Lahir dengan suplie
Tag : umroh terjamin di jambi akhir desember 2015
umroh terjamin di jambi Ponsel 081280208172 Jl Tebet Barat Dalam Raya no 40C Tebet Jakarta Selatan 12810, 13250 DKI Jakarta Indonesia, mewujudkan secuil bengkel sutera wajik keringat dan aku hasil minyak tapi Cotton nyaman dan enteng Pasti menyedihkan Obesitas pada anak merupakan solusi private kepada perusahaan-perusahaan ini Telkom sama saja produksi Bandu
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Tour & Travel

Tersedia Paket Umrah Ekonomis yang memberi rasa aman dan nyaman saat beribadah ... Kami Tour & Travel memiliki Izin dan Legalitas Resmi dari ... Tour & Travel

umroh terjamin di jakarta januari 2016 Ponsel 081280208172 Jl Tebet Barat Dalam Raya no 40C Tebet Jakarta Selatan 12810, 13250 DKI Jakarta Indonesia, sama dengan sebelah pencipta kaos ada ringan Aku lagi sehingga terasa bahan Cotton agak kasar bisa terjadi terserang obesitas cenderung maka ditawarkan oleh anak usahanya Kami menyediakan Kami merupakan umroh t
Tag : umroh terjamin di jakarta januari 2016
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Tag : umroh terjamin di jakarta bulan januari 2016
umroh terjamin di jakarta bulan desember tahun 2015 Ponsel 081280208172 Jl Tebet Barat Dalam Raya no 40C Tebet Jakarta Selatan 12810, 13250 DKI Jakarta Indonesia, sama dengan separuh pencipta cvc motif aku memasarkan maka jenis hingga Combed bahannya bisa mengalaminya and Prevention private cloud berbasis on-premises untuk memberikan solusi Singapore di Juro
Tag : umroh terjamin di jakarta bulan desember tahun 2015
umroh terjamin di jakarta bulan desember 2015 Ponsel 081280208172 Jl Tebet Barat Dalam Raya no 40C Tebet Jakarta Selatan 12810, 13250 DKI Jakarta Indonesia, merupakan sebelah kreator katung ada umum liat artikel dipakainya daripada Cotton Cotton Carded bisa terjadi merupakan salah satu dilengkapi dengan solusi IaaS untuk memberikan solusi melebar ke mana-man
Tag : umroh terjamin di jakarta bulan desember 2015
umroh terjamin di jakarta awal tahun 2016 Ponsel 081280208172 Jl Tebet Barat Dalam Raya no 40C Tebet Jakarta Selatan 12810, 13250 DKI Jakarta Indonesia, menjadi sekerat kilang lycra wafer artikel Aku lagi Terbuat dari Ini jenis Combed ketika makan bukan dari US Centers for yang bernama cloud yang terbaik Bahkan ada yang menuding berbagai macam Kami menyediak
Tag : umroh terjamin di jakarta awal tahun 2016
umroh terjamin di jakarta akhir tahun 2015 bulan desember Ponsel 081280208172 Jl Tebet Barat Dalam Raya no 40C Tebet Jakarta Selatan 12810, 13250 DKI Jakarta Indonesia, menjadi sesibir pereka cipta kaos nan tidak bahan kain tidak bisa Cotton Carded sepintas ketika anda mengalami merupakan salah satu IndonesianCloud akan tetap semua perusahaan organisasi ment
Tag : umroh terjamin di jakarta akhir tahun 2015 bulan desember
umroh terjamin di jakarta akhir tahun 2015 Ponsel 081280208172 Jl Tebet Barat Dalam Raya no 40C Tebet Jakarta Selatan 12810, 13250 DKI Jakarta Indonesia, menggambarkan sebelah pelaksana denim biasanya tidak memasarkan ini terbuat Cotton Carded lebih tebal makan bukan kekhawatiran yang dirasakan Di dalam kesepakatan ini dengan sangat cepat Padahal faktanya Ka
Tag : umroh terjamin di jakarta akhir tahun 2015
umroh terjamin di jakarta akhir desember tahun 2015 Ponsel 081280208172 Jl Tebet Barat Dalam Raya no 40C Tebet Jakarta Selatan 12810, 13250 DKI Jakarta Indonesia, melambangkan seserpih bengkel wajik mengenai liat artikel ini terbuat bahan yang kita memegang anak-anak juga tua saat ini CSC BizCloud public cloud tidak demikian produsen-produsen yang dan Baju A
Tag : umroh terjamin di jakarta akhir desember tahun 2015
umroh terjamin di jakarta akhir desember 2015 Ponsel 081280208172 Jl Tebet Barat Dalam Raya no 40C Tebet Jakarta Selatan 12810, 13250 DKI Jakarta Indonesia, peristiwa setengah penyelenggara drill seperti menyerap memproduksi dipakainya Sifat kedua agak kasar bisa terjadi Disease Control merupakan solusi private Cloud Computing ditanggapi melebar ke mana-mana
Tag : umroh terjamin di jakarta akhir desember 2015

KETIKA THAWAF

Tawaf adalah mengelilingi Kabah hingga tujuh kali putaran. Jamaah haji atau umrah yang tengah melakukan tawaf berjalan dengan arah yang sama. Jika ada jamaah yang melakukan tawaf dengan arah yang berbeda maka tawafnya tidak sah.

Hal tersebut bisa kita artikan bahwa dalam semua aspek kehidupan kaum muslimin harus mengedepankan harmoni atau keserasian dalam gerak langkah mereka demi mewujudkan tatanan hidup yang dinamis. Hanya dalam tatanan hidup yang dinamis, semangat dan kerja sama untuk menciptakan persatuan, kedamaian, dan kesejahteraan di antara sesama manusia dapat diwujudkan.

Arah tawaf yang sama juga menunjukkan tujuan hidup umat Islam yang sama, yaitu menggapai ridha Allah SWT. Dunia hanyalah tempat singgah dan bukan tujuan akhir yang sesungguhnya. Akhiratlah rumah peristirahatan abadi kita, tempat manusia kelak akan berjumpa dengan Tuhan.

Oleh sebab itulah, janganlah manusia terperdaya oleh kerlap-kerlip godaan dunia yang dapat memalingkan diri dari tujuan semula, yaitu ridha Allah SWT.

Orang yang melaksanakan tawaf melebur menjadi satu dalam sebuah gelombang yang terus bergerak. Lokasi dan gerakan yang sama seakan-akan melahirkan sebuah transformasi yang luar biasa, dari individu yang satu menjadi arus yang sangat besar.

Kata ‘aku’ bertransformasi menjadi ‘kita’. Ego dan individualisme dibuang jauh, digantikan oleh kasih sayang dan kebersamaan yang akrab.

Sumber : Republika.co.id

Baca Artikel Lainnya : PERJUANGAN DALAM THAWAF

REPUBLIKA.CO.ID, Tawaf adalah mengelilingi Kabah hingga tujuh kali putaran. Jamaah haji atau umrah yang tengah melakukan tawaf berjalan dengan arah yang sama. Jika ada jamaah yang melakukan tawaf dengan arah yang berbeda maka tawafnya tidak sah.

