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Majelis hakim pada Pengadilan Tindak Pidana Korupsi (Tipikor) Jakarta, menolak keberatan (eksepsi) yang diajukan oleh terdakwa dalam kasus dugaan suap pengurusan sengketa pemilihan kepala daerah Kabupaten Lebak, Banten, dan Pilkada Lampung Selatan, Susi Tur Andayani alias Uci. "Menyatakan keberatan terdakwa Susi Tur Andayani tidak dapat diterima. Menyatakan surat dakwaan jaksa penuntut umum sah sebagai dasar untuk memeriksa dan memutus perkara," tegas ketua majelis hakim, Gosen Butar-Butar, saat membacakan putusan sela di Pengadilan Tindak Pidana Korupsi (Tipikor), Jakarta, Senin (10/3/2014). Sementara, anggota majelis hakim 3, Sofialdi, telah mengajukan perbedaan pendapat dalam putusan sela itu. Menurutnya, surat dakwaan jaksa penuntut umum terhadap Susi Tur Andayani tidak cermat dan kabur. Sebabnya adalah, pasal yang disangkakan buat Susi tidak tepat. "Ada ketidaksesuaian dari uraian tindak pidana dengan dakwaan. Terdakwa bukan pelaku turut serta. Justru terdakwa seharusnya didakwa sebagai penerima dengan Akil Mochtar. Surat dakwaan itu obscuur (kabur) dan harus dibatalkan," jelas Hakim Sofialdi. Hakim Sofialdi telah menambahkan, seharusnya jaksa mendakwa Susi dengan pasal penyuapan khusus terhadap hakim melalui advokat. Yakni Pasal 6 ayat 1 huruf a atau b atau Pasal 6 ayat 2 Undang-Undang pemberantasan tindak pidana korupsi, dan bukan Pasal 12 huruf c. "Dakwaan kesatu dan kedua tidak cermat. Terdakwa seharusnya didakwa dengan pasal suap khusus terhadap hakim. Apalagi yang memberi suap adalah advokat," terang Hakim Sofialdi. Namun demikian, Hakim Ketua Gosen Butar-Butar tetap menyatakan surat dakwaan jaksa penuntut umum dan sah. "Ada perbedaan wajar. Tetapi musyawarah diambil dengan suara terbanyak. Atas putusan ini terdakwa juga berhak mengajukan upaya hukum, tapi bersamaan dalam putusan akhir," sambung Hakim Ketua Gosen Butar-Butar. Sidang lanjutan Susi Pemeriksaan perkara dilanjutkan pada Senin 17 Maret pekan depan, dengan agenda menghadirkan saksi.> HAKIM TOLAK EKSEPSI SUSI TUR ANDAYANI
UMRAH DENGAN PAKAIAN BIASA
Al-Lajnah Ad-Daimah Lil Ifta
Al-Lajnah Ad-Daimah Lil Ifta ditanya : Saya melaksanakan umrah pada awal Ramadhan tahun ini dan saya mukim di Mekkah selama 15 hari. Lalu saya melaksanakan umrah lagi dengan baju saya dan penutup kepala. Ketika saya pertama kali sampai di Masjidil Haram, saya shalat dua raka'at dengan niat shalat Tahiyatul Masjid, lalu saya thawaf di Ka'bah tujuh kali putaran kemudian shalat dua raka'at di maqam Ibrahim 'Alaihis Salam, lalu sa'i tujuh kali putaran dan kemudian memotong rambut. Apakah yang saya lakukan benar ?
Apa yang anda sebutkan dalam pertanyaan bahwa yang dilakukan dalam umrah adalah suatu yang wajib dari umrah dan anda tidak wajib mengeluarkan sesuatu jika ihram dari miqat yang wajib. Hanya saja shalat dua raka'at yang dilakukan ketika masuk Masjidil Haram adalah menyalahi sunnah bagi orang yang masuk Masjidil Haram (untuk melaksanakan umrah), yaitu memulai dengan thawaf.
Adapun yang anda sebutkan bahwa anda ihram dengan memakai baju, jika yang dimaksudkan itu baju ihram, yaitu kain dan selendang yang telah digunakan dalam umrah sebelum umrah, maka tiada mengapa dalam hal tersebut, karena boleh menggunakannya berulang kali dalam haji atau umrah atau memberikan kepada orang lain untuk digunakan haji dan umrah. Tapi jika yang anda maksudkan bahwa ihram dengan baju biasa yang dipakai selain ketika ihram, maka anda salah dalam hal itu dan anda telah melakukan dua larangan dalam umrah, yaitu memakai pakaian berjahit dan menutup kepala. Jika anda mengetahui bahwa demikian itu tidak boleh, maka wajib dua fidyah, yaitu karena pakaian dan menutup kepala. Dan untuk masing-masing anda boleh menyembelih kambing yang mencukupi syarat kurban, atau memberi makan enam orang miskin masing-masing orang setengah sha' berupa kurma atau yang lain dari makanan pokok suatu daerah, atau puasa tiga hari. Dan kedua kambing atau makanan untuk 12 orang miskin diberikan kepada orang-orang miskin Mekkah dan kamu tidak boleh makan sebagian dari keduanya dan juga tidak boleh anda hadiahkan. Sedangkan untuk berpuasa boleh dilakukan di tempat dan waktu kapanpun.
Namun jika yang anda lakukan tersebut karena tidak mengetahui hukum syar'i atau karena lupa, maka tidak wajib fidyah, hanya harus taubat dan mohon ampun kepada Allah atas dua hal tersebut serta tidak akan mengulangi pekerjaan yang menafikan kewajiban-kewajiban dalam ihram seperti kedua hal tersebut. Kepada Allah kita bermohon taufiq kepada kebenaran. Dan shalawat serta salam kepada Nabi kita Muhammad Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam.
MEMAKAI CELANA KETIKA IHRAM KARENA TIDAK TAHU
Syaikh Abdullah bin Abdurrahman Al-Jibrin
Syaikh Abdullah bin Abdurrahman Al-Jibrin ditanya : Tahun lalu saya pergi umrah dan saya tidak mengetahui sebagian syarat-syaratnya. Ketika saya ihram dari miqat saya memakai celana pendek dan saya tidak mengetahui hukum masalah ini. Lalu setelah saya kembali, sebagian orang memberitahukan kepada saya bahwa yang saya lakukan tersebut tidak boleh. Dan tahun ini saya umrah lagi ketika saya mengetahui bahwa memakai pakaian berjahit tidak boleh ketika ihram. Apakah saya wajib membayar kifarat sebab masalah tersebut ?
Tidak wajib membayar fidyah karena anda tidak mengetahui hukum tersebut. Sebab seseorang dimaafkan ketika melakukan larangan tersebut karena ketidaktahuan tentang hukum. Sesungguhnya fidyah hanya wajib atas orang yang melakukan hal tersebut jika dia mengetahui dan sengaja melakukannya. Maka anda tidak wajib mengulangi umrah karena tidak melakukan apa yang merusakkan umrah. Jadi umrah anda yang kedua adalah umrah sunnah.
IHRAM DENGAN MEMAKAI CELANA KARENA SENGAJA
Syaikh Abdullah bin Abdurrahman Al-Jibrin
Syaikh Abdullah bin Abdurrhman Al-JIbrin ditanya : Ketika di miqat saya niat ihram umrah tamattu' kepada haji, tapi saya tidak melepas celana dalam saja. Dan demikian itu disebabkan malu yang menyertai saya pada waktu itu. Sehingga saya melaksanakan umrah dengan memakai celana. Dan ketika saya ihram haji, saya mengerti bahwa saya salah ketika memakai celana dalam ihram. Maka saya melepas celana ketika ihram untuk melaksanakan haji.