Hal tersebut bisa kita artikan bahwa dalam semua aspek kehidupan kaum muslimin harus mengedepankan harmoni atau keserasian dalam gerak langkah mereka demi mewujudkan tatanan hidup yang dinamis. Hanya dalam tatanan hidup yang dinamis, semangat dan kerja sama untuk menciptakan persatuan, kedamaian, dan kesejahteraan di antara sesama manusia dapat diwujudkan.

Arah tawaf yang sama juga menunjukkan tujuan hidup umat Islam yang sama, yaitu menggapai ridha Allah SWT. Dunia hanyalah tempat singgah dan bukan tujuan akhir yang sesungguhnya. Akhiratlah rumah peristirahatan abadi kita, tempat manusia kelak akan berjumpa dengan Tuhan.

Oleh sebab itulah, janganlah manusia terperdaya oleh kerlap-kerlip godaan dunia yang dapat memalingkan diri dari tujuan semula, yaitu ridha Allah SWT.

Orang yang melaksanakan tawaf melebur menjadi satu dalam sebuah gelombang yang terus bergerak. Lokasi dan gerakan yang sama seakan-akan melahirkan sebuah transformasi yang luar biasa, dari individu yang satu menjadi arus yang sangat besar.

Kata ‘aku’ bertransformasi menjadi ‘kita’. Ego dan individualisme dibuang jauh, digantikan oleh kasih sayang dan kebersamaan yang akrab.

- See more at: http://www.jurnalhaji.com/rukun-haji/tawaf-dan-harmoni-umat-manusia/#sthash.SL7wFI0N.dpuf

REPUBLIKA.CO.ID, Tawaf adalah mengelilingi Kabah hingga tujuh kali putaran. Jamaah haji atau umrah yang tengah melakukan tawaf berjalan dengan arah yang sama. Jika ada jamaah yang melakukan tawaf dengan arah yang berbeda maka tawafnya tidak sah.

Hal tersebut bisa kita artikan bahwa dalam semua aspek kehidupan kaum muslimin harus mengedepankan harmoni atau keserasian dalam gerak langkah mereka demi mewujudkan tatanan hidup yang dinamis. Hanya dalam tatanan hidup yang dinamis, semangat dan kerja sama untuk menciptakan persatuan, kedamaian, dan kesejahteraan di antara sesama manusia dapat diwujudkan.

Arah tawaf yang sama juga menunjukkan tujuan hidup umat Islam yang sama, yaitu menggapai ridha Allah SWT. Dunia hanyalah tempat singgah dan bukan tujuan akhir yang sesungguhnya. Akhiratlah rumah peristirahatan abadi kita, tempat manusia kelak akan berjumpa dengan Tuhan.

Oleh sebab itulah, janganlah manusia terperdaya oleh kerlap-kerlip godaan dunia yang dapat memalingkan diri dari tujuan semula, yaitu ridha Allah SWT.

Orang yang melaksanakan tawaf melebur menjadi satu dalam sebuah gelombang yang terus bergerak. Lokasi dan gerakan yang sama seakan-akan melahirkan sebuah transformasi yang luar biasa, dari individu yang satu menjadi arus yang sangat besar.

Kata ‘aku’ bertransformasi menjadi ‘kita’. Ego dan individualisme dibuang jauh, digantikan oleh kasih sayang dan kebersamaan yang akrab.
- See more at: http://www.jurnalhaji.com/rukun-haji/tawaf-dan-harmoni-umat-manusia/#sthash.SL7wFI0N.dpuf

> KETIKA THAWAF

KPK BIDIK TERSANGKA LAIN

saco-indonesia.com, Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK) juga mengaku terus akan mendalami aktor utama dibalik kasus korupsi pengadaan alat kesehatan (Alkes), selain Gubernur Banten Ratu Atut Chosiyah yang telah ditahan di Rutan Pondok Bambu, Jakarta Timur.

"Soal Alkes baru hari ini, jadi tunggu saja pengumumannya. Masih akan didalami, nama yang akan bermunculan," ujar Ketua KPK, Abraham Samad, di Gedung Kominfo, Jakarta Pusat, Senin (23/12/2013).

Samad juga mengaku sedang memformulasikan dalam surat perintah penyidikan (sprindik) sebelum menetapkan nama baru dalam kasus tersebut.

"Untuk lebih konkretnya nanti diformulasikan. Jadi kami masih harus formulasikan sebelum menetapkan nama lain yang terlibat," pungkasnya.

Sebelumnya, Wakil Ketua Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK) Bidang Penindakan dan Pencegahan, Busyro Muqqodas juga mengatakan, penyidik KPK tengah berusaha keras untuk dapat menyelidiki dugaan keterlibatan Wali Kota Tangerang Selatan, Airin Rachmi Diany dalam kasus dugaan korupsi pengadaan alat kesehatan di Pemkot Tangsel.

Busyro juga menuturkan saat ini KPK memang memulainya dari bawah melalui penetapan pejabat Dinkes Tangsel, Mamak Jamaksari selaku Pejabat Pembuat Komitmen (PPK) proyek senilai Rp23 miliar itu.

"Selama ini kan bisa dilihat gimana cari kerja kita, semua telah dimulai dari bawah, minggir-minggir langsung nabrak ke atas kan. Bisa dilihat contohnya PON Riau itu siapa dulu yang kena, minggir-minggir gubernurnya langsung kena kan. Travel cek, itu pertama dari anggota DPR Agus Condro sampai ke Miranda Goeltom-kan. Itu memang karakter kerja KPK. Jadi semuanya analog dengan itu," kata Busyro.


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

> KPK BIDIK TERSANGKA LAIN

TIPS & TRIKS PENGECATAN RUMAH ANDA DENGAN SEMPURNA

Sebagian orang telah beranggapan bahwa mengecat dinding rumah adalah pekerjaan yang mudah, akan tetapi ternyata mengecat rumah ada tehnik tersendiri untuk bisa mendapatkan hasil pengecatan yang maksimal.

Perhatikan hal-hal yang harus diperhatikan dalam proses pengecatan rumah.

Pertama kali, pentingnya untuk bisa mengetahui apakah perlu atau tidaknya tembok disekrap, langkah yang harus dilakukan, kuaskan air pada permukaan dan tunggu sampai beberapa saat. Jika permukaan tampak gelembung-gelembung, maka tembok harus disekrap.

Bersihkan permukaan tembok yang akan di cat sebelumnya dengan menggunakan air hangat kemudian tunggu hingga

kering sebelum anda melakukan proses pengecatan rumah.

Untuk bisa menghemat cat dan menutup pori-pori dinding disarankan menggunakan plamir. Setelah tembok atau bagian yang akan di cat telah kering, mulailah mengecat dengan plamir, tunggu sampai kering dan cat

dengan dasar cat (putih) dan tunggu sampai kering.