Pertanyaannya, apakah saya wajib membayar kifarat karena tidak melepas celana ketika umrah saja, sebab saya melepasnya ketika melakukan haji ? Padahal saat itu saya mengetahui bahwa memakai pakaian berjahit membatalkan ihram, tapi saya melakukan itu karena sangat malu seperti saya sebutkan. Perlu diketahui bahwa umrah dan haji saya tersebut adalah yang pertama kali dan telah saya lakukan beberapa tahun lalu. Mohon penjelasan
Anda wajib membayar fidyah apabila sengaja tetap dalam pakaian tersebut. Sebab anda telah mengetahui bahwa demikian itu termasuk larangan dalam ihram, bukan yang membatalkannya. Adapun fidyahnya adalah puasa tiga hari, atau memberi makan enam orang miskin, atau memotong kambing. Mana saja yang anda lakukan diantara ketiga hal tersebut, maka telah cukup. Tapi menyembelih atau memberikan makan enam orang miskin tersebut harus di Mekkah dan untuk orang-orang miskin tanah haram. Sedangkan berpuasa dapat dilakukan di mana saja. Dan anda tidak berdosa karena terlambat melaksanakan kifarat, hanya saja anda lengah karena bertanya dalam tempo yang lama.
BATASAN PAKAIAN BERJAHIT DALAM IHRAM
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz ditanya : Apakah batasan pakaian berjahit dan apa hukum memakai celana yang digunakan sekarang ini ketika ihram ?
Tidak boleh bagi orang yang sedang ihram haji atau umrah memakai celana dan lainnya dari pakaian yang berjahit dalam bentuk badan seutuhnya, seperti qamis, atau bagian atas badan saja, seperti kaos dan lain-lain, atau badan bagian bawah seperti celana. Sebab ketika Nabi Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam ditanya tentang pakaian orang yang sedang berihram maka beliau bersabda.
"Artinya : Ia tidak boleh memakai qamis, surban, celana, tudung kepala dan khuf, kecuali orang yang tidak mendapatkan sandal, maka dia boleh memakai khuf (sepatu but). Dan hendaklah dia memotong khuf sampai bawah mata kaki" [Muttafaqun 'alaih dari hadits Ibnu Umar Radhiallahu 'anhu]
Dengan demikian penanya harus mengetahui pakaian berjahit yang dilarang bagi orang yang sedang ihram.
Dari hadits tersebut nampak jelas bahwa yang dimaksud pakaian berjahit adalah setiap pakaian yang dijahit dengan ukuran seluruh badan seperti qamis, atau setengah badan pada bagian atas seperti kaos, atau setengah badan bagian bawah seperti celana. Dari hal tersebut dapat disamakan pakaian yang dijahit atau disulam seukuran tangan seperti kaos tangan, atau seukuran kaki seperti khuf (sepatu but). Tapi orang ihram diperbolehkan memakai khuf jika tidak mendapatkan sandal. Sebab terdapat hadits shahih dari Ibnu Abbas Radhiallahu 'anhu, bahwa ketika Nabi Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam menyampaikan khutbah kepada manusia di Arafah beliau bersabda.
"Artinya : Barangsiapa yang tidak mendapatkan kain maka hendaklah dia memakai celana, dan siapa yang tidak mendapatkan sandal maka hendaklah dai memakai khuf" [Muttafaqun 'alaih]
Dalam hadits ini Nabi Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam tidak menyebutkan perintah memotong khuf, maka menunjukkan tidak wajib memotong khuf. Jadi perintah memotong khuf yang terdapat dalam hadits pertama yang juga diriwayatkan Ibnu Abbas Radhiallahu anhu dihapuskan (mansukh) dengan hadits tersebut.
Demikian itu berkaitan dengan laki-laki. Sedangkan bagi wanita yang ihram, baik ihram haji maupun ihram umrah maka dia boleh memakai celana dan sepatu secara mutlak, tapi dialarang memakai cadar dan kaos tangan. Sebab Nabi Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam melarang dari kedua hal tersebut dalam hadits yang diriwayatkan Ibnu Umar Radhiallahu 'anhu. Namun wanita boleh menutup mukanya dengan selain cadar dan menutup kedua tanganya dengan selain kaos tangan ketika dia di hadapan laki-laki yang bukan mahramnya, seperti dengan kerudung dan lain-lain. Dan Allah adalah Dzat yang memberikan pertolongan kepada kebenaran.
MENCUKUR RAMBUT SETELAH IHRAM KARENA TIDAK TAHU
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz ditanya : Seseorang telah melakukan ihram umrah. Setelah itu dia ingat bahwa mencukur rambut ketiak wajib ketika ihram lalu dia mencukurnya setelah ihram, kemudian pergi umrah. Mohon penjelasan hukum tentang hal tersebut ?
Mencukur rambut ketiak tidak wajib dalam ihram, demikian pula mencabutnya. Namun menurut sunnah adalah mencabut atau membersihkan rambut ketiak dengan sesuatu yang dapat menghilangkan dari bahan yang suci ketika sebelum ihram. Sebagaimana disunnahkannya memotong kumis, memotong kuku, dan mencukur rambut kemaluan ketika masing-masing telah siap untuk itu ketika sebelum ihram, seperti ketika di rumahnya. Dan demikian itu sudah cukup. Sebab hal-hal tersebut tidak wajib dilakukan ketika ihram, dan bagi orang yang kamu sebutkan itu tidak wajib membayar fidyah karena mencukur rambut ketiaknya disebabkan dia tidak tahu tentang hukum syar'i. Seperti itu juga jika seseorang melakukan sesuatu yang telah kami sebutkan setelah dia ihram karena lupa. Sebab Allah berfirman tentang do'a orang-orang mukmin.
"Artinya : Ya Rabb kami, janganlah Engkau hukum kami jika kami lupa atau kami bersalah" [Al-Baqarah : 286]
Dan dalam hadits hahih disebutkan bahwa Allah mengabulkan do'a tersebut seraya berfirman : "Sunnguh telah Aku lakukan".
MEMOTONG RAMBUT SEBELUM NIAT IHRAM
Syaikh Abdullah bin Abdurrahman Al-Jibrin
Syaikh Abdullah bin Abdurrahman Al-Jibrin ditanya : Istri saya berihram untuk umrah. Dan sebelum keluar dari kamar mandi dan memakai bajunya dia menggunting rambutnya sedikit. Apa yang wajib dia lakukan ?
Tiada dosa atas dia dalam hal tersebut dan juga tidak wajib membayar fidyah. Sebab yang dilarang memotong rambut adalah setelah niat ihram sedangkan dia belum niat dan belum memakai bajunya. Bahkan seandainya dia melakukan seperti itu ketika dia telah ihram tapi karena tidak tahu atau lupa maka dia tidak wajib membayar fidyah. Wallahu a'lam.
JENIS PAKAIAN WANITA KETIKA IHRAM
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz ditanya : Apakah wanita boleh ihram dengan pakaian apa saja yang dia kehendaki ?
Ya, wanita berihram dengan pakaian yang dia mau. Sebab bagi wanita tidak ada pakaian khusus ketika ihram sebagai mana anggapan orang-orang awam. Tapi yang utama adalah dia ihram dengan pakaian yang tidak menarik pandangan laki-laki sebab dia bercampur dengan banyak manusia. Maka seyogianya bila wanita ketika ihram memakai pakaian yang wajar dan tidak mengundang fitnah. Adapun bagi laki-laki maka yang utama adalah ihram dengan baju ihram putih, yakni selendang dan kain. Tapi jika tidak ada berwarna putih maka tidak apa-apa. Sebab terdapat riwayat dari Rasulullah Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam bahwa beliau ihram dengan baju hijau. Kesimpulannya, tidak mengapa jika laki-laki ihram dengan pakaian yang tidak berwarna putih.
MASIH DALAM PAKAIAN IHRAM DALAM TEMPO YANG LAMA
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz ditanya : Saya pergi umrah pada bulan Ramadhan bersama ibu saya. Kami berdua ihram di kapal terbang ketika di atas Bi'r Ali dan turun di Jeddah lalu istirahat. Dan setelah kami berbuka puasa maka kami pergi pada sore harinya ke Mekkah untuk melaksanakan umrah dan kami tidak melepas pakaian ihram hingga selesai umrah. Apakah kami terkena sangsi sebab kami istirahat di Jeddah dalam keadaan berpakaian ihram. Mohon penjelasan, semoga Allah memberikan kepada Anda balasan kebaikan.
Jika kondisi seperti yang anda sebutkan, maka tidak ada kewajiban membayar dam atas anda dan juga ibu. Sebab kalian berdua muqim di Jeddah masih dalam keadaan ihram, dan orang yang sedang ihram tidak wajib menyambung perjalanannya hingga melaksanakan umrah. Bahkan dia boleh istirahat di jalan dan muqim di mana saja yang dia kehendaki untuk melaksanakan kebutuhannya dan dia sedang ihram. Semoga Allah memberikan taufiq kepada semua kaum muslimin.
IHRAM MEMAKAI KAOS KAKI DAN KAOS TANGAN
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz ditanya : Apa hukum ihram dengan memakai kaos kaki dan kaos tangan ? Dan apa dalilnya tentang hal tersebut ?
Bagi laki-laki ketika ihram tidak boleh memakai kaos kaki dan khuf (sepatu slop) kecuali jika tidak mendapatkan sandal berdasarkan sabda Nabi Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam.
"Artinya : Dan barangsiapa yang tidak mendapatkan sandal, maka dia boleh memakai khuf, dan siapa yang tidak mendapatkan kain, maka dia memakai celana panjang" [Muttafaqun 'Alaih]
Adapun bagi wanita, maka diperbolehkan memakai kaos kaki dan sepatu khuf, karena kaki wanita adalah aurat. Dan jika seorang wanita menjulurkan bajunya hingga menutup kedua kakinya maka cukup baginya dari kaos kaki dan khuf dalam shalat dan yang lainnya. Adapaun kaos tangan maka bagi laki-laki mupun perempuan tidak diperbolehkan memakainya ketika sedang ihram. Sebab Nabi Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam bersabda tentang wanita yang sedang ihram.
"Artinya : Janganlah wanita bercadar, dan janganlah dia memakai kaos tangan" [Hadits Riwayat Bukhari dalam shahihnya]
Jika memakai kaos tangan, maka haram bagi perempuan, lebih-lebih lagi bagi laki-laki. Karena itu Nabi Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam bersabda tentang laki-laki yang meninggal ketika dia sedang ihram.
"Artinya : Mandikanlah dia dengan air dan bidara, kafankan dia dengan dua baju (ihram)nya, jangan kamu berikan dia parfum, dan jangan kamu tutup kepala dan mukanya, sebab dia akan dibangkitkan pada hari kiamat dalam keadaan berihram" [Muttafaqun 'alaih dan redaksinya bagi Muslim]
Adapun sebagai ganti cadar bagi wanita ketika sedang ihram adalah dia dapat menutup wajahnya dengan kerudung dan yang sepertinya ketika dia berhadapan laki-laki. Demikian ini berdasarkan riwayat dari Aisyah Radhiallahu 'anha, ia berkata.
"Artinya : Adalah rombongan laki-laki melewati kami dan kami bersama Rasulullah Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam. Ketika mereka berpapasan dengan kami. setiap orang diantara kami mejulurkan jilbabnya dari kepala ke mukanya, dan jika mereka telah melewati kami, maka kami membukanya" [Hadits Riwayat Abu Dawud dan Ibnu Majah]
CARA MEMAKAI BAJU IHRAM
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz ditanya : Apakah yang utama bagi orang yang sedang ihram menutup kedua pundaknya ataukah membuka salah satunya ?
Adapun yang sunnah bagi orang yang ihram adalah menjadikan selendang pada kedua pundak dan kedua ujungnya di dada. Ini adalah yang sunnah dan yang dilakukan Nabi Shallahu 'alaihi wa sallam. Maka jika seseorang berihram ingin thawaf qudum, ia menjadikan tengah selendangnya di bawa ketiak kanan dan kedua ujung selendang pada pundaknya yang kiri dan membuka pundaknya yang kanan. Tapi ini khusus dalam thawaf Qudum. Maksudnya ketika pertama datang ke Mekkah untuk haji atau umrah. Lalu ketika telah rampung thawaf Qudum memindahkan selendangnya dan dijadikannya pada kedua pundaknya lalu shalat dua raka'at thawaf. Maka orang yang selalu membuka salah satu pundaknya adalah menyalahi Sunnah Nabi Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam. Demikian pula orang yang membuka dua pundaknya. Sesungguhnya yang sesuai Sunnah Nabi Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam adalah menutupi kedua pundak dengan selendang ketika sedang ihram kecuali dalam thawaf qudum seperti telah disebutkan. Dan jika seseorang meletakkan selendangnya tidak menutup kedua pundaknya pada waktu dia duduk atau ketika makan atau ketika berbincang-bincang bersama kawan-kawannya maka tidak mengapa. Tapi yang sesuai sunnah jika dia memakai selendang maka dengan menutup kedua pundak dan ujung-ujung selendang berada pada dadanya.
MEMAKAI SABUK KETIKA SEDANG IHRAM
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz ditanya : Apa hukum memakai ikat pinggang bagi orang yang sedang berihram karena untuk menjaga uangnya ? Apakah demikian itu diperbolehkan baginya, ataukah dinilai pakaian yang berjahit yang tidak boleh dipakai ?
Memakai ikat pinggang dan yang sepertinya tidak dilarang bagi orang yang sedang ihram. Demikian pula sapu tangan untuk mengikat kainnya atau untuk menjaga uang dan lain-lain.
GANTI PAKAIAN IHRAM
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz ditanya : Apakah boleh berganti baju ihram karena di cuci ?
Tidak mengapa bila pakaian ihram di cuci, dan tidak mengapa juga bila berganti pakaian ihram dengan baju ihram yang baru atau baju yang telah di cuci.
MENGOLESKAN PARFUM KE PAKAIAN IHRAM
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz
Syaikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Baz ditanya : Apa hukum mengoleskan parfum kepada baju ihram sebelum niat dan talbiyah ?
Tidak seyogianya mengoleskan parfum pada selendang dan kain ihram, tetapi yang sunnah adalah mengoleskan parfum ke anggota badan, seperti kepala, jenggot, ketiak, dan lain-lain. Adapun pakaian maka tidak boleh diberikan parfum ketika berihram. Sebab Nabi Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam bersabda : "Janganlah (orang yang ihram) memakai baju yang tersentuh za'faran dan kasturi".
Jadi menurut sunnah adalah mengoleskan parfum ke badan saja, sedangkan pakaian ihram tidak boleh diberikan parfum, dan jika diberikan parfum maka tidak boleh dipakai hingga di cuci atau dibersihkan.
TIDAK MAMPU MEMAKAI BAJU IHRAM
Syaikh Muhammad bin Shalih Al-Utsaimin
Syaikh Muhammad bin Shalih Al-Utsaimin ditanya : Seseorang ingin umrah pada bulan Ramadhan, tapi dia tidak mampu berpakaian ihram sebab dia sakit dan jimpe. Apakah dia dapat umrah dengan bajunya biasa dan wajib membayar kifarat ?
Jika seseorang tidak mampu berpakaian ihram maka dia memakai pakaian lain yang sesuai dan dia wajib membayar kifarat, boleh memotong seekor kambing yang dibagikan kepada orang-orang miskin, atau memberi makan enam orang miskin masing-masing orang miskin setengah sha', atau puasa tiga hari. Demikianlah yang dikatakan ulama karena mengqiyaskan terhadap ketentuan mencukur rambut yang dijelaskan dalam firman Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala.
"Artinya : Dan jangan kamu mencukur kepalamu, sebelum kurban sampai di tempat penyembelihannya. Jika ada di antaramu sakit atau ada ganguan di kepalanya (lalu dia bercukur), maka wajiblah atasnya berfidyah, yaitu ; berpuasa, atau bersedekah, atau berkurban" [ Al-Baqarah : 196]
Nabi Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam menjelaskan, bahwa berpuasa adalah tiga hari, dan sedekah adalah memberi makan enam orang miskin masing-masing orang miskin setengah sha', dan berkurban adalah menyembelih kambing.
[Disalin dari buku Fatwa-Fatwa Haji dan Umrah oleh Ulama-Ulama Besar Saudi Arabia, penysusun Muhammad bin Abdul Aziz Al-Musnad, terbitan Pustaka Imam Asy-Syafi'i, hal. 123-130, penerjemah H.Asmuni Solihan Zamaksyari Lc.]