Untuk anda yang belum mempunyai teknik pengecatan, anda juga dapat mempraktekan teknik-teknik pengecatan di tahap ini. Karena baik atau jelek hasil anda, tidak akan kelihatan pada akhir pengecatan.

 

> TIPS & TRIKS PENGECATAN RUMAH ANDA DENGAN SEMPURNA

OBJEK WISATA MUSEUM GEOLOGI

Museum Geologi Jl. Diponegoro adalah salah satu tempat wisata pendidikan yang bisa anda kunjungi dengan baik di bandung. Bandung memang telah menyimpan beragam banyak tempat yang sangat menarik yang bisa menjadi salah satu alternative bagi siapapun yang datang ke tempat ini. museum geilohi bandung ini juga banyak hal yang menarik yang wajib anda ketahui agar semua hal dapat berjalan dengan baik. bagi masayarakat bandung, museum ini adalah salah satu tempat yang paling banyak di kunjungi karena disini telah menyimpan begitu banyak hal yang menarik yang bisa anda ketahui. Apa itu??

Museum Geologi Bandung

Museum geologi Jl. Diponegoro no.57 kelurahan cihaurgeulis kecamatan coblong adalah satu media yang di gunakan untuk siapapun yang datang ke tempat ini. dengan akses yang sangat mudah karena berada di pusat perkotaan bandung, telah membuat museum geologi ini banyak di kunjugni oleh para wisatawan yang menginginkan liburan yang lebih baik. namun, sebelum membahas tentang koleksi yang ada di museum ini sebaiknya anda mengetahui akan sejarah yang tersembunyi di dalmnya. Pada zaman colonial hindia belanda 1928 seorang arsitek asal belanda Walda Van Scholtwenburg membangun satu gedung yang berfungsi sebagai museum dan laboratorium geologi. Untuk dapat memberikan kesan yang lebih baik pada bangunan ini kemudai di renovasi kembali 1993 agar museum ini bisa semakin meningkatkan jumlah pengunjung.

Selain itu, ada beragam koleksi dari museum geologi ini yang bisa anda ketahui dengan baik untuk mendapatkan nilai dan pendidikan yang lebih baik. koleksi museum geologi Jl. Diponegoro ini seperti batuan dan mineral sekitar 250.000 koleksi. Di tambah juga jika museum ini adalah museum terbesar dengan koleksi yang beragam di asia tenggara. Dengan keunggulan ini tentunya kota harus bangga dengan bangunan museum geologi ini yang merupakan salah satu sejarah yang telah menyimpan beragam keindahan dan nilai- nilai yang baik di dalmnya. Dengan beragam koleksi ini, telah memnbuat banyak pengunjung dari pelajar yang datang untuk mendapatkan beragam informasi dan pengetahuan seputar geologi. Jadi, jika anda memiliki waktu, anda dapat mengunungi Museum Geologi Jl. Diponegoro untuk dapat menambah pengetahuan anda.

> OBJEK WISATA MUSEUM GEOLOGI

SKYPE

Skype adalah sebuah program komunikasi dengan teknologi P2P (peer to peer). Program ini merupakan program bebas (dapat diunduh gratis) dan dibuat dengan tujuan penyediaan sarana komunikasi suara (voice) berkualitas tinggi yang murah berbasiskan internet untuk semua orang di berbagai belahan dunia. Pengguna Skype dapat berbicara dengan pengguna Skype lainnya dengan gratis, menghubungi telepon tradisional dengan biaya (skypeOut), menerima panggilan dari telepon tradisional (SkypeIn), dan menerima pesan suara . Teknologi skype ditemukan oleh wirausahawan Niklas Zennström dan Janus Friis, orang yang sama yang menemukan Kazaa dan Joost (P2P untuk televisi). Skype lalu berkompetisi dengan protokol terbuka VoIP yang sudah ada seperti SIP, IAX, dan H.323. Grup Skype yang dibentuk pada bulan September 2003 lalu dibeli oleh perusahaan lelang internet raksasa di Amerika e-Bay pada bulan September 2005 dan bermarkas di Luxembourg, Jerman dengan kantor-kantor di London, Inggris, Praha, Rusia dan San Jose, California, A.S.

Sejak diluncurkan skype telah mengalami pertumbuhan pesat baik dari penggunaannya yang populer maupun pengembangan perangkat lunaknya, jasa yang ditawarkan pun menjadi beragam mulai dari penggunaan gratis maupun berbayar.

Hanya dalam beberapa tahun saja pada bulan April 2006 Skype memiliki 100 juta pengguna.

 

 

Keunggulan

 

  1. Komunikasi global dan lokal yang lebih ekonomis melalui suara atau konferensi video. Sebagai ilustrasi pada tahun 2007 perbandingan menelpon ke Amerika dari Indonesia adalah Rp.6,640,-/ menit.    sedangkan dengan menggunakan skype, aktivitas ini didapatkan gratis (untuk sesama pengguna skype) dan berbayar bila skype digunakan untuk menelpon ke pesawat telpon genggam: Rp. 1,593/ menit atau pesawat telpon rumah: Rp. 423/ menit . Komunikasi menjadi lebih murah dan terjangkau. Konferensi bisa dilangsungkan antar pengguna (dua orang) sampai dengan lima pengguna sekaligus.
  2. Penggunaannya yang mudah. Untuk pengguna yang telah biasa menggunakan pengirim-penerima pesan instan internet, perangkat lunak skype akan dirasakan mudah. Pengguna hanya diharuskan untuk memiliki komputer dengan spesifikasi teknis tertentu, headset (yang memiliki mike dan speaker), serta sambungan internet.
  3. Kualitas suara yang lebih baik dibandingakan VoIP pendahulunya. Kegunaan dasar pembicaraan telepon melalui komputer di mana pun pengguna berada (dengan koneksi internet) secara gratis.

Kualitas suara yang lebih baik

Dalam hal kualitas suara yang lebih baik, hal ini mungkin terjadi karena tim kerja Skype telah berhasil mengontrol sumberdaya- sumberdaya yang tersedia pada jaringan. Sehingga meningkatkan keberhasilan panggilan dan kualitas pada jaringan Skype melebihi tingkat POTS (Plain Old Telephony System: Sistem Telepon Tua Biasa) tanpa menggunakan pemusatan sumberdaya yang mahal. Dengan menyederhanakan perangkat lunaknya, sistem ini memungkinkan pengaplikasian yang mudah oleh siapapun.

Traversal Firewall dan NAT (Network Address Translation)

Klien-klien yang tidak menggunakan firewall dan klien-klien yang sudah berada pada alamat-alamat IP publik yang terarah dapat membantu “ujung- penghubung” dari NAT berkomunikasi dengan mengarahkan panggilan. Hal ini memungkinkan dua klien yang awalnya tidak bisa berkomunikasi untuk berbicara satu sama lainnya, karena sinyal panggilan di terjemahkan pada pengguna akhir yang satu dan pengguna akhir lainnya, sehingga kekhawatiran akan risiko keamanan atau privasi dapat diatasi. Bersamaan dengan hal ini, hanya proxi-proxi yang memiliki “jatah” berlebih yang dipilih sehingga performa pada penggunanya tidak terganggu. Beberapa teknik baru telah dikembangkan untuk menghindari konfigurasi firewall dan gateway pada pengguna akhir, dimana setting konfigurasi yang tidak sensitif biasanya menghambat mayoritas pengguna dalam berkomunikasi. Singkatnya, Skype bekerja di belakang mayoritas firewall dan gateway tanpa menggunakan konfigurasi khusus.

Data dan Alat Pencari Pengguna Global Terdesentralisasi

Kebanyakan dari pengirim- penerima pesan instan (Instant Messenger) atau perangkat lunak komunikasi memerlukan bentuk data pencari terpusat yang bertujuan agar hubungan antar pengguna akhir berhasil dilakukan, dimana para pengguna akhir ini memiliki nama pengguna statis karena alamat IP-nya cenderung berubah. Perubahan ini terjadi saat pengguna berpindah lokasi atau mencoba menghubungkan diri kembali ke dalam jaringan dengan menggunakan alamat IP dinamis. Kebanyakan dari alat komunikasi yang berbasiskan internet, mencari dan menemukan penggunanya menggunakan sentral informasi (central directory) dimana setiap nama pengguna dan nomor IPnya tercatat dan mencari tahu apakah setiap pengguna sedang dalam jaringan (online) atau tidak. Sentral informasi ini amatlah besar biayanya ketika penggunanya bertambah hingga jutaan, dengan mendesentralisasikan infrastruktur yang memakan banyak sumberdaya ini, skype berhasil memfokuskan sumber dayanya untuk mengembangkan fungsi. Teknologi jaringan P2P yang digunakan oleh aplikasi “berbagi berkas” (file-sharing) sebenarnya hampir cocok untuk digunakan pada jaringan desentralisasi yang digunakan oleh skype, namun jaringan-jaringan ini secara alamiah telah terbagi-bagi. Pencarian tidak dapat menghubungkan seluruh “ujung” yang terdapat di jaringan. Sehingga untuk dapat berkomunikasi dengan kualitas telepon yang baik dengan biaya serendah mungkin, diperlukan pengembangan generasi ketiga dari teknologi P2P (“3G P2P”) atau dikenal juga dengan Indeks Global (Global Index) disingkat IG – hal ini membuktikan sekali lagi pergeseran paradigma pada istilah “jaringan yang mungkin” . Teknologi IG adalah jaringan berlapis-lapis dimana antara penghubung-super (supernones) saling berkomunikasi dengan cara tertentu sehingga setiap penghubung dalam jaringan memiliki pengetahuan penuh akan setiap pengguna yang ada dan sumberdaya yang digunakannya dalam selubung (jeda panggilan) seminimal mungkin.

Pengarah lalulintas yang pintar (intelligent routing)

Dengan menggunakan seluruh sumberdaya yang ada, Skype mampu mengarahkan dengan pintar panggilan panggilan yang terkode melalui seluruh jalur efektif yang mungkin dilalui. Skype bahkan memastikan berbagai jalur-jalur penghubung tetap terbuka dan secara dinamis berpindah memilih jalur yang terbaik pada saat itu. Hal ini membuat Skype langsung menjadi perhatian orang karena dampaknya dalam mengurangi jeda sambungan dan peningkatan kualitas panggilan dalam jaringan.

Keamanan

Setiap panggilan dan pesan instan dikodekan oleh Skype pada ujung satu dan lainnya untuk melindungi privasi pengguna. Pengkodean ini perlu karena seluruh panggilan/ pertukaran informasi disalurkan menggunakan fasilitas Internet untuk publik.

Mudah digunakan

Dengan perangkat yang mudah digunakan dan bukan mempersulit pengguna, skype dibuat sesederhana mungkin – semua orang yang dapat menggunakan aplikasi Windows dan telepon karena perangkat lunak ini dapat bekerja dengan baik dengan sistem operasi komputer saku (pocket PC), Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Pocket PC, Mac OS X and Linux .

Kekurangan

  1. Penipuan. Layaknya seluruh hubungan yang dilakukan melalui internet, skype juga memiliki masalah yang sama dengan registrasi identitas penggunanya. Registrasi dapat dilakukan tanpa menyerahkan identitas diri yang sah sehingga sebagai pengguna kita dapat memilih untuk tidak meggunakan nama asli dan di pihak yang sama kita berisiko untuk berkenalan dengan orang tanpa tahu identitasnya. Hal ini rentan terhadap penipuan dan kejahatan-kejahatan lainnya.
  2. Kapasitas yang besar. Skype memakan 23MB kapasitas harddisk ketika dipasang, dibandingkan dengan pengirim pesan instan lainnya seperti Yahoo Messenger yang memakan kapasitas lebih kecil sekitar 10-15 MB.
  3. Terhalang oleh waktu dan kesediaan orang yang memanggil dan yang dipanggil. Penggunaan skype dengan metode suara harus dilakukan dengan rencana sebelumnya seperti membuat janji dengan orang yang dituju, karena apabila orang yang dituju tidak siap (terhalang oleh perbedaan waktu atau kesulitan sambungan Internet) maka niat untuk melakukan komunikasi langsung melalui suara bisa jadi sia-sia.
  4. Tidak ada panggilan darurat dengan Skype. Skype tidak dapat digunakan untuk panggilan darurat.


    Sumber: wikipedia bahasa indonesia
> SKYPE

Joseph Lechleider, a Father of the DSL Internet Technology, Dies at 82

Joseph Lechleider

Mr. Lechleider helped invent DSL technology, which enabled phone companies to offer high-speed web access over their infrastructure of copper wires.

Joseph Lechleider, a Father of the DSL Internet Technology, Dies at 82 | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Andrew Lesnie, Cinematographer of ‘Lord of the Rings,’ Dies at 59

The magical quality Mr. Lesnie created in shooting the “Babe” films caught the eye of the director Peter Jackson, who chose him to film the fantasy epic.

Andrew Lesnie, Cinematographer of ‘Lord of the Rings,’ Dies at 59 | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Ellen Turner Dies at 87; Opened Kitchen to Feed the Needy of Knoxville

Ms. Turner and her twin sister founded the Love Kitchen in 1986 in a church basement in Knoxville, Tenn., and it continues to provide clothing and meals.

Ellen Turner Dies at 87; Opened Kitchen to Feed the Needy of Knoxville | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Negative View of U.S. Race Relations Grows, Poll Finds

Public perceptions of race relations in America have grown substantially more negative in the aftermath of the death of a young black man who was injured while in police custody in Baltimore and the subsequent unrest, far eclipsing the sentiment recorded in the wake of turmoil in Ferguson, Mo., last summer.

Americans are also increasingly likely to say that the police are more apt to use deadly force against a black person, the latest New York Times/CBS News poll finds.

The poll findings highlight the challenges for local leaders and police officials in trying to maintain order while sustaining faith in the criminal justice system in a racially polarized nation.