Baca Artikel Lainnya : BERSENGGAMA DALAM HAJI, BOLEH KAH?> BAJU UNTUK UMRAH
ESQ konsep mengasah agar menjadi individu yang unggul dalam hal spiritual, fisik dan pikiran. Proses yang berkelanjutan dan membutuhkan ketulusan pribadi untuk menjadi lebih unggul.., Selanjutnya> TIPS MEMBANGUN KEMAMPUAN ESQ
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Kalibrasi akan menjamin akurasi. Lakukanlah secara rutin minimal satu satun sekali. Kalibrasi bisa dilakukan sendiri atau dengan memanfaatkan jasa laboratorium kalibrasi yang sudah terakreditasi. Jangan lupa untuk melakukan hal-hal berikut ini:
The 6-foot-10 Phillips played alongside the 6-11 Rick Robey on the Wildcats team that won the 1978 N.C.A.A. men’s basketball title.Mike Phillips, Half of Kentuckyâ€™s â€˜Twin Towersâ€™ of Basketball, Dies at 59 | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016
Hired in 1968, a year before their first season, Mr. Fanning spent 25 years with the team, managing them to their only playoff appearance in Canada.Jim Fanning, 87, Dies; Lifted Baseball in Canada With Expos | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016
Mr. Goldberg was a serial Silicon Valley entrepreneur and venture capitalist who was married to Sheryl Sandberg, the chief operating officer of Facebook.PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016
Mr. Bartoszewski was given honorary Israeli citizenship for his work to save Jews during World War II and later surprised even himself by being instrumental in reconciling Poland and Germany.Wladyslaw Bartoszewski, 93, Dies; Polish Auschwitz Survivor Aided Jews | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016
Mr. Alger, who served five terms from Texas, led Republican women in a confrontation with Lyndon B. Johnson that may have cost Richard M. Nixon the 1960 presidential election.Bruce Alger, 96, Dies; Led â€˜Mink Coatâ€™ Protest Against Lyndon Johnson | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016
The career criminals in genre novels don’t have money problems. If they need some, they just go out and steal it. But such financial transactions can backfire, which is what happened back in 2004 when the Texas gang in MichaelTake the Money and Run | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016
Mr. Mankiewicz, an Oscar-nominated screenwriter for “I Want to Live!,” also wrote episodes of television shows such as “Star Trek” and “Marcus Welby, M.D.”Don Mankiewicz, Screenwriter in a Family Film Tradition, Dies at 93 | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016
Ms. Crough played the youngest daughter on the hit ’70s sitcom starring David Cassidy and Shirley Jones.Suzanne Crough, Actress in â€˜The Partridge Family,â€™ Dies at 52 | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016
The live music at the Vice Media party on Friday shook the room. Shane Smith, Vice’s chief executive, was standing near the stage — with a drink in his hand, pants sagging, tattoos showing — watching the rapper-cum-chef Action Bronson make pizzas.
The event was an after-party, a happy-hour bacchanal for the hundreds of guests who had come for Vice’s annual presentation to advertisers and agencies that afternoon, part of the annual frenzy for ad dollars called the Digital Content NewFronts. Mr. Smith had spoken there for all of five minutes before running a slam-bang highlight reel of the company’s shows that had titles like “Weediquette” and “Gaycation.”
In the last year, Vice has secured $500 million in financing and signed deals worth hundreds of millions of dollars with established media companies like HBO that are eager to engage the young viewers Vice attracts. Vice said it was now worth at least $4 billion, with nearly $1 billion in projected revenue for 2015. It is a long way from Vice’s humble start as a free magazine in 1994.
But even as cash flows freely in Vice’s direction, the company is trying to keep its brash, insurgent image. At the party on Friday, it plied guests with beers and cocktails. Its apparently unrehearsed presentation to advertisers was peppered with expletives. At one point, the director Spike Jonze, a longtime Vice collaborator, asked on stage if Mr. Smith had been drinking.
“My assistant tried to cut me off,” Mr. Smith replied. “I’m on buzz control.”
Now, Vice is on the verge of getting its own cable channel, which would give the company a traditional outlet for its slate of non-news programming. If all goes as planned, A&E Networks, the television group owned by Hearst and Disney, will turn over its History Channel spinoff, H2, to Vice.
The deal’s announcement was expected last week, but not all of A&E’s distribution partners — the cable and satellite TV companies that carry the network’s channels — have signed off on the change, according to a person familiar with the negotiations who spoke on the condition of anonymity because the talks were private.
A cable channel would be a further step in a transformation for Vice, from bad-boy digital upstart to mainstream media company.
Keen for the core audience of young men who come to Vice, media giants like 21st Century Fox, Time Warner and Disney all showed interest in the company last year. Vice ultimately secured $500 million in financing from A&E Networks and Technology Crossover Ventures, a Silicon Valley venture capital firm that has invested in Facebook and Netflix.
Those investments valued Vice at more than $2.5 billion. (In 2013, Fox bought a 5 percent stake for $70 million.)
Then in March, HBO announced that it had signed a multiyear deal to broadcast a daily half-hour Vice newscast. Vice already produces a weekly newsmagazine show, called “Vice,” for the network. That show will extend its run through 2018, with an increase to 35 episodes a year, from 14.
Michael Lombardo, HBO’s president for programming, said when the deal was announced that it was “certainly one of our biggest investments with hours on the air.”
Vice, based in Brooklyn, also recently signed a multiyear $100 million deal with Rogers Communications, a Canadian media conglomerate, to produce original content for TV, smartphone and desktop viewers.
Vice’s finances are private, but according to an internal document reviewed by The New York Times and verified by a person familiar with the company’s financials, the company is on track to make about $915 million in revenue this year.
It brought in $545 million in a strong first quarter, which included portions of the new HBO deal and the Rogers deal, according to the document. More of its revenue now comes from these types of content partnerships, compared with the branded content deals that made up much of its revenue a year ago, the company said.
Mr. Smith said the company was worth at least $4 billion. If the valuation gets much higher, he said he would consider taking the company public.
“I don’t care about money; we have plenty of money,” Mr. Smith, who is Vice’s biggest shareholder, said in an interview after the presentation on Friday. “I care about strategic deals.”
In the United States, Vice Media had 35.2 million unique visitors across its sites in March, according to comScore.
The third season of Vice’s weekly HBO show has averaged 1.8 million viewers per episode, including reruns, through April 12, according to Brad Adgate, the director of research at Horizon Media. (Vice said the show attracted three million weekly viewers when repeat broadcasts, online and on-demand viewings were included.)
For years, Mr. Smith has criticized traditional TV, calling it slow and unable to draw younger viewers. But if all the deals Vice has struck are to work out, Mr. Smith may have to play more by the rules of traditional media. James Murdoch, Rupert Murdoch’s son and a member of Vice’s board, was at the company’s presentation on Friday, as were other top media executives.
“They know they need people like me to help them, but they can’t get out of their own way,” Mr. Smith said in the interview Friday. “My only real frustration is we’re used to being incredibly dynamic, and they’re not incredibly dynamic.”
With its own television channel in the United States, Vice would have something it has long coveted even as traditional media companies are looking beyond TV. Last year, Vice’s deal with Time Warner failed in part because the two companies could not agree on how much control Vice would have over a 24-hour television network.
Vice said it intended to fill its new channel with non-news programming. The company plans to have sports shows, fashion shows, food shows and the “Gaycation” travel show with the actress Ellen Page. It is also in talks with Kanye West about a show.
It remains to be seen whether Vice’s audience will watch a traditional cable channel. Still, Vice has effectively presold all of the ad spots to two of the biggest advertising agencies for the first three years, Mr. Smith said.
In the meantime, Mr. Smith is enjoying Vice’s newfound role as a potential savior of traditional media companies.
“I’m a C.E.O. of a content company,” Mr. Smith said before he caught a flight to Las Vegas for the boxing match on Saturday between Floyd Mayweather Jr. and Manny Pacquiao. “If it stops being fun, then why are you doing it?”As Vice Moves More to TV, It Tries to Keep Brash Voice | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016
From sea to shining sea, or at least from one side of the Hudson to the other, politicians you have barely heard of are being accused of wrongdoing. There were so many court proceedings involving public officials on Monday that it was hard to keep up.