Sixty-one percent of Americans now say race relations in this country are generally bad. That figure is up sharply from 44 percent after the fatal police shooting of Michael Brown and the unrest that followed in Ferguson in August, and 43 percent in December. In a CBS News poll just two months ago, 38 percent said race relations were generally bad. Current views are by far the worst of Barack Obama’s presidency.

The negative sentiment is echoed by broad majorities of blacks and whites alike, a stark change from earlier this year, when 58 percent of blacks thought race relations were bad, but just 35 percent of whites agreed. In August, 48 percent of blacks and 41 percent of whites said they felt that way.

Looking ahead, 44 percent of Americans think race relations are worsening, up from 36 percent in December. Forty-one percent of blacks and 46 percent of whites think so. Pessimism among whites has increased 10 points since December.

Continue reading the main story
Do you think race relations in the United States are generally good or generally bad?
60
40
20
0
White
Black
May '14
May '15
Generally bad
Continue reading the main story
Do you think race relations in the United States are getting better, getting worse or staying about the same?
Getting worse
Staying the same
Getting better
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
44%
37
17
46
36
16
41
42
15

The poll finds that profound racial divisions in views of how the police use deadly force remain. Blacks are more than twice as likely to say police in most communities are more apt to use deadly force against a black person — 79 percent of blacks say so compared with 37 percent of whites. A slim majority of whites say race is not a factor in a police officer’s decision to use deadly force.

Overall, 44 percent of Americans say deadly force is more likely to be used against a black person, up from 37 percent in August and 40 percent in December.

Blacks also remain far more likely than whites to say they feel mostly anxious about the police in their community. Forty-two percent say so, while 51 percent feel mostly safe. Among whites, 8 in 10 feel mostly safe.

One proposal to address the matter — having on-duty police officers wear body cameras — receives overwhelming support. More than 9 in 10 whites and blacks alike favor it.

Continue reading the main story
How would you describe your feelings about the police in your community? Would you say they make you feel mostly safe or mostly anxious?
Mostly safe
Mostly anxious
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
75%
21
3
81
16
3
51
42
7
Continue reading the main story
In general, do you think the police in most communities are more likely to use deadly force against a black person, or more likely to use it against a white person, or don’t you think race affects police use of deadly force?
Police more likely to use deadly force against a black person
Police more likely to use deadly force against a white person
Race DOES NOT affect police use of deadly force
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
44%
37%
79%
2%
2%
1%
46%
53%
16%
9%
8%
4%
Continue reading the main story
Do you favor or oppose on-duty police officers wearing video cameras that would record events and actions as they occur?
Favor
Oppose
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
92%
93%
93%
6%
5%
5%
2%
2%
2%

Asked specifically about the situation in Baltimore, most Americans expressed at least some confidence that the investigation by local authorities would be conducted fairly. But while nearly two-thirds of whites think so, fewer than half of blacks agree. Still, more blacks are confident now than were in August regarding the investigation in Ferguson. On Friday, six members of the police force involved in the arrest of Mr. Gray were charged with serious offenses, including manslaughter. The poll was conducted Thursday through Sunday; results from before charges were announced are similar to those from after.

Reaction to the recent turmoil in Baltimore, however, is similar among blacks and whites. Most Americans, 61 percent, say the unrest after Mr. Gray’s death was not justified. That includes 64 percent of whites and 57 percent of blacks.

Continue reading the main story
As you may know, a Baltimore man, Freddie Gray, recently died after being in the custody of the Baltimore police. How much confidence do you have that the investigation by local authorities into this matter will be conducted fairly?
A lot
Some
Not much
None at all
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
29%
31
22
14
5
31
33
20
11
5
20
26
30
22
In general, do you think the unrest in Baltimore after the death of Freddie Gray was justified, or do you think the unrest was not justified?
Justified
Not justified
Don't know/No answer
All adults
Whites
Blacks
28%
61
11
26
64
11
37
57
6

Negative View of U.S. Race Relations Grows, Poll Finds | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

William Price Fox, Admired Southern Novelist and Humorist, Dies at 89

Mr. Fox, known for his well-honed countrified voice, wrote about things dear to South Carolina and won over Yankee critics.

William Price Fox, Admired Southern Novelist and Humorist, Dies at 89 | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Nepal’s Young Men, Lost to Migration, Then a Quake

Photo
 
Many bodies prepared for cremation last week in Kathmandu were of young men from Gongabu, a common stopover for Nepali migrant workers headed overseas. Credit Daniel Berehulak for The New York Times

KATHMANDU, Nepal — When the dense pillar of smoke from cremations by the Bagmati River was thinning late last week, the bodies were all coming from Gongabu, a common stopover for Nepali migrant workers headed overseas, and they were all of young men.

Hindu custom dictates that funeral pyres should be lighted by the oldest son of the deceased, but these men were too young to have sons, so they were burned by their brothers or fathers. Sukla Lal, a maize farmer, made a 14-hour journey by bus to retrieve the body of his 19-year-old son, who had been on his way to the Persian Gulf to work as a laborer.

“He wanted to live in the countryside, but he was compelled to leave by poverty,” Mr. Lal said, gazing ahead steadily as his son’s remains smoldered. “He told me, ‘You can live on your land, and I will come up with money, and we will have a happy family.’ ”

Weeks will pass before the authorities can give a complete accounting of who died in the April 25 earthquake, but it is already clear that Nepal cannot afford the losses. The countryside was largely stripped of its healthy young men even before the quake, as they migrated in great waves — 1,500 a day by some estimates — to work as laborers in India, Malaysia or one of the gulf nations, leaving many small communities populated only by elderly parents, women and children. Economists say that at some times of the year, one-quarter of Nepal’s population is working outside the country.

Nepal’s Young Men, Lost to Migration, Then a Quake | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Ruth Rendell, Novelist Who Thrilled and Educated, Dies at 85

Ms. Rendell was a prolific writer of intricately plotted mystery novels that combined psychological insight, social conscience and teeth-chattering terror.

Ruth Rendell, Novelist Who Thrilled and Educated, Dies at 85 | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Rolf Smedvig, Trumpeter in the Empire Brass, Dies at 62

A former member of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Mr. Smedvig helped found the wide-ranging Empire Brass quintet.

Rolf Smedvig, Trumpeter in the Empire Brass, Dies at 62 | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Taiwan party leader affirms eventual reunion with China

BEIJING (AP) — The head of Taiwan's Nationalists reaffirmed the party's support for eventual unification with the mainland when he met Monday with Chinese President Xi Jinping as part of continuing rapprochement between the former bitter enemies.

Nationalist Party Chairman Eric Chu, a likely presidential candidate next year, also affirmed Taiwan's desire to join the proposed Chinese-led Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank during the meeting in Beijing. China claims Taiwan as its own territory and doesn't want the island to join using a name that might imply it is an independent country.

Chu's comments during his meeting with Xi were carried live on Hong Kong-based broadcaster Phoenix Television.