In Newark, two underlings of Gov. Chris Christie were arraigned on charges that they were in on the truly deranged plot to block traffic leading onto the George Washington Bridge.
Ten miles away, in Lower Manhattan, Dean G. Skelos, the leader of the New York State Senate, and his son, Adam B. Skelos, were arrested by the Federal Bureau of Investigation on accusations of far more conventional political larceny, involving a job with a sewer company for the son and commissions on title insurance and bond work.
The younger man managed to receive a 150 percent pay increase from the sewer company even though, as he said on tape, he “literally knew nothing about water or, you know, any of that stuff,” according to a criminal complaint the United States attorney’s office filed.
The success of Adam Skelos, 32, was attributed by prosecutors to his father’s influence as the leader of the Senate and as a potentate among state Republicans. The indictment can also be read as one of those unfailingly sad tales of a father who cannot stop indulging a grown son. The senator himself is not alleged to have profited from the schemes, except by being relieved of the burden of underwriting Adam.
The bridge traffic caper is its own species of crazy; what distinguishes the charges against the two Skeloses is the apparent absence of a survival instinct. It is one thing not to know anything about water or that stuff. More remarkable, if true, is the fact that the sewer machinations continued even after the former New York Assembly speaker, Sheldon Silver, was charged in January with taking bribes disguised as fees.
It was by then common gossip in political and news media circles that Senator Skelos, a Republican, the counterpart in the Senate to Mr. Silver, a Democrat, in the Assembly, could be next in line for the criminal dock. “Stay tuned,” the United States attorney, Preet Bharara said, leaving not much to the imagination.
Even though the cat had been unmistakably belled, Skelos father and son continued to talk about how to advance the interests of the sewer company, though the son did begin to use a burner cellphone, the kind people pay for in cash, with no traceable contracts.
That was indeed prudent, as prosecutors had been wiretapping the cellphones of both men. But it would seem that the burner was of limited value, because by then the prosecutors had managed to secure the help of a business executive who agreed to record calls with the Skeloses. It would further seem that the business executive was more attentive to the perils of pending investigations than the politician.
Through the end of the New York State budget negotiations in March, the hopes of the younger Skelos rested on his father’s ability to devise legislation that would benefit the sewer company. That did not pan out. But Senator Skelos did boast that he had haggled with Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo, a Democrat, in a successful effort to raise a $150 million allocation for Long Island to $550 million, for what the budget called “transformative economic development projects.” It included money for the kind of work done by the sewer company.
The lawyer for Adam Skelos said he was not guilty and would win in court. Senator Skelos issued a ringing declaration that he was unequivocally innocent.
THIS was also the approach taken in New Jersey by Bill Baroni, a man of great presence and eloquence who stopped outside the federal courthouse to note that he had taken risks as a Republican by bucking his party to support paid family leave, medical marijuana and marriage equality. “I would never risk my career, my job, my reputation for something like this,” Mr. Baroni said. “I am an innocent man.”
The lawyer for his co-defendant, Bridget Anne Kelly, the former deputy chief of staff to Mr. Christie, a Republican, said that she would strongly rebut the charges.
Perhaps they had nothing to do with the lane closings. But neither Mr. Baroni nor Ms. Kelly addressed the question of why they did not return repeated calls from the mayor of Fort Lee, N.J., begging them to stop the traffic tie-ups, over three days.
That silence was a low moment. But perhaps New York hit bottom faster. Senator Skelos, the prosecutors charged, arranged to meet Long Island politicians at the wake of Wenjian Liu, a New York City police officer shot dead in December, to press for payments to the company employing his son.
Sometimes it seems as though for some people, the only thing to be ashamed of is shame itself.Finding Scandal in New York and New Jersey, but No Shame | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016
THE WRITERS ASHLEY AND JAQUAVIS COLEMAN know the value of a good curtain-raiser. The couple have co-authored dozens of novels, and they like to start them with a bang: a headlong action sequence, a blast of violence or sex that rocks readers back on their heels. But the Colemans concede they would be hard-pressed to dream up anything more gripping than their own real-life opening scene.
In the summer of 2001, JaQuavis Coleman was a 16-year-old foster child in Flint, Mich., the former auto-manufacturing mecca that had devolved, in the wake of General Motors’ plant closures, into one of the country’s most dangerous cities, with a decimated economy and a violent crime rate more than three times the national average. When JaQuavis was 8, social services had removed him from his mother’s home. He spent years bouncing between foster families. At 16, JaQuavis was also a businessman: a crack dealer with a network of street-corner peddlers in his employ.
One day that summer, JaQuavis met a fellow dealer in a parking lot on Flint’s west side. He was there to make a bulk sale of a quarter-brick, or “nine-piece” — a nine-ounce parcel of cocaine, with a street value of about $11,000. In the middle of the transaction, JaQuavis heard the telltale chirp of a walkie-talkie. His customer, he now realized, was an undercover policeman. JaQuavis jumped into his car and spun out onto the road, with two unmarked police cars in pursuit. He didn’t want to get into a high-speed chase, so he whipped his car into a church parking lot and made a run for it, darting into an alleyway behind a row of small houses, where he tossed the quarter-brick into some bushes. When JaQuavis reached the small residential street on the other side of the houses, he was greeted by the police, who handcuffed him and went to search behind the houses where, they told him, they were certain he had ditched the drugs. JaQuavis had been dealing since he was 12, had amassed more than $100,000 and had never been arrested. Now, he thought: It’s over.
But when the police looked in the bushes, they couldn’t find any cocaine. They interrogated JaQuavis, who denied having ever possessed or sold drugs. They combed the backyard alley some more. After an hour of fruitless efforts, the police were forced to unlock the handcuffs and release their suspect.
JaQuavis was baffled by the turn of events until the next day, when he received a phone call. The previous afternoon, a 15-year-old girl had been sitting in her home on the west side of Flint when she heard sirens. She looked out of the window of her bedroom, and watched a young man throw a package in the bushes behind her house. She recognized him. He was a high school classmate — a handsome, charismatic boy whom she had admired from afar. The girl crept outside and grabbed the bundle, which she hid in her basement. “I have something that belongs to you,” Ashley Snell told JaQuavis Coleman when she reached him by phone. “You wanna come over here and pick it up?”
In the Colemans’ first novel, “Dirty Money” (2005), they told a version of this story. The outline was the same: the drug deal gone bad, the dope chucked in the bushes, the fateful phone call. To the extent that the authors took poetic license, it was to tone down the meet-cute improbability of the true-life events. In “Dirty Money,” the girl, Anari, and the crack dealer, Maurice, circle each other warily for a year or so before coupling up. But the facts of Ashley and JaQuavis’s romance outstripped pulp fiction. They fell in love more or less at first sight, moved into their own apartment while still in high school and were married in 2008. “We were together from the day we met,” Ashley says. “I don’t think we’ve spent more than a week apart in total over the past 14 years.”
That partnership turned out to be creative and entrepreneurial as well as romantic. Over the past decade, the Colemans have published nearly 50 books, sometimes as solo writers, sometimes under pseudonyms, but usually as collaborators with a byline that has become a trusted brand: “Ashley & JaQuavis.” They are marquee stars of urban fiction, or street lit, a genre whose inner-city settings and lurid mix of crime, sex and sensationalism have earned it comparisons to gangsta rap. The emergence of street lit is one of the big stories in recent American publishing, a juggernaut that has generated huge sales by catering to a readership — young, black and, for the most part, female — that historically has been ill-served by the book business. But the genre is also widely maligned. Street lit is subject to a kind of triple snobbery: scorned by literati who look down on genre fiction generally, ignored by a white publishing establishment that remains largely indifferent to black books and disparaged by African-American intellectuals for poor writing, coarse values and trafficking in racial stereotypes.
But if a certain kind of cultural prestige is shut off to the Colemans, they have reaped other rewards. They’ve built a large and loyal fan base, which gobbles up the new Ashley & JaQuavis titles that arrive every few months. Many of those books are sold at street-corner stands and other off-the-grid venues in African-American neighborhoods, a literary gray market that doesn’t register a blip on best-seller tallies. Yet the Colemans’ most popular series now regularly crack the trade fiction best-seller lists of The New York Times and Publishers Weekly. For years, the pair had no literary agent; they sold hundreds of thousands of books without banking a penny in royalties. Still, they have earned millions of dollars, almost exclusively from cash-for-manuscript deals negotiated directly with independent publishing houses. In short, though little known outside of the world of urban fiction, the Colemans are one of America’s most successful literary couples, a distinction they’ve achieved, they insist, because of their work’s gritty authenticity and their devotion to a primal literary virtue: the power of the ripping yarn.