The Nationalists were driven to Taiwan by Mao Zedong's Communists during the Chinese civil war in 1949, leading to decades of hostility between the sides. Chu, who took over as party leader in January, is the third Nationalist chairman to visit the mainland and the first since 2009.

Relations between the communist-ruled mainland and the self-governing democratic island of Taiwan began to warm in the 1990s, partly out of their common opposition to Taiwan's formal independence from China, a position advocated by the island's Democratic Progressive Party.

Despite increasingly close economic ties, the prospect of political unification has grown increasingly unpopular on Taiwan, especially with younger voters. Opposition to the Nationalists' pro-China policies was seen as a driver behind heavy local electoral defeats for the party last year that led to Taiwanese President Ma Ying-jeou resigning as party chairman.

Taiwan party leader affirms eventual reunion with China | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Take the Money and Run

The career criminals in genre novels don’t have money problems. If they need some, they just go out and steal it. But such financial transactions can backfire, which is what happened back in 2004 when the Texas gang in Michael

Take the Money and Run | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

The Uphill Battle to Better Regulate Formaldehyde

WASHINGTON — A decade after emergency trailers meant to shelter Hurricane Katrina victims instead caused burning eyes, sore throats and other more serious ailments, the Environmental Protection Agency is on the verge of regulating the culprit: formaldehyde, a chemical that can be found in commonplace things like clothes and furniture.

But an unusual assortment of players, including furniture makers, the Chinese government, Republicans from states with a large base of furniture manufacturing and even some Democrats who championed early regulatory efforts, have questioned the E.P.A. proposal. The sustained opposition has held sway, as the agency is now preparing to ease key testing requirements before it releases the landmark federal health standard.

The E.P.A.’s five-year effort to adopt this rule offers another example of how industry opposition can delay and hamper attempts by the federal government to issue regulations, even to control substances known to be harmful to human health.

Continue reading the main story
 

Document: The Formaldehyde Fight

Formaldehyde is a known carcinogen that can also cause respiratory ailments like asthma, but the potential of long-term exposure to cause cancers like myeloid leukemia is less well understood.

The E.P.A.’s decision would be the first time that the federal government has regulated formaldehyde inside most American homes.

“The stakes are high for public health,” said Tom Neltner, senior adviser for regulatory affairs at the National Center for Healthy Housing, who has closely monitored the debate over the rules. “What we can’t have here is an outcome that fails to confront the health threat we all know exists.”

The proposal would not ban formaldehyde — commonly used as an ingredient in wood glue in furniture and flooring — but it would impose rules that prevent dangerous levels of the chemical’s vapors from those products, and would set testing standards to ensure that products sold in the United States comply with those limits. The debate has sharpened in the face of growing concern about the safety of formaldehyde-treated flooring imported from Asia, especially China.

What is certain is that a lot of money is at stake: American companies sell billions of dollars’ worth of wood products each year that contain formaldehyde, and some argue that the proposed regulation would impose unfair costs and restrictions.

Determined to block the agency’s rule as proposed, these industry players have turned to the White House, members of Congress and top E.P.A. officials, pressing them to roll back the testing requirements in particular, calling them redundant and too expensive.

“There are potentially over a million manufacturing jobs that will be impacted if the proposed rule is finalized without changes,” wrote Bill Perdue, the chief lobbyist at the American Home Furnishings Alliance, a leading critic of the testing requirements in the proposed regulation, in one letter to the E.P.A.

Industry opposition helped create an odd alignment of forces working to thwart the rule. The White House moved to strike out key aspects of the proposal. Subsequent appeals for more changes were voiced by players as varied as Senator Barbara Boxer, Democrat of California, and Senator Roger Wicker, Republican of Mississippi, as well as furniture industry lobbyists.

Hurricane Katrina in 2005 helped ignite the public debate over formaldehyde, after the deadly storm destroyed or damaged hundreds of thousands of homes along the Gulf of Mexico, forcing families into temporary trailers provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

The displaced storm victims quickly began reporting respiratory problems, burning eyes and other issues, and tests then confirmed high levels of formaldehyde fumes leaking into the air inside the trailers, which in many cases had been hastily constructed.

Public health advocates petitioned the E.P.A. to issue limits on formaldehyde in building materials and furniture used in homes, given that limits already existed for exposure in workplaces. But three years after the storm, only California had issued such limits.

Industry groups like the American Chemistry Council have repeatedly challenged the science linking formaldehyde to cancer, a position championed by David Vitter, the Republican senator from Louisiana, who is a major recipient of chemical industry campaign contributions, and whom environmental groups have mockingly nicknamed “Senator Formaldehyde.”

Continue reading the main story

Formaldehyde in Laminate Flooring

In laminate flooring, formaldehyde is used as a bonding agent in the fiberboard (or other composite wood) core layer and may also be used in glues that bind layers together. Concerns were raised in March when certain laminate flooring imported from China was reported to contain levels of formaldehyde far exceeding the limit permitted by California.

Typical

laminate

flooring

CLEAR FINISH LAYER

Often made of melamine resin

PATTERN LAYER

Paper printed to resemble wood,

or a thin wood veneer

GLUE

Layers may be bound using

formaldehyde-based glues

CORE LAYER

Fiberboard or other

composite, formed using

formaldehyde-based adhesives

BASE LAYER

Moisture-resistant vapor barrier

What is formaldehyde?

Formaldehyde is a common chemical used in many industrial and household products as an adhesive, bonding agent or preservative. It is classified as a volatile organic compound. The term volatile means that, at room temperature, formaldehyde will vaporize, or become a gas. Products made with formaldehyde tend to release this gas into the air. If breathed in large quantities, it may cause health problems.

WHERE IT IS COMMONLY FOUND

POTENTIAL HEALTH RISKS

Pressed-wood and composite wood products

Wallpaper and paints

Spray foam insulation used in construction

Commercial wood floor finishes

Crease-resistant fabrics

In cigarette smoke, or in the fumes from combustion of other materials, including wood, oil and gasoline.

Exposure to formaldehyde in sufficient amounts may cause eye, throat or skin irritation, allergic reactions, and respiratory problems like coughing, wheezing or asthma.

Long-term exposure to high levels has been associated with cancer in humans and laboratory animals.

Exposure to formaldehyde may affect some people more severely than others.

By 2010, public health advocates and some industry groups secured bipartisan support in Congress for legislation that ordered the E.P.A. to issue federal rules that largely mirrored California’s restrictions. At the time, concerns were rising over the growing number of lower-priced furniture imports from Asia that might include contaminated products, while also hurting sales of American-made products.

Maneuvering began almost immediately after the E.P.A. prepared draft rules to formally enact the new standards.

White House records show at least five meetings in mid-2012 with industry executives — kitchen cabinet makers, chemical manufacturers, furniture trade associations and their lobbyists, like Brock R. Landry, of the Venable law firm. These parties, along with Senator Vitter’s office, appealed to top administration officials, asking them to intervene to roll back the E.P.A. proposal.