“When you read our books, you’re gonna realize: ‘Ashley & JaQuavis are storytellers,’ ” says Ashley. “Our tales will get your heart pounding.”
THE COLEMANS’ HOME BASE — the cottage from which they operate their cottage industry — is a spacious four-bedroom house in a genteel suburb about 35 miles north of downtown Detroit. The house is plush, but when I visited this past winter, it was sparsely appointed. The couple had just recently moved in, and had only had time to fully furnish the bedroom of their 4-year-old son, Quaye.
In conversation, Ashley and JaQuavis exude both modesty and bravado: gratitude for their good fortune and bootstrappers’ pride in having made their own luck. They talk a lot about their time in the trenches, the years they spent as a drug dealer and “ride-or-die girl” tandem. In Flint they learned to “grind hard.” Writing, they say, is merely a more elevated kind of grind.
“Instead of hitting the block like we used to, we hit the laptops,” says Ashley. “I know what every word is worth. So while I’m writing, I’m like: ‘Okay, there’s a hundred dollars. There’s a thousand dollars. There’s five thousand dollars.’ ”
They maintain a rigorous regimen. They each try to write 5,000 words per day, five days a week. The writers stagger their shifts: JaQuavis goes to bed at 7 p.m. and wakes up early, around 3 or 4 in the morning, to work while his wife and child sleep. Ashley writes during the day, often in libraries or at Starbucks.
They divide the labor in other ways. Chapters are divvied up more or less equally, with tasks assigned according to individual strengths. (JaQuavis typically handles character development. Ashley loves writing murder scenes.) The results are stitched together, with no editorial interference from one author in the other’s text. The real work, they contend, is the brainstorming. The Colemans spend weeks mapping out their plot-driven books — long conversations that turn into elaborate diagrams on dry-erase boards. “JaQuavis and I are so close, it makes the process real easy,” says Ashley. “Sometimes when I’m thinking of something, a plot point, he’ll say it out loud, and I’m like: ‘Wait — did I say that?’ ”
Their collaboration developed by accident, and on the fly. Both were bookish teenagers. Ashley read lots of Judy Blume and John Grisham; JaQuavis liked Shakespeare, Richard Wright and “Atlas Shrugged.” (Their first official date was at a Borders bookstore, where Ashley bought “The Coldest Winter Ever,” the Sister Souljah novel often credited with kick-starting the contemporary street-lit movement.) In 2003, Ashley, then 17, was forced to terminate an ectopic pregnancy. She was bedridden for three weeks, and to provide distraction and boost her spirits, JaQuavis challenged his girlfriend to a writing contest. “She just wasn’t talking. She was laying in bed. I said, ‘You know what? I bet you I could write a better book than you.’ My wife is real competitive. So I said, ‘Yo, all right, $500 bet.’ And I saw her eyes spark, like, ‘What?! You can’t write no better book than me!’ So I wrote about three chapters. She wrote about three chapters. Two days later, we switched.”
The result, hammered out in a few days, would become “Dirty Money.” Two years later, when Ashley and JaQuavis were students at Ferris State University in Western Michigan, they sold the manuscript to Urban Books, a street-lit imprint founded by the best-selling author Carl Weber. At the time, JaQuavis was still making his living selling drugs. When Ashley got the phone call informing her that their book had been bought, she assumed they’d hit it big, and flushed more than $10,000 worth of cocaine down the toilet. Their advance was a mere $4,000.
Those advances would soon increase, eventually reaching five and six figures. The Colemans built their career, JaQuavis says, in a manner that made sense to him as a veteran dope peddler: by flooding the street with product. From the start, they were prolific, churning out books at a rate of four or five a year. Their novels made their way into stores; the now-defunct chain Waldenbooks, which had stores in urban areas typically bypassed by booksellers, was a major engine of the street-lit market. But Ashley and JaQuavis took advantage of distribution channels established by pioneering urban fiction authors such as Teri Woods and Vickie Stringer, and a network of street-corner tables, magazine stands, corner shops and bodegas. Like rappers who establish their bona fides with gray-market mixtapes, street-lit authors use this system to circumnavigate industry gatekeepers, bringing their work straight to the genre’s core readership. But urban fiction has other aficionados, in less likely places. “Our books are so popular in the prison system,” JaQuavis says. “We’re banned in certain penitentiaries. Inmates fight over the books — there are incidents, you know? I have loved ones in jail, and they’re like: ‘Yo, your books can’t come in here. It’s against the rules.’ ”
The appeal of the Colemans’ work is not hard to fathom. The books are formulaic and taut; they deliver the expected goods efficiently and exuberantly. The titles telegraph the contents: “Diary of a Street Diva,” “Kiss Kiss, Bang Bang,” “Murderville.” The novels serve up a stream of explicit sex and violence in a slangy, tangy, profane voice. In Ashley & JaQuavis’s books people don’t get killed: they get “popped,” “laid out,” get their “cap twisted back.” The smut is constant, with emphasis on the earthy, sticky, olfactory particulars. Romance novel clichés — shuddering orgasms, heroic carnal feats, superlative sexual skill sets — are rendered in the Colemans’ punchy patois.
Subtlety, in other words, isn’t Ashley & JaQuavis’s forte. But their books do have a grainy specificity. In “The Cartel” (2008), the first novel in the Colemans’ best-selling saga of a Miami drug syndicate, they catch the sights and smells of a crack workshop in a housing project: the nostril-stinging scent of cocaine and baking soda bubbling on stovetops; the teams of women, stripped naked except for hospital masks so they can’t pilfer the merchandise, “cutting up the cooked coke on the round wood table.” The subject matter is dark, but the Colemans’ tone is not quite noir. Even in the grimmest scenes, the mood is high-spirited, with the writers palpably relishing the lewd and gory details: the bodies writhing in boudoirs and crumpling under volleys of bullets, the geysers of blood and other bodily fluids.
The luridness of street lit has made it a flashpoint, inciting controversy reminiscent of the hip-hop culture wars of the 1980s and ’90s. But the street-lit debate touches deeper historical roots, reviving decades-old arguments in black literary circles about the mandate to uplift the race and present wholesome images of African-Americans. In 1928, W. E. B. Du Bois slammed the “licentiousness” of “Home to Harlem,” Claude McKay’s rollicking novel of Harlem nightlife. McKay’s book, Du Bois wrote, “for the most part nauseates me, and after the dirtier parts of its filth I feel distinctly like taking a bath.” Similar sentiments have greeted 21st-century street lit. In a 2006 New York Times Op-Ed essay, the journalist and author Nick Chiles decried “the sexualization and degradation of black fiction.” African-American bookstores, Chiles complained, are “overrun with novels that . . . appeal exclusively to our most prurient natures — as if these nasty books were pairing off back in the stockrooms like little paperback rabbits and churning out even more graphic offspring that make Ralph Ellison books cringe into a dusty corner.”
Copulating paperbacks aside, it’s clear that the street-lit debate is about more than literature, touching on questions of paternalism versus populism, and on middle-class anxieties about the black underclass. “It’s part and parcel of black elites’ efforts to define not only a literary tradition, but a racial politics,” said Kinohi Nishikawa, an assistant professor of English and African-American Studies at Princeton University. “There has always been a sense that because African-Americans’ opportunities to represent themselves are so limited in the first place, any hint of criminality or salaciousness would necessarily be a knock on the entire racial politics. One of the pressing debates about African-American literature today is: If we can’t include writers like Ashley & JaQuavis, to what extent is the foundation of our thinking about black literature faulty? Is it just a literature for elites? Or can it be inclusive, bringing urban fiction under the purview of our umbrella term ‘African-American literature’?”