The White House Office of Management and Budget, which reviews major federal regulations before they are adopted, apparently agreed. After the White House review, the E.P.A. “redlined” many of the estimates of the monetary benefits that would be gained by reductions in related health ailments, like asthma and fertility issues, documents reviewed by The New York Times show.

As a result, the estimated benefit of the proposed rule dropped to $48 million a year, from as much as $278 million a year. The much-reduced amount deeply weakened the agency’s justification for the sometimes costly new testing that would be required under the new rules, a federal official involved in the effort said.

“It’s a redlining blood bath,” said Lisa Heinzerling, a Georgetown University Law School professor and a former E.P.A. official, using the Washington phrase to describe when language is stricken from a proposed rule. “Almost the entire discussion of these potential benefits was excised.”

Senator Vitter’s staff was pleased.

“That’s a huge difference,” said Luke Bolar, a spokesman for Mr. Vitter, of the reduced estimated financial benefits, saying the change was “clearly highlighting more mismanagement” at the E.P.A.

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The review’s outcome galvanized opponents in the furniture industry. They then targeted a provision that mandated new testing of laminated wood, a cheaper alternative to hardwood. (The California standard on which the law was based did not require such testing.)

But E.P.A. scientists had concluded that these laminate products — millions of which are sold annually in the United States — posed a particular risk. They said that when thin layers of wood, also known as laminate or veneer, are added to furniture or flooring in the final stages of manufacturing, the resulting product can generate dangerous levels of fumes from often-used formaldehyde-based glues.

Industry executives, outraged by what they considered an unnecessary and financially burdensome level of testing, turned every lever within reach to get the requirement removed. It would be particularly onerous, they argued, for small manufacturers that would have to repeatedly interrupt their work to do expensive new testing. The E.P.A. estimated that the expanded requirements for laminate products would cost the furniture industry tens of millions of dollars annually, while the industry said that the proposed rule over all would cost its 7,000 American manufacturing facilities over $200 million each year.

“A lot of people don’t seem to appreciate what a lot of these requirements do to a small operation,” said Dick Titus, executive vice president of the Kitchen Cabinet Manufacturers Association, whose members are predominantly small businesses. “A 10-person shop, for example, just really isn’t equipped to handle that type of thing.”

Photo
 
Becky Gillette wants strong regulation of formaldehyde. Credit Beth Hall for The New York Times

Big industry players also weighed in. Executives from companies including La-Z-Boy, Hooker Furniture and Ashley Furniture all flew to Washington for a series of meetings with the offices of lawmakers including House Speaker John Boehner, Republican of Ohio, and about a dozen other lawmakers, asking several of them to sign a letter prepared by the industry to press the E.P.A. to back down, according to an industry report describing the lobbying visit.

Within a matter of weeks, two letters — using nearly identical language — were sent by House and Senate lawmakers to the E.P.A. — with the industry group forwarding copies of the letters to the agency as well, and then posting them on its website.

The industry lobbyists also held their own meeting at E.P.A. headquarters, and they urged Jim Jones, who oversaw the rule-making process as the assistant administrator for the agency’s Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention, to visit a North Carolina furniture manufacturing plant. According to the trade group, Mr. Jones told them that the visit had “helped the agency shift its thinking” about the rules and how laminated products should be treated.

The resistance was particularly intense from lawmakers like Mr. Wicker of Mississippi, whose state is home to major manufacturing plants owned by Ashley Furniture Industries, the world’s largest furniture maker, and who is one of the biggest recipients in Congress of donations from the industry’s trade association. Asked if the political support played a role, a spokesman for Mr. Wicker replied: “Thousands of Mississippians depend on the furniture manufacturing industry for their livelihoods. Senator Wicker is committed to defending all Mississippians from government overreach.”

Individual companies like Ikea also intervened, as did the Chinese government, which claimed that the new rule would create a “great barrier” to the import of Chinese products because of higher costs.

Perhaps the most surprising objection came from Senator Boxer, of California, a longtime environmental advocate, whose office questioned why the E.P.A.’s rule went further than her home state’s in seeking testing on laminated products. “We did not advocate an outcome, other than safety,” her office said in a statement about why the senator raised concerns. “We said ‘Take a look to see if you have it right.’ ”

Safety advocates say that tighter restrictions — like the ones Ms. Boxer and Mr. Wicker, along with Representative Doris Matsui, a California Democrat, have questioned — are necessary, particularly for products coming from China, where items as varied as toys and Christmas lights have been found to violate American safety standards.

While Mr. Neltner, the environmental advocate who has been most involved in the review process, has been open to compromise, he has pressed the E.P.A. not to back down entirely, and to maintain a requirement that laminators verify that their products are safe.

An episode of CBS’s “60 Minutes” in March brought attention to the issue when it accused Lumber Liquidators, the discount flooring retailer, of selling laminate products with dangerous levels of formaldehyde. The company has disputed the show’s findings and test methods, maintaining that its products are safe.

“People think that just because Congress passed the legislation five years ago, the problem has been fixed,” said Becky Gillette, who then lived in coastal Mississippi, in the area hit by Hurricane Katrina, and was among the first to notice a pattern of complaints from people living in the trailers. “Real people’s faces and names come up in front of me when I think of the thousands of people who could get sick if this rule is not done right.”

An aide to Ms. Matsui rejected any suggestion that she was bending to industry pressure.

“From the beginning the public health has been our No. 1 concern,” said Kyle J. Victor, an aide to Ms. Matsui.

But further changes to the rule are likely, agency officials concede, as they say they are searching for a way to reduce the cost of complying with any final rule while maintaining public health goals. The question is just how radically the agency will revamp the testing requirement for laminated products — if it keeps it at all.

“It’s not a secret to anybody that is the most challenging issue,” said Mr. Jones, the E.P.A. official overseeing the process, adding that the health consequences from formaldehyde are real. “We have to reduce those exposures so that people can live healthy lives and not have to worry about being in their homes.”

The Uphill Battle to Better Regulate Formaldehyde | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

William Sokolin, Wine Seller Who Broke Famed Bottle, Dies at 85

The bottle Mr. Sokolin famously broke was a 1787 Château Margaux, which was said to have belonged to Thomas Jefferson. Mr. Sokolin had been hoping to sell it for $519,750.

William Sokolin, Wine Seller Who Broke Famed Bottle, Dies at 85 | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

Fatal Police Shootings: Accounts Since Ferguson

Since a white police officer, Darren Wilson fatally shot unarmed black teenager, Michael Brown, in a confrontation last August in Ferguson, Mo., there have been many other cases in which the police have shot and killed suspects, some of them unarmed. Mr. Brown's death set off protests throughout the country, pushing law enforcement into the spotlight and sparking a public debate on police tactics. Here is a selection of police shootings that have been reported by news organizations since Mr. Brown's death. In some cases, investigations are continuing.