Defenders of street lit note that the genre has a pedigree: a tradition of black pulp fiction that stretches from Chester Himes, the midcentury author of hardboiled Harlem detective stories, to the 1960s and ’70s “ghetto fiction” of Iceberg Slim and Donald Goines, to the current wave of urban fiction authors. Others argue for street lit as a social good, noting that it attracts a large audience that might otherwise never read at all. Scholars like Nishikawa link street lit to recent studies showing increased reading among African-Americans. A 2014 Pew Research Center report found that a greater percentage of black Americans are book readers than whites or Latinos.
For their part, the Colemans place their work in the broader black literary tradition. “You have Maya Angelou, Alice Walker, James Baldwin — all of these traditional black writers, who wrote about the struggles of racism, injustice, inequality,” says Ashley. “We’re writing about the struggle as it happens now. It’s just a different struggle. I’m telling my story. I’m telling the struggle of a black girl from Flint, Michigan, who grew up on welfare.”
Perhaps there is a high-minded case to be made for street lit. But the virtues of Ashley & JaQuavis’s work are more basic. Their novels do lack literary polish. The writing is not graceful; there are passages of clunky exposition and sex scenes that induce guffaws and eye rolls. But the pleasure quotient is high. The books flaunt a garish brand of feminism, with women characters cast not just as vixens, but also as gangsters — cold-blooded killers, “murder mamas.” The stories are exceptionally well-plotted. “The Cartel” opens by introducing its hero, the crime boss Carter Diamond; on page 9, a gunshot spatters Diamond’s brain across the interior of a police cruiser. The book then flashes back seven years and begins to hurtle forward again — a bullet train, whizzing readers through shifting alliances, romantic entanglements and betrayals, kidnappings, shootouts with Haitian and Dominican gangsters, and a cliffhanger closing scene that leaves the novel’s heroine tied to a chair in a basement, gruesomely tortured to the edge of death. Ashley & JaQuavis’s books are not Ralph Ellison, certainly, but they build up quite a head of steam. They move.
The Colemans are moving themselves these days. They recently signed a deal with St. Martin’s Press, which will bring out the next installment in the “Cartel” series as well as new solo series by both writers. The St. Martin’s deal is both lucrative and legitimizing — a validation of Ashley and JaQuavis’s work by one of publishing’s most venerable houses. The Colemans’ ambitions have grown, as well. A recent trilogy, “Murderville,” tackles human trafficking and the blood-diamond industry in West Africa, with storylines that sweep from Sierra Leone to Mexico to Los Angeles. Increasingly, Ashley & JaQuavis are leaning on research — traveling to far-flung settings and hitting the books in the libraries — and spending less time mining their own rough-and-tumble past.
But Flint remains a source of inspiration. One evening not long ago, JaQuavis led me on a tour of his hometown: a popular roadside bar; the parking lot where he met the undercover cop for the ill-fated drug deal; Ashley’s old house, the site of his almost-arrest. He took me to a ramshackle vehicle repair shop on Flint’s west side, where he worked as a kid, washing cars. He showed me a bathroom at the rear of the garage, where, at age 12, he sneaked away to inspect the first “boulder” of crack that he ever sold. A spray-painted sign on the garage wall, which JaQuavis remembered from his time at the car wash, offered words of warning:
WHAT EVERY YOUNG MAN SHOULD KNOW
ABOUT USING A GUN:
MURDER . . . 30 Years
ARMED ROBBERY . . . 15 Years
ASSAULT . . . 15 Years
RAPE . . . 20 Years
POSSESSION . . . 5 Years
JACKING . . . 20 YEARS
“We still love Flint, Michigan,” JaQuavis says. “It’s so seedy, so treacherous. But there’s some heart in this city. This is where it all started, selling books out the box. In the days when we would get those little $40,000 advances, they’d send us a couple boxes of books for free. We would hit the streets to sell our books, right out of the car trunk. It was a hustle. It still is.”
One old neighborhood asset that the Colemans have not shaken off is swagger. “My wife is the best female writer in the game,” JaQuavis told me. “I believe I’m the best male writer in the game. I’m sleeping next to the best writer in the world. And she’s doing the same.”From T Magazine: Street Litâ€™s Power Couple | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016
Baltimore residents prepared to resume the more familiar rhythms of their lives as days passed without new bouts of widespread rioting and as the National Guard began to pull its troops from the city.In Baltimore, National Guard Pullout Begins as Citywide Curfew Is Lifted | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016
As he reflected on the festering wounds deepened by race and grievance that have been on painful display in America’s cities lately, President Obama on Monday found himself thinking about a young man he had just met named Malachi.
A few minutes before, in a closed-door round-table discussion at Lehman College in the Bronx, Mr. Obama had asked a group of black and Hispanic students from disadvantaged backgrounds what could be done to help them reach their goals. Several talked about counseling and guidance programs.
“Malachi, he just talked about — we should talk about love,” Mr. Obama told a crowd afterward, drifting away from his prepared remarks. “Because Malachi and I shared the fact that our dad wasn’t around and that sometimes we wondered why he wasn’t around and what had happened. But really, that’s what this comes down to is: Do we love these kids?”
Many presidents have governed during times of racial tension, but Mr. Obama is the first to see in the mirror a face that looks like those on the other side of history’s ledger. While his first term was consumed with the economy, war and health care, his second keeps coming back to the societal divide that was not bridged by his election. A president who eschewed focusing on race now seems to have found his voice again as he thinks about how to use his remaining time in office and beyond.
In the aftermath of racially charged unrest in places like Baltimore, Ferguson, Mo., and New York, Mr. Obama came to the Bronx on Monday for the announcement of a new nonprofit organization that is being spun off from his White House initiative called My Brother’s Keeper. Staked by more than $80 million in commitments from corporations and other donors, the new group, My Brother’s Keeper Alliance, will in effect provide the nucleus for Mr. Obama’s post-presidency, which will begin in January 2017.
“This will remain a mission for me and for Michelle not just for the rest of my presidency but for the rest of my life,” Mr. Obama said. “And the reason is simple,” he added. Referring to some of the youths he had just met, he said: “We see ourselves in these young men. I grew up without a dad. I grew up lost sometimes and adrift, not having a sense of a clear path. The only difference between me and a lot of other young men in this neighborhood and all across the country is that I grew up in an environment that was a little more forgiving.”
Organizers said the new alliance already had financial pledges from companies like American Express, Deloitte, Discovery Communications and News Corporation. The money will be used to help companies address obstacles facing young black and Hispanic men, provide grants to programs for disadvantaged youths, and help communities aid their populations.
Joe Echevarria, a former chief executive of Deloitte, the accounting and consulting firm, will lead the alliance, and among those on its leadership team or advisory group are executives at PepsiCo, News Corporation, Sprint, BET and Prudential Group Insurance; former Secretary of State Colin L. Powell; Senator Cory Booker, Democrat of New Jersey; former Attorney General Eric H. Holder Jr.; the music star John Legend; the retired athletes Alonzo Mourning, Jerome Bettis and Shaquille O’Neal; and the mayors of Indianapolis, Sacramento and Philadelphia.
The alliance, while nominally independent of the White House, may face some of the same questions confronting former Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton as she begins another presidential campaign. Some of those donating to the alliance may have interests in government action, and skeptics may wonder whether they are trying to curry favor with the president by contributing.
“The Obama administration will have no role in deciding how donations are screened and what criteria they’ll set at the alliance for donor policies, because it’s an entirely separate entity,” Josh Earnest, the White House press secretary, told reporters on Air Force One en route to New York. But he added, “I’m confident that the members of the board are well aware of the president’s commitment to transparency.”
The alliance was in the works before the disturbances last week after the death of Freddie Gray, the black man who suffered fatal injuries while in police custody in Baltimore, but it reflected the evolution of Mr. Obama’s presidency. For him, in a way, it is coming back to issues that animated him as a young community organizer and politician. It was his own struggle with race and identity, captured in his youthful memoir, “Dreams From My Father,” that stood him apart from other presidential aspirants.
But that was a side of him that he kept largely to himself through the first years of his presidency while he focused on other priorities like turning the economy around, expanding government-subsidized health care and avoiding electoral land mines en route to re-election.