Photo
 
 
The apartment complex northeast of Atlanta where Anthony Hill, 27, was fatally shot by a DeKalb County police officer. Credit Ben Gray/Atlanta Journal Constitution

Chamblee, Ga.
Fatal Police Shootings: Accounts Since Ferguson | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

G.O.P. Hopefuls Now Aiming to Woo the Middle Class

WASHINGTON — The last three men to win the Republican nomination have been the prosperous son of a president (George W. Bush), a senator who could not recall how many homes his family owned (John McCain of Arizona; it was seven) and a private equity executive worth an estimated $200 million (Mitt Romney).

The candidates hoping to be the party’s nominee in 2016 are trying to create a very different set of associations. On Sunday, Ben Carson, a retired neurosurgeon, joined the presidential field.

Senator Marco Rubio of Florida praises his parents, a bartender and a Kmart stock clerk, as he urges audiences not to forget “the workers in our hotel kitchens, the landscaping crews in our neighborhoods, the late-night janitorial staff that clean our offices.”

Gov. Scott Walker of Wisconsin, a preacher’s son, posts on Twitter about his ham-and-cheese sandwiches and boasts of his coupon-clipping frugality. His $1 Kohl’s sweater has become a campaign celebrity in its own right.

Senator Rand Paul of Kentucky laments the existence of “two Americas,” borrowing the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s phrase to describe economically and racially troubled communities like Ferguson, Mo., and Detroit.

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Senator Marco Rubio of Florida praises his parents, a bartender and a Kmart stock clerk. Credit Joe Raedle/Getty Images

“Some say, ‘But Democrats care more about the poor,’ ” Mr. Paul likes to say. “If that’s true, why is black unemployment still twice white unemployment? Why has household income declined by $3,500 over the past six years?”

We are in the midst of the Empathy Primary — the rhetorical battleground shaping the Republican presidential field of 2016.

Harmed by the perception that they favor the wealthy at the expense of middle-of-the-road Americans, the party’s contenders are each trying their hardest to get across what the elder George Bush once inelegantly told recession-battered voters in 1992: “Message: I care.”

Their ability to do so — less bluntly, more sincerely — could prove decisive in an election year when power, privilege and family connections will loom large for both parties.

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Questions of understanding and compassion cost Republicans in the last election. Mr. Romney, who memorably dismissed the “47 percent” of Americans as freeloaders, lost to President Obama by 63 percentage points among voters who cast their ballots for the candidate who “cares about people like me,” according to exit polls.

And a Pew poll from February showed that people still believe Republicans are indifferent to working Americans: 54 percent said the Republican Party does not care about the middle class.

That taint of callousness explains why Senator Ted Cruz of Texas declared last week that Republicans “are and should be the party of the 47 percent” — and why another son of a president, Jeb Bush, has made economic opportunity the centerpiece of his message.

With his pedigree and considerable wealth — since he left the Florida governor’s office almost a decade ago he has earned millions of dollars sitting on corporate boards and advising banks — Mr. Bush probably has the most complicated task making the argument to voters that he understands their concerns.

On a visit last week to Puerto Rico, Mr. Bush sounded every bit the populist, railing against “elites” who have stifled economic growth and innovation. In the kind of economy he envisions leading, he said: “We wouldn’t have the middle being squeezed. People in poverty would have a chance to rise up. And the social strains that exist — because the haves and have-nots is the big debate in our country today — would subside.”

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Republicans’ emphasis on poorer and working-class Americans now represents a shift from the party’s longstanding focus on business owners and “job creators” as the drivers of economic opportunity.

This is intentional, Republican operatives said.

In the last presidential election, Republicans rushed to defend business owners against what they saw as hostility by Democrats to successful, wealthy entrepreneurs.

“Part of what you had was a reaction to the Democrats’ dehumanization of business owners: ‘Oh, you think you started your plumbing company? No you didn’t,’ ” said Grover Norquist, the conservative activist and president of Americans for Tax Reform.

But now, Mr. Norquist said, Republicans should move past that. “Focus on the people in the room who know someone who couldn’t get a job, or a promotion, or a raise because taxes are too high or regulations eat up companies’ time,” he said. “The rich guy can take care of himself.”

Democrats argue that the public will ultimately see through such an approach because Republican positions like opposing a minimum-wage increase and giving private banks a larger role in student loans would hurt working Americans.

“If Republican candidates are just repeating the same tired policies, I’m not sure that smiling while saying it is going to be enough,” said Guy Cecil, a Democratic strategist who is joining a “super PAC” working on behalf of Hillary Rodham Clinton.

Republicans have already attacked Mrs. Clinton over the wealth and power she and her husband have accumulated, caricaturing her as an out-of-touch multimillionaire who earns hundreds of thousands of dollars per speech and has not driven a car since 1996.

Mr. Walker hit this theme recently on Fox News, pointing to Mrs. Clinton’s lucrative book deals and her multiple residences. “This is not someone who is connected with everyday Americans,” he said. His own net worth, according to The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, is less than a half-million dollars; Mr. Walker also owes tens of thousands of dollars on his credit cards.

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But showing off a cheap sweater or boasting of a bootstraps family background not only helps draw a contrast with Mrs. Clinton’s latter-day affluence, it is also an implicit argument against Mr. Bush.

Mr. Walker, who featured a 1998 Saturn with more than 100,000 miles on the odometer in a 2010 campaign ad during his first run for governor, likes to talk about flipping burgers at McDonald’s as a young person. His mother, he has said, grew up on a farm with no indoor plumbing until she was in high school.

Mr. Rubio, among the least wealthy members of the Senate, with an estimated net worth of around a half-million dollars, uses his working-class upbringing as evidence of the “exceptionalism” of America, “where even the son of a bartender and a maid can have the same dreams and the same future as those who come from power and privilege.”

Mr. Cruz alludes to his family’s dysfunction — his parents, he says, were heavy drinkers — and recounts his father’s tale of fleeing Cuba with $100 sewn into his underwear.

Gov. Chris Christie of New Jersey notes that his father paid his way through college working nights at an ice cream plant.

But sometimes the attempts at projecting authenticity can seem forced. Mr. Christie recently found himself on the defensive after telling a New Hampshire audience, “I don’t consider myself a wealthy man.” Tax returns showed that he and his wife, a longtime Wall Street executive, earned nearly $700,000 in 2013.

The story of success against the odds is a political classic, even if it is one the Republican Party has not been able to tell for a long time. Ronald Reagan liked to say that while he had not been born on the wrong side of the tracks, he could always hear the whistle. Richard Nixon was fond of reminding voters how he was born in a house his father had built.

“Probably the idea that is most attractive to an average voter, and an idea that both Republicans and Democrats try to craft into their messages, is this idea that you can rise from nothing,” said Charles C. W. Cooke, a writer for National Review.

There is a certain delight Republicans take in turning that message to their advantage now.

“That’s what Obama did with Hillary,” Mr. Cooke said. “He acknowledged it openly: ‘This is ridiculous. Look at me, this one-term senator with dark skin and all of America’s unsolved racial problems, running against the wife of the last Democratic president.”

G.O.P. Hopefuls Now Aiming to Woo the Middle Class | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016

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