After securing a second term, Mr. Obama appeared more emboldened. Just a month after his 2013 inauguration, he talked passionately about opportunity and race with a group of teenage boys in Chicago, a moment aides point to as perhaps the first time he had spoken about these issues in such a personal, powerful way as president. A few months later, he publicly lamented the death of Trayvon Martin, a black Florida teenager, saying that “could have been me 35 years ago.”
That case, along with public ruptures of anger over police shootings in Ferguson and elsewhere, have pushed the issue of race and law enforcement onto the public agenda. Aides said they imagined that with his presidency in its final stages, Mr. Obama might be thinking more about what comes next and causes he can advance as a private citizen.
That is not to say that his public discussion of these issues has been universally welcomed. Some conservatives said he had made matters worse by seeming in their view to blame police officers in some of the disputed cases.
“President Obama, when he was elected, could have been a unifying leader,” Senator Ted Cruz of Texas, a Republican candidate for president, said at a forum last week. “He has made decisions that I think have inflamed racial tensions.”
On the other side of the ideological spectrum, some liberal African-American activists have complained that Mr. Obama has not done enough to help downtrodden communities. While he is speaking out more, these critics argue, he has hardly used the power of the presidency to make the sort of radical change they say is necessary.
The line Mr. Obama has tried to straddle has been a serrated one. He condemns police brutality as he defends most officers as honorable. He condemns “criminals and thugs” who looted in Baltimore while expressing empathy with those trapped in a cycle of poverty and hopelessness.
In the Bronx on Monday, Mr. Obama bemoaned the death of Brian Moore, a plainclothes New York police officer who had died earlier in the day after being shot in the head Saturday on a Queens street. Most police officers are “good and honest and fair and care deeply about their communities,” even as they put their lives on the line, Mr. Obama said.
“Which is why in addressing the issues in Baltimore or Ferguson or New York, the point I made was that if we’re just looking at policing, we’re looking at it too narrowly,” he added. “If we ask the police to simply contain and control problems that we ourselves have been unwilling to invest and solve, that’s not fair to the communities, it’s not fair to the police.”
Moreover, if society writes off some people, he said, “that’s not the kind of country I want to live in; that’s not what America is about.”
His message to young men like Malachi Hernandez, who attends Boston Latin Academy in Massachusetts, is not to give up.
“I want you to know you matter,” he said. “You matter to us.”Obama Finds a Bolder Voice on Race Issues | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016
Even as a high school student, Dave Goldberg was urging female classmates to speak up. As a young dot-com executive, he had one girlfriend after another, but fell hard for a driven friend named Sheryl Sandberg, pining after her for years. After they wed, Mr. Goldberg pushed her to negotiate hard for high compensation and arranged his schedule so that he could be home with their children when she was traveling for work.
Mr. Goldberg, who died unexpectedly on Friday, was a genial, 47-year-old Silicon Valley entrepreneur who built his latest company, SurveyMonkey, from a modest enterprise to one recently valued by investors at $2 billion. But he was also perhaps the signature male feminist of his era: the first major chief executive in memory to spur his wife to become as successful in business as he was, and an essential figure in “Lean In,” Ms. Sandberg’s blockbuster guide to female achievement.
Over the weekend, even strangers were shocked at his death, both because of his relatively young age and because they knew of him as the living, breathing, car-pooling center of a new philosophy of two-career marriage.
“They were very much the role models for what this next generation wants to grapple with,” said Debora L. Spar, the president of Barnard College. In a 2011 commencement speech there, Ms. Sandberg told the graduates that whom they married would be their most important career decision.
In the play “The Heidi Chronicles,” revived on Broadway this spring, a male character who is the founder of a media company says that “I don’t want to come home to an A-plus,” explaining that his ambitions require him to marry an unthreatening helpmeet. Mr. Goldberg grew up to hold the opposite view, starting with his upbringing in progressive Minneapolis circles where “there was woman power in every aspect of our lives,” Jeffrey Dachis, a childhood friend, said in an interview.
The Goldberg parents read “The Feminine Mystique” together — in fact, Mr. Goldberg’s father introduced it to his wife, according to Ms. Sandberg’s book. In 1976, Paula Goldberg helped found a nonprofit to aid children with disabilities. Her husband, Mel, a law professor who taught at night, made the family breakfast at home.
Later, when Dave Goldberg was in high school and his prom date, Jill Chessen, stayed silent in a politics class, he chastised her afterward. He said, “You need to speak up,” Ms. Chessen recalled in an interview. “They need to hear your voice.”
Years later, when Karin Gilford, an early employee at Launch Media, Mr. Goldberg’s digital music company, became a mother, he knew exactly what to do. He kept giving her challenging assignments, she recalled, but also let her work from home one day a week. After Yahoo acquired Launch, Mr. Goldberg became known for distributing roses to all the women in the office on Valentine’s Day.
Ms. Sandberg, who often describes herself as bossy-in-a-good-way, enchanted him when they became friendly in the mid-1990s. He “was smitten with her,” Ms. Chessen remembered. Ms. Sandberg was dating someone else, but Mr. Goldberg still hung around, even helping her and her then-boyfriend move, recalled Bob Roback, a friend and co-founder of Launch. When they finally married in 2004, friends remember thinking how similar the two were, and that the qualities that might have made Ms. Sandberg intimidating to some men drew Mr. Goldberg to her even more.
Over the next decade, Mr. Goldberg and Ms. Sandberg pioneered new ways of capturing information online, had a son and then a daughter, became immensely wealthy, and hashed out their who-does-what-in-this-marriage issues. Mr. Goldberg’s commute from the Bay Area to Los Angeles became a strain, so he relocated, later joking that he “lost the coin flip” of where they would live. He paid the bills, she planned the birthday parties, and both often left their offices at 5:30 so they could eat dinner with their children before resuming work afterward.
Friends in Silicon Valley say they were careful to conduct their careers separately, politely refusing when outsiders would ask one about the other’s work: Ms. Sandberg’s role building Facebook into an information and advertising powerhouse, and Mr. Goldberg at SurveyMonkey, which made polling faster and cheaper. But privately, their work was intertwined. He often began statements to his team with the phrase “Well, Sheryl said” sharing her business advice. He counseled her, too, starting with her salary negotiations with Mark Zuckerberg.
“I wanted Mark to really feel he stretched to get Sheryl, because she was worth it,” Mr. Goldberg explained in a 2013 “60 Minutes” interview, his Minnesota accent and his smile intact as he offered a rare peek of the intersection of marriage and money at the top of corporate life.
While his wife grew increasingly outspoken about women’s advancement, Mr. Goldberg quietly advised the men in the office on family and partnership matters, an associate said. Six out of 16 members of SurveyMonkey’s management team are female, an almost unheard-of ratio among Silicon Valley “unicorns,” or companies valued at over $1 billion.
When Mellody Hobson, a friend and finance executive, wrote a chapter of “Lean In” about women of color for the college edition of the book, Mr. Goldberg gave her feedback on the draft, a clue to his deep involvement. He joked with Ms. Hobson that she was too long-winded, like Ms. Sandberg, but aside from that, he said he loved the chapter, she said in an interview.
By then, Mr. Goldberg was a figure of fascination who inspired a “where can I get one of those?” reaction among many of the women who had read the best seller “Lean In.” Some lamented that Ms. Sandberg’s advice hinged too much on marrying a Dave Goldberg, who was humble enough to plan around his wife, attentive enough to worry about which shoes his young daughter would wear, and rich enough to help pay for the help that made the family’s balancing act manageable.
Now that he is gone, and Ms. Sandberg goes from being half of a celebrated partnership to perhaps the business world’s most prominent single mother, the pages of “Lean In” carry a new sting of loss.
“We are never at 50-50 at any given moment — perfect equality is hard to define or sustain — but we allow the pendulum to swing back and forth between us,” she wrote in 2013, adding that they were looking forward to raising teenagers together.
“Fortunately, I have Dave to figure it out with me,” she wrote.Dave Goldberg Was Lifelong Womenâ€™s Advocate | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016
Mr. Miller, of the firm Weil, Gotshal & Manges, represented companies including Lehman Brothers, General Motors and American Airlines, and mentored many of the top Chapter 11 practitioners today.Harvey R. Miller, Renowned Bankruptcy Lawyer, Dies at 82 | PAKET UMROH BULAN JANUARI 2016